DOES ENHANCED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION DISTURB HONEYBEES’ BEHAVIOUR? OBSERVATIONS DURING NEW YEAR’S EVE 2019

Authors

  • Daniel Favre A.R.R.A., P.O. box 494, CH-1860 Aigle, Switzerland https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3061-0400
  • Olle Johansson Associate Professor, retired from the Karolinska Institute (in Nov 2017, still active), Department of Neuroscience, head of The Experimental Dermatology Unit, Stockholm, Sweden, and Adjunct Professor, previously at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2151

Keywords:

Honeybees, Sounds, Worker Piping, RF-EMF, New Year’s Eve, Anthropogenic Electrosmog

Abstract

Insects, and especially honeybees, are under major threat everywhere around the globe. Current studies lack in the consideration of potential effects which may directly affect other organisms or ecosystems, because of the very limited attention which is usually received by the potential adverse ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Here, it is hypothesized that planetary enhancement of electromagnetic radiation produces a disturbing pollution for honeybees. In order to test this hypothesis, a bi-directional wide frequency range microphone was placed during the New Year’s Eve night 2019 in a honeybee hive, in order to detect and analyze potential changes in the acoustic behaviour of the bees due to increased phone induced RF- EM radiation. It was observed that the honeybees produced strong worker piping signals. Such signals are typically produced shortly before takeoff of a swarm, or as the sign of a disturbed colony. It is therefore hypothesized that planetary enhancement of electromagnetic radiation produces a disturbing pollution for honeybees, such as during the New Year’s Eve night. Evidence of proof of such electromagnetic waves taking place at New Year's Eve should be investigated worldwide during forthcoming similar events based on a global network of long term EM measurements.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Brown, M.J., Dicks, L.V., Paxton, R.J., Baldock, K.C., Barron, A.B., Chauzat, M.P., Freitas, B.M., Goulson, D., Jepsen, S., Kremen, C., Li, J., Neumann, P., Pattemore, D. E., Potts, S. G., Schweiger, O., Seymour, C. L., Stout, J. C. A Horizon Scan of Future Threats and Opportunities for Pollinators and Pollination. PeerJ., 4, 2016, e2249, doi:10.7717/peerj.2249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2249

Decourtye, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Henry, M. Toward the protection of bees and pollination under global change: present and future perspectives in a challenging applied science. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 35, 2019, 123-131, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2019.07.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2019.07.008

Vanengelsdorp, D., Evans, J.D., Saegerman, C., Mullin, C., Haubruge, E., Nguyen, B.K., Frazier, M., Frazier, J., Cox-Foster, D., Chen, Y., et al. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study. PloS one, 4, e6481, 2009, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006481. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006481

Genersch, E. Honey Bee Pathology: Current Threats to Honey Bees and Beekeeping. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 87, 2010, 87-97, doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2573-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-010-2573-8

Watson, K.; Stallins, J.A. Honey Bees and Colony Collapse Disorder: A Pluralistic Reframing. Geography Compass, 10, 2016, 222-236, doi:10.1111/gec3.12266. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12266

Thill, A. Biologische Wirkungen Elektromagnetischer Felder auf Insekten. umwelt · medizin · gesellschaft, 33, 2020, 1-28.

Thielens, A., Greco, M.K., Verloock, L., Martens, L., Joseph, W. Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure of Western Honey Bees. Scientific Reports, 10, 2020, 461, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56948-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56948-0

Favre, D. Mobile Phone-Induced Honeybee Worker Piping. Apidologie, 42, 2011, 270-279, doi:10.1007/s13592-011-0016-x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-011-0016-x

Favre, D. Disturbing Honeybees’ Behavior with Electromagnetic Waves: a Methodology. Journal of Behavior 2(2), 2017.

