International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> en-US <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> editor@granthaalayah.com (Editor) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 13:56:12 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A SPATIO-TEMPORAL STUDY OF LAND USE LAND COVER ANALYSIS IN MANIYARI BASIN USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6167 <p>Land is the only valuable resource of the earth which separate the earth other planet. Land is the base of life, the changing pattern of uses of land has been seen over time from the Stone Age to modern time. On that way the present study area of Maniyari basin has also been noticed remarkable changes. Digital change detection methods used to identifying changes related with land use and land cover features using multi temporal remote sensing data. The objectives of the paper analyse the changes of land uses over time as well as the factor which is responsible for the transformation of the land. LANDSAT ETM+ for the time frame of 2010 and Sentinal 2 data for the time frame of 2020 has been used for this present study. Total area of the study region approximately 3700 sq. km. LULC Mapping has consisted of basically four steps: Data acquisition, Data processing, interpretation/classification, post verification through ground truth. NRSC LULC Classification schema 2019 has been used for Land use Land cover mapping. Agriculture Cropland. LULC classes which has been identified in this present study are Barren Rocky, Built up, Rural Built up, Urban, Canal, Dense scrub, Forest, Forest Plantation, Gullied/Ravines, Industrial/Mining, Lake/Pond, Open Scrub, Reservoir/Tank, River/Stream, Water logged. It has been found that 145 ha. Open scrub and 98 ha forest land converted in to agricultural land.70 ha. of outer reservoir land converted in to agricultural land. Significant changes in the outer forest ecosystem have occurred in the study region, and it must be reconstructed for tribal community who were relying heavily on natural resources.</p> Dipak Bej, Dr. N K Baghmar Copyright (c) 2022 Dipak Bej, Dr. N K Baghmar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6167 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THREATS TO RHODODENDRON BIODIVERSITY IN INDIAN HIMALAYAN REGIONS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6162 <p>The variety in biodiversity is a boon to human civilization by Mother Nature. Every aspect of this biodiversity from unicellular organisms to multicellular plants are important. India subcontinent being a land of diversity, has a rich resource of flora and fauna. The richness is also contributed by arising of great Himalayan Mountains. In this study, we are presenting a case where increasing human interference is effecting growth and development of a significant species called Rhododendron arboretum. The plant parts of Rhododendron arboretum is useful to mankind medicinally which is very well depicted in ancient and recent literatures.</p> Nripendra Singh, Samir Bhargava, Jabrinder Singh, Ritu Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Nripendra Singh, Samir Bhargava, Jabrinder Singh, Ritu Singh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6162 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OVERALL OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT, TREND FROM 2016 TO 2022 WITH A FORECAST FOR 3 YEARS AHEAD IN EASTERN LIBYA https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A05_6134 <p>The article investigate the prevalence of obesity among Libyan's women aged from 15 to 59 age years. The study estimated trends between 2016 and 2022 in overweight and obesity prevalence A total of 1288 women were included in the analysis, of which 662 (51.4%) were aged 15-30 years old and 626 (48.6%) were aged 31-59 years old recruited from 2016 to 2022. The sample was divided into two groups , group 1- female age from 15-30 years and group 2- female age 31-59 years. Between 2016 and 2022, the prevalence of obesity increased 10.4%, whereas there were increases forecast up to 2025 increased 10.3%. The study shown that body weight, body fat, waist circumference, visceral fat, and body mass index increase with aging except of fat free mass, decreased with aging. Women with higher age have higher chances of being obesity and lower chances of being underweight compared with lower age. The results from our study showed that the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, with age increased, with 10.3% increases occurring in the forecast next three year's 2023-2025. The results showed that the risk of gaining overweight and obesity starts at the age of 31 years.</p> Tawfeg A. Elhisadi Copyright (c) 2022 Tawfeg A. Elhisadi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A05_6134 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DETECTING AND DISPLAYING ENERGY FROM SKIN CANCER LESIONS: COMPARISON OF POST BIOPSY SKIN CANCER SCABS WITH NORMAL SKIN INJURY SCABS. A BIOPHYSICS APPROACH https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6161 <p>The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce via an established tabletop microscopy technique a comparison between electromagnetic energy (EMR) emitted by skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors scab tissue and their normal counterparts. The same methodology was used for both groups. Mature scab samples of post biopsy SCC lesions and normal skin scabs were exposed to liquid Potassium Ferricyanide (K3Fe) on a glass slide. K3Fe has the property of “full absorption” of incoming EMRs there is a temporary delay in the advancing evaporation while forming crystals resembling periodic organized semicircles delineate the incoming energy. Living tissue, whether normal or diseased has metabolism that entails electron transfers in both plants (photosynthesis) and animals (cellular respiration) involving movement of electrons from donor to acceptor along the electron transfer chain thus inducing a current within each cell and from cell to cell. This energy is totally absorbed by K3Fe crystals. In Vitro experiments are presented showing disrupted energy emitted by SCC scabs failing short of reaching the tissue sample; a visual “Gap” in EMR was documented in both SCC samples. Conversely in scabs from normal tissue no “Gap” in continuity was seen. Based on results from duplicate experiments supports erratic EMR emissions from SCC scabs when compared with normal tissue scabs. Additionally, small-detached cancer scabs fragments demonstrated energy emissions not seen in normal tissue.