International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies <p>International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies is an open access peer reviewed journal that provides bi-monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Technologies and Science. It is an international refereed e-journal. IJOEST have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJOEST Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJOEST Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> <p>Editor-in-chief:<br>Dr. Mohammad Arif Kamal (Associate Professor, Architecture Section, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202002, India)</p> <p>Managing Editor:<br>Dr. Tina Porwal (PhD, Maharani Laxmibai Girls P.G. College, Indore, India)</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies 2456-8651 IDENTIFICATION OF THE DISCRIMINATING MOLECULAR PROFILES OF FIVE MAIN RUBBER TREE (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS) GENOTYPES RECOMMENDED IN IVORY COAST <p>This study was undertaken to identify the microsatellite markers characteristic of rubber tree genotypes, producers of natural rubber. Twelve pairs of microsatellite primers obtained from expressed sequence tags (EST), available in the GENBANK genomic bank, were used to screen a sample of 40 individuals, that is, 8 per genotype. These microsatellite loci are di, tri or tetranucleotides, patterned perfect, imperfect, compound or complex. This study on the GT1, PB217, IRCA41, IRCA230 and IRCA331 genotypes, recommended in Ivory Coast, showed that it is possible to characterize them by using three microsatellite loci, such as Hb36, Hb43 and Hb110. The abundance of repeats observed in the genome of rubber tree clones was similar to those reported in other works. These can be exploited and used in rubber tree clonal improvement programs.</p> H. Michel Kouakou A. E. Elabo Angeline Inza Jésus Fofana N’da Désiré Pokou Kouakou Fulgence Brou Nafan Diarrassouba Saraka Didier Martial Yao Arnaud Freddy Yapi Yedoh Michel Gnagne Samuel Obouayeba Copyright (c) 2023 Kouakou H. Michel, Angeline. A. E. Elabo, Inza Jésus Fofana, N’da Désiré Pokou, Kouakou Fulgence Brou, Nafan Diarrassouba, Saraka Didier Martial Yao, Arnaud Freddy Yapi, Yedoh Michel Gnagne, Samuel Obouayeba 2023-03-02 2023-03-02 7 2 1–11 1–11 10.29121/ijoest.v7.i2.2023.463 NATION BRAND ARCHITECTURE- A REALITY OR REVERIE FOR AFRICAN NATIONS: THE CASE OF BOTSWANA <p>Nation brand architecture gives a ‘sense of mission’ which can help unify key players, concentrate resources, increase efficiency, and create synergies in customer attraction Joao (2018). However, what seemingly works for product/ corporate brands appears to be more of a brown study for nation branding. Adoption of nation brand architecture is gaining traction in Western nations. Many countries in Africa such as Botswana seem not to be consciously employing this seemingly beneficial concept.<br />This paper therefore explores the extent to which Botswana; an African nation has adopted this concept. It also focuses on how the nation embeds and applies the existing national identities such as national colours (reflected in the nation flag), symbols, animals, and plants in the brand architecture.<br />The study employs a content analysis approach that investigates the nation against four overarching themes of brand architecture. Using the Dinnie (2008) Nation Brand Architecture Model (NBAR), the paper draws valuable insights from an analysis of brand architecture concepts as well as the current adopted or default brand architecture for the nation of Botswana. The paper forms the initial sequel of papers on Botswana nation brand architecture model. The initial findings present a tenuous understanding of the adopted architecture reflective of both the endorsed and branded house architecture.</p> Tshepo Maswabi Jane Monyake Paul Mburu Copyright (c) 2023 Tshepo Maswabi, Jane Monyake, Paul Mburu 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 7 2 12–23 12–23 10.29121/ijoest.v7.i2.2023.467 ISOMORPHISM OF STANDARD TO DESIGN ADJUSTED, RESOURCES UTILIZATION EFFICIENCY AS A NEXUS FOR BUILDABILITY EVALUATION <p>In spite of the importance of the concept of design buildability, it has found little application in construction management because the concept is yet to be validly measured. It is for this purpose that this study aims at developing an evaluation technique that is mathematically valid, to generate a metric for measuring buildability which does not only preserve transitive order but that also measures distance. Buildability was modeled into the Resources Utilization Efficiency (RUE) equation as a disturbance ( Babatunde Adeniyi Yusuf A Anjonrin-Ohu Copyright (c) 2023 Yusuf, B. A, A Anjonrin-Ohu 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 7 2 24–36 24–36 10.29121/ijoest.v7.i2.2023.471