NANO ROBOTS IN MEDICINE: A REVIEW
Keywords:Nanorobots, Design, Types, Applications
In coming years, nanotechnology is likely to have a significant impact in different fields like
medicine and electronics. Nanorobotics is emerging as a demanding field dealing with
miniscule things at molecular level. Nano robots perform a specific task with precision at
nanoscale dimensions. Nano robots are especially used for studies on Alzheimer disease and
cancer treatments. These can be seen as the first Nano medicines, with potential application in
medicine. Present day treatment includes surgeries which are considered outdated when
compared to today’s technology.
Requicha A.A.G., “Nano robots, NEMS and Nano assembly”, Proceedings of the IEEE, 91(11):1922-1933, 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2003.818333
Check, E., “US urged to provide smallpox vaccines for emergency crews. News,” Nature, 417 (6891): 775–776, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/417775a
Earhart, K.C.; Beadle, C.; Miller, L.K.; Press, M.W.; Gary, G.C.; Ledbetter, E.K.; Wallace, M.R. “Outbreak of influenza in highly vaccinated crewof US Navy ship”. Emerge. Infect. Dis., 7(3):463–465, 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0703.017320
Hillman, M.R. “Overview: cause and prevention in bio warfare and bioterrorism”. Vaccine, 20 (25-26):3055– 3067, 2002.
Cavalcanti, A.; Shirinzadeh, B.; Freitas Jr., R.A.Kratky, L.C. “Medical Nano robot architecture based on Nano bioelectronics”. Recent Pat. Nanotechnology Bentham Science, 1(1):1–10, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/187221007779814745
Oxford, J.S.; Sefton, A.; Jackson, R.; Innes, W.Daniels, R.S.; Johnson, N.P.A.S. “World War I may have allowed the emergence of “Spanish “influenza.” Infect.Dis. 2(2):111–114, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00185-8
Ahuja, S.P.; Myers, J.R. A “survey on wireless grid computing”. J. Supercomputer. 37 (1), 3–21,2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-006-3845-z
Brindle, J.A. Tactical military communications. IEEE Common. Mag. 30 (1), 62–72, 1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/35.166652
Couvreur, P.; Vauthier, C. “Nanotechnology: intelligent design to treat complex disease”. Pharm. Res.23 (7), 1417–1450, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-0284-8
Fienberg, S.E.; Shmueli, G. “Statistical issues and challenges associated with rapid detection of bioterrorist attacks”. Stat. Med., 24 (4), 513–529, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.2032
Geddes, A.M. “The history of smallpox”. Clin. Dermatol. 24 (3), 152–157, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2005.11.009
O’Toole, T.; Ingles by, T.V. Epidemic response scenario: decision making in a time of plague. Public Health Rep. 116, 92–103, 2001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3549(04)50150-4
Cowell, G.; Ammon, C.E.; Hen Gartner, N.W.Hyman, J.M. “Transmission dynamics of the great influenza pandemic” of 1918 in Geneva Switzerland: assessing the effects of hypothetical interventions. J. Theor. Biol., 241 (2), 193–204, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.11.026
Kilter, M.E.; Gavinio, P.; Lavanchy, D. “Influenza and the work of the world health organization”. Vaccine 20, S5–S14, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00121-4
Yan, X.; Zou, Y. “Optimal and sub-optimal quarantine and isolation control in SARS epidemics”. Math. Compute. Model., 47 (1), 235–245, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2007.04.003
Yamamoto, N. “Method and apparatus for detecting cancer, influenza, or HIV based on. -Nacetyl-galactosaminidase detection”. 5998132USAug 1999
Webby, R.J.; Webster, R.G. “Are we ready for pandemic influenza?” Science 302 (5650), 1519–1522, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1090350