Rangel, J., Seeley, T.D. The Signals Initiating the Mass Exodus of a Honeybee Swarm from its Nest. Animal Behaviour, 76, 2008, 1943-1952, doi:DOI 10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.09.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.09.004

Wenner, A.M. Sound Communication in Honeybees. Scientific American, 210, 1964, 116-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0464-116

Bandara, P., Carpenter, D.O. Planetary Electromagnetic Pollution: it is Time to assess its Impact. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2, 2018, e512-e514, doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30221-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30221-3

Cucurachi, S., Tamis, W.L., Vijver, M.G., Peijnenburg, W.J., Bolte, J.F., de Snoo, G.R. A Review of the Ecological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF). Environment international, 51, 2013, 116-140, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2012.10.009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.10.009

Hallmann, C.A., Sorg, M., Jongejans, E., Siepel, H., Hofland, N., Schwan, H., Stenmans, W., Muller, A., Sumser, H., Horren, T., Goulson, D., de Kroon, H. More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas. PloS one, 12, 2017, e0185809, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0185809. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185809

Panagopoulos, D.J., Balmori, A. On the biophysical mechanism of sensing atmospheric discharges by living organisms. The Science of the Total Environment, 599-600, 2017, 2026-2034, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.089. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.089

Gould, J.L., Kirschvink, J.L., Deffeyes, K.S. Bees Have Magnetic Remanence. Science, 201, 1978, 1026-1028. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.201.4360.1026

Walker, M.M., Bitterman, M.E. Honeybees Can Be Trained to Respond to Very Small Changes in Geomagnetic-Field Intensity. Journal of Experimental Biology, 145, 1989, 489-494.

Hsu, C.Y., Ko, F.Y., Li, C.W., Fann, K., Lue, J.T. Magnetoreception System in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). PloS one, 2, e395, 2007, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000395. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000395

Greggers, U., Koch, G., Schmidt, V., Durr, A., Floriou-Servou, A., Piepenbrock, D., Gopfert, M.C., Menzel, R. Reception and Learning of Electric Fields in Bees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences, 280, 2013, 20130528, doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0528. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.0528

Bhatt, C.R., Redmayne, M., Abramson, M.J., Benke, G. Instruments to Assess and Measure Personal and Environmental Radiofrequency-Electromagnetic Field Exposures. Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 39, 2016, 29-42, doi:10.1007/s13246-015-0412-z. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13246-015-0412-z

Gajšek, P., Ravazzani, P., Wiart, J., Grellier, J., Samaras, T., Thuróczy, G. Electromagnetic Field Exposure Assessment in Europe Radiofrequency fields (10 MHz–6 GHz). Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 25, 2015, 37-44, doi:10.1038/jes.2013.40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2013.40

Röösli, M., Frei, P., Bolte, J., Neubauer, G., Cardis, E., Feychting, M., Gajsek, P., Heinrich, S., Joseph, W., Mann, S., Martens, L., Mohler, E., Parslow, R. C., Poulsen, A. H., Radon, K., Schüz, J., Thuroczy, G., Viel, J.-F., Vrijheid, M. Conduct of a Personal Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Measurement Study: Proposed Study Protocol. Environmental Health, 9:23, 2010, 23, doi:10.1186/1476-069X-9-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-23

Vanbergen, A.J., Potts, S.G., Vian, A., Malkemper, E.P., Young, J., Tscheulin, T. Risk to Pollinators from Anthropogenic Electro-Magnetic Radiation (EMR): Evidence and Knowledge Gaps. The Science of the Total Environment, 695, 2019, 133833, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133833. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133833

Russell, C.L. 5 G Wireless Telecommunications Expansion: Public Health and Environmental Implications. Environmental Research, 165, 2018, 484-495, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016

Downloads

Published

2020-11-19

How to Cite

Favre, D., & Johansson, O. . (2020). DOES ENHANCED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION DISTURB HONEYBEES’ BEHAVIOUR? OBSERVATIONS DURING NEW YEAR’S EVE 2019. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(11), 7–14. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2151