International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies 2024-01-30T09:22:25+00:00 IJOEST Editorial Notification Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies is an open access peer reviewed journal that provides bi-monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Technologies and Science. It is an international refereed e-journal. IJOEST have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJOEST Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJOEST Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> <p>Editor-in-chief:<br />Dr. Pratosh Bansal (Professor, Department of Information Technology, Institute of Engineering &amp; Technology, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, India)</p> <p>Managing Editor:<br />Dr. Tina Porwal (PhD, Maharani Laxmibai Girls P.G. College, Indore, India)</p> COMPUTATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF HOLE FILLING MORPHOLOGICAL ALGORITHMS FOR BINARY IMAGES 2024-01-10T05:06:35+00:00 Gonzalo Urcid José-Angel Nieves-Vázquez Rocío Morales-Salgado <p>The presence of holes, cracks or scratches in one or more object regions in a binary image usually results from quantizing or thresholding a gray scale image. However, for further processing or quantitative binary image analysis, those artifacts must be removed by filling the corresponding object regions. In this paper, a computational performance analysis is realized for the class of hole filling algorithms based on mathematical morphology. Two fundamental techniques, supervised and unsupervised, are described in detail based on marker images that may be composed of pixel subsets chosen within an object region artifact, formed by external near by points to object regions, or from selected background pixel subsets. A mathematical description spanning the different variants is given on how this kind of algorithms converge to the desired result. In addition, illustrative examples using representative binary images are provided to test and compare the computational performance in terms of the number of iterations corresponding to each morphological hole filling algorithm for binary images.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gonzalo Urcid, José-Angel Nieves-Vázquez, Rocío Morales-Salgado INVESTIGATION OF POTASSIUM BROMATE IN BREAD FROM BAKERIES IN UKANAFUN COMMUNITY OF AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA 2023-11-16T10:03:48+00:00 Ubong I. Etukudo Emmanuel J. Ekott Esther I. Ukpanah <p>Potassium bromate (KBrO<sub>3</sub>) is a dough improver used in baking bread to increase bread size and profit. However, the additive has been banned from use due to its adverse effects on human health. Despite its ban, some bakers, especially in rural communities continue to use it. The ingestion of potassium bromate is linked to a number of clinical problems including carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Bread samples from five bakeries in rural communities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were randomly obtained and assessed for their levels of potassium bromate using spectrophotometric method. The absorbance of the standards and that of the samples were taken at 540 nm in the visible region of the spectrophotometer, then converted to concentrations with reference to a calibration curve constructed from pure potassium bromate sample solutions. All the bread samples contained potassium bromate and concentrations in the bread samples ranged from 5.16 – 8.50 mg/Kg. The values are beyond the allowed permissible level set by most international health standards that permit the use of the additive. The concentrations are higher than the permissible level of 0.02 mg/Kg set in Nigeria by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). The ban should be enforced further especially in bakeries sited in rural communities in order to properly safeguard the health of consumers</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ubong I. Etukudo, Emmanuel J. Ekott, Esther I. Ukpanah