Cavalcanti, A.; Shirinzadeh, B.; Fukuda, T.; Ikeda, S. Hardware architecture for Nano robot application in cerebral aneurysm. IEEE-Nano 2007 Int. Conf.Nanotechnol pp. 237–242, Hong Kong, Aug.2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/NANO.2007.4601179
Goicoechea, J.; Zamarreño, C.R.; Matias, I.R.; Arregui, F.J. “Minimizing the photo bleaching of self-assembled multilayers for sensor applications.” Sens. Actuator B-Chem., 126 (1), 41–47, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2006.10.037
Leary, S.P.; Liu, C.Y.; Apuzzo, M.L.I. Toward the emergence of Nano neurosurgery: Part III. Nano medicine: targeted Nano therapy, Nano surgery, and progress toward the realization of Nano neurosurgery. Neurosurgery, 58 (6), 1009–1025.,2006
Curtis, A.S.G.; Dalby, M.; Gadegaard, N. “Cell signaling arising from Nano topography: implications for nonmedical devices. Nano medicine, 1 (1), 67–72., 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2217/174358188.8.131.52
Adamson, P.B.; Conti, J.B.; Smith, A.L.; Abraham, W.T.; Aaron, M.F.; Aranda, J.M.; Baker, J.; Bourge, R.C.; Warner-Stevenson, L.; Sparks, B.“ Reducing events in patients with chronic heart failure (Reduce) study design: continuous hemodynamic monitoring with an implantable defibrillator. Clin. Car diol., 30 (11), 567–575.,2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.20250
Ohki, T.; Ouriel, K.; Silveira, P.G.; Katzen, B.; White, R.; Criado, F.; Dietrich, E. “Initial results of wireless pressure sensing for endovascular aneurysm repair: the APEX trial—acute pressure measurement to confirm aneurysm sac exclusion. J. Vasc. Surg. 45(2), 236–242.,2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2006.09.060
Ramcke, T.; Rosner, W.; Risch, L. Circuit configuration having at least one Nano electronics Component and a method for fabricating the component. 6442042US, Aug 2002.
Das, S.; Gates, A.J.; Abdu, H.A.; Rose, G.S.;Picconatto, C.A.; Ellenbogen, J.C. “Designs for ultra-tiny,special-purpose Nano electronic circuits”. IEEE Trans. Circuit’s Syst. I-Regul. Pap.54 (11), 2528– 2540.,2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2007.907864
Narayan, R.J.; Kumta, P.N.; Sfeir, C.; Lee, D.-H. Olton, D.; Choi, D. Nanostructured ceramics in medical devices: applications and prospects. JOM56 (10), 38–43., 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-004-0289-x
Hede, S.; Huilgol, N. “Nano: the new nemesis of cancer. J. Cancer Res. Ther.2 (4), 186–195.1998 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.29829
Vaughn, J.R. “Over the horizon: potential impact of emerging trends in information and communication technology on disability policy andpractice.” National Council on Disability, WashingtonDC, Dec.25 (1),2006
Murphy, D.; Challacombe, B.; Nedas, T.; Elhage, O.; Althoefer, K.; Seneviratne, L.; Dasgupta, P.“Equipment and technology in robotics”. Arch.Esp.Urol.,60 (4), 349–354., 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4321/S0004-06142007000400004
Roue, C.C. “Aneurysm liner. 6350270US Feb.200831) McNeil J.S., “Nano robot Pioneer Reveal Status of Simulator, Stem Cell Work,” Nano Biotech News, Vol.2, n. 36, pp. 4-5, September 2004, www.nanorobotdesign.com/article/Nano biotech pdf
Cavalcanti A., Freitas Jr. R.A., “NanoroboticsControl Design: A Collective Behavior Approach forMedicine”, IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, Vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 133-140, June2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TNB.2005.850469
Casal A., Hogg T., Cavalcanti A., “Nano robots as Cellular Assistants in Inflammatory Responses”, inProc. IEEE BCATS Biomedical Computation at Stanford 2003. Symposium, IEEE Computer Society, Stanford CA, USA, Oct. 2003.
