• Waindim Yisa Tufion Albert HTTTC, Bambili Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon
  • Gundu, David T. Mechanical Engineering Department, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria
  • Ashwe, A. Mechanical Engineering Department, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria
  • Aondoyila Kuhe Mechanical Engineering Department, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria



Black Soap, De-Oiled Jatropha Cake, Enriched Solid Lubricant, Aluminium Alloy, Direct Cold Extrusion, Coefficient Of Friction


The use of petro-lubricants in metal forming leads to lamination of oxide on the extrudates due to temperature increase and reaction of the base metal with some elements in the lubricant, hence resulting poor surface quality of the end product. The non-biodegradability of these lubricants also leads to environmental pollution. Although De-oiled Jatropha Caked has been volarised for so many applications, with some oil left in the cake it can still be employed for use in other applications. In this paper a bio-solid lubricant is formulated from Black soap (Toilet soap-vegetable oil-based) as base and De-oiled Jatropha cake as additive. Jatropha seeds were processed to ≤ 0.5 um particles size powder and de-oiled using Soxhlet apparatus. Black soap and de-oiled Jatropha cake was then mixed in ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Each of these was further mixed with de-ionized lukewarm water in ratio 50:50 by weight to produce solid lubricant blends B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5, respectively. Each of the Black soap-enriched solid lubricant blends were then used to test for coefficient of friction on mirrored surface prepared aluminum specimens using Ball-on-disc Tribometer. The solid lubricant blends were again used to conduct Extrusion tests on Ø25.4 mm by 25.4mm aluminum alloy billets in direct cold extrusion process on a 2000 KN capacity UT CO821 machine. The results showed blend B3 (70:30) recording the minimum coefficient of friction and extrusion force values μ=0.732 and 170.53KN, respectively. These results reveal that enriched solid lubricant B3 (70:30) is most suitable for aluminum alloys extrusion.


Download data is not yet available.


Alves, S.M., Barros, B.S., Trajano, M.F., Ribeiro, K.S.B. and Moura, E. (2013). Tribological Behavior of Vegetable Oil-Based Lubricants With Nanoparticles of Oxides in Boundary Lubrication Conditions, Tribol Int 65, 28–36.

Arentoft, M., Bay, N., Tang, P. T., And Jensen, J. D. (2009). A New Lubricant Carrier for Metal Forming, ELSEVIER, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology 58, 243–246.

Canter, N. (2007). Special Report : Trends in Extreme Pressure Additives. Tribol Lubr Technol, 63, 10–18.

Cherry, D., Martha, N. R., Kamal, G. and Mohd., S. K. (2014). Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, 2, 223-236.

Gohil, R. H., Pandya, J. B. (2008). Genetic Diversity Assessment in Physic Nut (Jatropha Curcas L.). Int. J. Plant Prod. 2 (4),321-326.

Gundu, D.T. (2010). Investigation and Numerical Modeling of Metal Flow in Forward Extrusion using Pocket Die Bearings, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.

Hayashi, H., Wada, S. And Nakari, N. (1977). Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Journal Bearings By Non-Newtonian Lubricants. Bull. JSME, 20, 224–231.

Khare, H. S., Burris, D. L. (2013). The Effects of Environmental Water and Oxygen on the Temperature-Dependent Friction of Sputtered Molybdenum Disulfide, Tribpl Lett, Springer Science+Business Media, New York, 485-493.

Kumar, A., Sharma, S., (2008). An Evaluation of Multipurpose Oil Seed Crop for Industrial Uses (Jatropha Curcas L.): A Review, ELSEVIER, INDCRO-5087, 1-10.

Liew, W.Y.H., Dayou, S., Dayou, J., Siambun, N.J., and Ismail, M.A.B. (2014). The Effectiveness of Palm Oil Methyl Ester as Lubricant Additive in Milling and Four-Ball Tests. Int J Surf Sci Eng 8, 153–172.

Mohd, H. B. S., Mohd, R. B. M. J., Mohd, A. B. R., Imaduddin, H. B. W. N., Raymond, B.W. H. and Syahrullai, B. S. (2012). Load-Displacement Behavior of RBD Palm Stearin Oil Lubricant Quantity in Cold Extrusion, International Conference on Applications and Design in Mechanical Engineering (ICADME), 1-5.

Mooi, H.G., Koenis, P.T., and Huetink, G.J. (1999). An Effective Split of Flow Die Deformation Calculations of Aluminium Extrusions. J. Meter. Proc. Tech., 88 (1-3), 67-76.

Moveh, S., Gambo A. V. (2016). Effects of Vegetable Based Oils Lubricants in the Extrusion of Aluminium, International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 5(08) 32-34.

Nayak, B. S., Patel, K. N. (2010). Physicochemical Characterization of Seed and Seed Oil of Jatropha Curcas L. Collected from Bardoli (South Gujarat), Sains Malaysiana 39(6), 951–955.

Nicholas, J. D. (2016). Condition Monitoring of Water Contamination In Lubricating Grease for Tribological Contacts, Licentiate Thesis, Luleå University of Technology Division of Machine Elements Luleå, Sweden.

Nizam, M. K., Hayder, A. A. B. (2009). The Use of Vegetable Oil in Lubricant as Base Oil: à Review.

Noorani, A., Bakshi, J.M., Hosseinpour, S.J. And Corji, A. (2005). Experimental and Numerical Study of Optimal Die Profile in Cold Forward Rod Extrusion of Aluminium. J. Materials Processing Technology, 164-165,1572-1577.