</p> Abraham A. Embi Copyright (c) 2022 Abraham A. Embi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6161 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES IN HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6175 <p>World is also going through several environmental crisis such as pollution, global warming, rising sea level, greenhouse effect, changes in cycle of seasons, rising temperature <br>etc. to save our environment and earth we need to go back to our roots. We have to<br>understand the system that follows by the Harappans a to keep our nature clean and safe, if<br>possible, we need to implement it in today’s life. All this starts at primary level like home and<br>schools. We should embody our environmental values and culture in our textbooks for<br>upcoming and younger generation so that we can save our environment.</p> Diksha Singh Sengar, Dr Ranjana Sharma Vyas Copyright (c) 2022 Diksha Singh Sengar, Dr Ranjana Sharma Vyas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6175 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF BUTTERWORTH AND CHEBYSHEV-I FILTERS USING BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A04_6106 <p>Due to the intense demands in advanced telecommunications during the last fifteen years for both higher spectrum band and better accuracy, the digital Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter has emerged as the basic component in both digital telecommunication and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) systems. In our research work reported in this paper we conducted meticulous investigation using computer simulation of the digital Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter to implement the Butterworth and Chebyshev I procedure with bilinear transformation algorithm aimed at both statistical analysis and computer simulation. Our simulation results reveal the comparative accuracy between digital filters and analog filters of the spectrum response in: i) absolute magnitude, ii) the magnitude in decibels (dB) and iii) phase. Conversely the filter selectivity and gain in decibel scale were numerically obtained.</p> S.K. Singh, A. Muhammad, I. Umaru, M.M. Usman, M.N., Abdulkareem, M.I. Abubakar, M.S Nur Copyright (c) 2022 S.K. Singh, A. Muhammad, I. Umaru, M.M. Usman, M.N., Abdulkareem, M.I. Abubakar, M.S Nur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A04_6106 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMING THE PATIENTS RECEIVING PHYSICAL THERAPY AND REHABILITATION SERVICES FOR CERVICAL DISC HERNIA ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS: A SAMPLE STUDY FROM TURKEY https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A04_6107 <p>Background: Considering the risk factors of cervical disc hernia, morbidity can be reduced and the recurrence of the disease can be prevented by the acquisition of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors (HLSB). <br>Aim: The aim is to evaluate the relationship between the cause of the disease and the risk factors, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the patients, who received physical therapy and rehabilitation (PTR) service upon the diagnosis of cervical disc hernia, regarding HLSB with ethical information.</p> <p>Method: Data were obtained from 222 patients at the Department of PTR at Eskisehir Yunus Emre State Hospital (EYEDH) in Turkey. The Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale II (HLSBS II) was administered to the participants by using a questionnaire form. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square Test of Independence, Unpaired T Test were used to evaluate the data.</p> <p>Results: There was a significant difference between the general scale and sub-scale scores of HLSBS II of the participants and the state of knowing the cause of the disease (p &lt;0.05). There is a significant difference between informing the participants about their diseases, treatments, medical treatments as an alternative to PTR (surgical, medical), and the risk factors and reflecting such information to their behaviors (p &lt;0.05). It is observed that the participants informed have changed their behaviors.</p> <p>Conclusion: It can be seen that the participants consider the information provided and try to carry out their actions, are willing to learn about HLSB, are open to behavioral changes, and want to receive training on this matter.</p> Nuran Unaler, Nurdan Kirimlioglu Copyright (c) 2022 Nuran Unaler, Nurdan Kirimlioglu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A04_6107 Sat, 02 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EUGENE IONESCO AND JEAN GENET IN ABSURD THEATRE https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6180 <p>The post-war world in the aftermath of Second World War has witnessed tumultuous changes in the society. All that had been considered sacrosanct till then, no longer enjoyed their dominance since it became natural to subject everything to question. Almost all spheres of life were severely influenced by the heart-wrenching effects of the catastrophic war. The degenerated human being suddenly looked for responses in an isolated world which he thought would heal him at that juncture. Under such bleak circumstances, playwrights around the world felt the heat to try out new ways to communicate their messages to the society. The Theatre of the Absurd was the apt medium of the time to realign theatrical performances to the changing realities of the world. Pioneers in this genre of theatre such as Eugene Ionesco and Jean Genet composed their plays to tap the dying conscience of human society. This paper considers Ionesco’s The Chairs and Genet’s The Balcony in absurd theatre and aims to bring out the different aspects of absurdity as applied by the playwrights in their respective plays. It also attempts to show that irrespective of differences between them, how both the dramatists were successful in conveying their well-intended messages to their audiences.</p> Sudhansu Sekhar Panda Copyright (c) 2022 Sudhansu Sekhar Panda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG22_A06_6180 Sat, 02 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000