Katz E., Ricin A., Heleg-Shabtai V., Willner I., Bückmann A.F., “Glucose Oxidase Electrodes via Reconstitution of the Apo-Enzyme: Tailoring of17Novel Glucose Biosensors”, Anal. Chime. Acta.385, 45-58, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00688-6
Mc Devitt M.R., Ma D., Lai L.T., Simon J., BorchardtP., Frank R.K., Wu K., Pellegrini V., Curcio M.J., Miederer M., Bander N.H., Sheinberg D.A. ,“Tumor Therapy with Targeted Atomic Nano generators, “Science 294, 16 November 2001, pp. 1537-1540, Nov. 2001.
Kumar M.N.V.R., “Nano and Micro particles as Controlled Drug Delivery Devices”, J. Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Science, 3(2):234-258, 2000.
Adelman L.M., “On Constructing A Molecular Computer”, DNA Based Computers II: Dimacs Workshop, Jun. 10-12, 1996 (Dimacs Seriesin Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, V. 44), American Mathematical Society, 1996, pp. 1-21.
Zhang M., Saharawi C.L., Tao W., Tarn T.J., XiN., LiG., “Interactive DNA Sequence and Structure Design for DNA Nano applications”, IEEE Transactions on Nano bioscience, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec.2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TNB.2004.837918
Chatterjee B., Sachdev M., “Design of a 1.7-GHzLow- Power Delay-Fault-Testable 32-b ALU in 180-nm CMOS Technology”, IEEE Transactions on VeryLarge Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 13, no. 11, Nov. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TVLSI.2005.859563
Hagiya M., “From Molecular Computing to Molecular Programming”, in Proc.6th DIMACS Workshop on DNA Based Computers, Leiden, the Netherlands, and pp. 198-204. June 2004
Sun J., GAO M., Feldman J., “Electric Field Directed Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Highly
Fluorescent CdTe Nanoparticles”, J. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1(2):133-136, Jun. 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2001.029
Cavalcanti A., Hogg T., Kretly L.C., “Transducers Development for Nanorobotics Applications in Biomedical Engineering”, IEEE NDSIConf. On Nanoscale Devices and System Integration, Houston TX, USA, April 2005.
Stracke R., Böhm K.J., Burgold J., Schacht H.,UngerE.,“Physicaland Technical Parameters Determining the Functioning of a Kinesin-Based Cell-Free MotorSystem”, Nanotechnology, 11(2):52-56, Jun. 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/11/2/302
Reppesgaard L., “Nanobiotechnologie: DieFeinmechaniker der Zukunft nutzen Biomaterial ales biomolecular motors”, Biomedical Microdevices, 2:179-184, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009924327649
Whitcomb L.L., “Underwater Robotics: Out of theResearch Laboratory and into the Field”, pinprick. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Robotics and Automation, a Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 709-716., apr 2002
Cavalcanti A., Hogg T., Shirinzadeh B.,“Nanorobotics System Simulation in 3D Workspaces with Low Reynolds Number”,IEEE-RASMHS Int’lSymposium on Micro-Nanomechatronics and Human Science, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MHS.2006.320269
Braff D., “Fast contact force computation for no penetrating rigid bodies”, in Computer GraphicsProceedings, Annual Conf. Series. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 23-34, 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/192161.192168
Mitch B., Canny J., “Impulse-based simulation of rigid bodies”, Proc. of Symposium on Interactive3DGraphics, pp. 392-398, 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/199404.199436
Wall C., Henrich D., and Wörn H., “Parallel on-line Motion Planning for Industrial Robots,” 3rdASCESpecialty Conf. on Robotics for Challenging Environments, Robotics 98, pp. 308-314, New Mexico, USA, 1998.
50) Fukuda T., Arai T., “Prototyping Design and Automation of Micro/Nano Manipulation System,” Proc. of IEEE Int’l Conf. on robotics and Automation (ICRA’00), Vol. 1, pp. 192-197, 2000.