Olisakwe, H.C., Tuleun, L.T, and Eloka-Ebuka, A.C. (2009). Comparative Study of Thevetia Peruviana and Jatropha Curcas Seed Oils as Feedstock for Grease Production, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), 1(3), 793-806.

Onuh, S. O., Ekoja, M. and Adeyemi, M. B. (2003). “Effects of Die Geometry and Extrusion Speed on Cold Extrusion of Aluminium and Lead Alloys,” J. Mater. Proc. Tech., 132, 274-285.

Panchal, T. Chauhan, D., Thomas, M. and Patel, J. (2015). Bio Based Grease a Value Added Product from Renewable Resources. Ind. Crops Prod., 63, 48–52.

Ponnekanti, N., Prashant, K. (2015). Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils, 628-636.

Pradeep, L. M., Carlton J. R., Lovell, M.R.,Menezes P.L. Et Al. (2013). Tribology for Scientists and Engineers: from Basics to Advanced Concepts, © Springer Science+Business Media, New York.

Quinchia, L.A., Delgaddo, M.A., Reddyhoff, T., Gallegos, C and Spikes, H.A. (2014). Tribological Study of Potential Vegetable Oil-Based Lubricants Containing Evironmentally Friendly Viscosity Modifiers, Tribology Journal, 69, 110-117.

Rudnick, L., Shubkin, R. (1999). Synthetic Lubricants and High Performance Functional Fluids, Marcel Dekker, New York.

Santibáñez, C., Varnero, M.T. (2014). Evaluation of Chañar Seed Cake From Biodiesel Production as a Soil Amendment, Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition , 14(1), 129-138.

Shahabuddin, M., Masjuki H.H., Kalam M.A. (2013). Experimental Investigation Into Tribological Characteristics of Biolubricant Formulated from Jatropha Oil, ELSERVIER, Procedia Engineering, 5th BSME International Conference on Thermal Engineering, 56, 97 – 606.

Sharma, B. K., Adhvaryu, A., Perez, J. M. And Erhan, S. Z. (2005). Soybean Oil Based Greases: Influence of Composition on Thermo-Oxidative and Tribochemical Behavior. J. Agric Food Chem., 53, 2961-2968.

Sharma, B.K., Adhvaryu, A. and Erhan, S.Z. (2009). Friction and Wear Behavior of Thioether Hydroxyl Vegetable Oil. Wear 42, 353–358.

Shi, Y., Ichiro, M., Mattias, G., Marcus, B. and Roland, L. (2014). Boundary And Elastohydrodynamic Lubri Cation Studies of Glycerol Aqueous Solution As Green Lubricants. Tribol Int 69, 39–45.

Sliney, H.E. (1978). Dynamics of Solid Lubrication as Observed by Optical Microscopy, ASLE Trans, 21 (2),109 – 117.

Sukirno, R. F., Bismo, S. and Nasikin, M. (2009). Biogrease Based on Palm Oil and Lithium Soap Thickener: Evaluation of Antiwear Property. World Appl. Sci. J., 3, 401–407.

Sukjit, E., Dearn, K.D. (2011). Enhancing The Lubricity of an Environmentally Friendly Swedish Diesel Fuel MK1. Wear, 271,1772–1777.

Suresh, K. R. N., Rakesh, K. G. (2017). Performance Evaluation of Solid Lubricant Characteristics at Different Sliding Conditions,World Academy of Science, Engineering And Technology International Journal of Aerospace And Mechanical Engineering, 4(6).

Vergne, P. (2018). Static and Dynamic Compressibility of Lubricants Under High Pressures, Research Gate, Conference Paper in Tribology and Interface Engineering Series · September 1994. 109-117.

Vincent, G. (2017). Tribology and Lubricant Technology : The Chemistry And Function of Lubricant Additive, STLE.

Wada, S., Kawakami, Y. (1986). Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Porous Journal Bearings with Grease. Bull. JSME, 29, 943–949.

Wani, S. P., Chander, G., Sahrawat, K. L., And Narsimha, R. P. (2014). Integrated Nutrient Management using De-Oiled Jatropha Cake for Sustained and Economic Food Production, International Journal of Plant Production 8 (4), 549-562.

Willey Liew Yun Hsien (2015). Utilization of Vegetable Oil as Bio-Lubricant and Additive, Towards Green Lubrication in Machining Springer Singapore, 7-17.

Xu, Y., Zheng, X., Yin, Y., Huang, J., And Hu, X., (2014b). Comparison And Analysis of The Influence of Test Conditions on the Tribological Properties of Emulsified Bio-Oil. Tribol Lett 55, 543–552.

Yonah, K. T., Fred, K., Jude, M. M., Peter, K., Godwin, M. A., John, F.O. E., Paul, B. and Christine, M. (2015). Physicochemical Characterization of Jatropha Curcas Linn Oil for Biodiesel Production in Nebbi and Mokono Districts in Uganda, Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 5,107.

Zhe ,C., Xin, H., Chen, X. and Seong, H. K. (2018). Deffect of Humidity on Friction and Wear—A Critical Review, Lubricants 6, 0274.




How to Cite

Yisa Tufion Albert, W., David T. , G., A. , A., & Kuhe, A. . (2022). PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BLACK SOAP (TOILET SOAP) BLENDED WITH DE-OILED JATROPHA CAKE ADDITIVE AS SOLID LUBRICANT IN DIRECT COLD EXTRUSION OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS. International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies, 6(4), 66–83.