Fann J.I., Goar F.J.S., Komtebedde J., Oz M.C., Block P.C., Foster P.C., J. Butany, T. Feldman, T.A.Burdon, “Beating Heart Catheter-Based Edgeto-Edge Mitral Valve Procedure in a Porcine Model: Efficacy andHealing Response”, Circulation, 110:988-993, Aug 2004, circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/110/8/988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000139855.12616.15
Stefanie’s C., Toutouzas K., Tsiamis E., StratosC., Vavuranakis M., Kallikazaros I., PanagiotakosD.,Toutouzas P., “Increased Local Temperature in Human Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques: Anls independent Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing a Percutaneous Coronary Intervention”, J Am Cull Cardiol,37(5):1277-1283, Apr. 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01137-8
Stefanadis C., Diamantopoulos L., Dernellis J.,Economou E., Tsiamis E., Toutouzas K., VlachopoulosC., Toutouzas P., “Heat Production ofAtherosclerotic Plaques and Inflammation Assessed by the Acute Phase Proteins in Acute Coronary Syndromes”,J Mol Cell Cardiol, 32(1):43-52, Jan.2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jmcc.1999.1049
Ito T., Ikeda U., “Inflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular disease”, Current Drug Targets-Inflammation and Allergy, 2(3):257-265, Sep. 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1568010033484106
Xu C., Wootton D.M., “Platelet Near-Wall Excess in Porcine Whole Blood in Artery-Sized Tubes Under Steady and Pulsatile Flow Conditions”, Bioarcheology41 (2):113-125, Apr. 2004.
Cavalcanti, L. Rosen, L. C. Kretly, Moshe. Rosenfeld, Shmuel Einav, “Nanorobotics Challenges in Biomedical Applications, Design and Control”, IEEE ICECS Int’l Conf. on Electronics, Circuits and Systems,Tel-Aviv, Israel, December 2004.
Cavalcanti A., “Assembly Automation with Evolutionary Nano robots and Sensor-Based Control applied to Nano medicine”, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 82-87, June 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TNANO.2003.812590
Cavalcanti A. and Freitas R.A. Jr., “Autonomous multi-robot sensor-based cooperation for Nano medicine,” Int’l J. “Nonlinear Science Numerical Simulation”, Vol. 3, No.4, pp.743-746, August 2002,
59) Drexler K.E., “Nano systems: molecular machinery, manufacturing, and computation”, John Wiley &Sons, 1992.
Fishbine G., “The Investor’s Guide to Nanotechnology & Micro machines”, John Wiley &Sons, 2001.
Freitas R.A. Jr., “Nano medicine”, Vol. I: Basic Capabilities,” Lands Bioscience, 1999,http://www.nanomedicine.com.
Geppert L., “The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, “Cover story, IEEE Spectrum Magazine, pp. 28-33, October 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2002.1038566
Haiyan M., “From Molecular Computing to Molecular Programming,” Proc. 6th DIMACS Workshop on DNA Based Computers, pp. 198-204, Leiden, Netherlands, 2000.
Hellman’s A., “German Team Creates New Type of Transistor-Like Device,” News Analysis, IEEE Spectrum Magazine, pp. 20-21, January 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2003.1159742
Kube C.R. and Zhang H., “Task Modelling in Collective Robotics,” Autonomous Robots, 4(1), pp.53-72, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008859119831
Mokhoff N., “Education Overhaul Urged for Nanotech Revolution”, EE Times, Feb. 2003, http://www.theworkcircuit.com/news/OEG20030206S0026.
Moore S.K., “Just One Word - Plastics,” Special R&D Report, Organic Electronics, IEEE Spectrum Magazine, pp.55-59, September 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2002.1030969
How to Cite
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
- That its release has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
For More info, please visit CopyRight Section