International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> en-US <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> (Editor) Thu, 30 Nov 2023 09:54:07 +0000 OJS 60 CRITICAL REVIEW ON व्याहतगति OF VATA DOSHA WSR TO VATAVYADHI <p>The science of life based on natural principle of climatic change, atmospheric heat, rainfall, humidity etc is defined as Ayurveda. Principle of Pancha Mahabhuta, Tridosha Siddhanta and their Vriddhi Kshyaya are the different fundamental concepts to understand health &amp; diseases. Classifies the biological elements of the body as Vata, Pitta, Kapha. Tridoshas begin their role from the beginning of their lives. These Tridoshas maintain the body in a normal and balanced state called Sukha and when there is imbalance and abnormality in these three Doshas, the person develops a disease called Dukha. Sensory &amp; motor responsibility governed by Vata Dosha; hence Vata Dosha is dominant to other two Dosha. Na+Na+ Atmaja=Nanatmaja. Diseases which are executed by one single Dosha is called Nanatmaja Vyadhi. There are 80 numbers of Vatika Nanatmaja Vikara, 40 Paittika &amp; 20 Kaphaja Nanatmaja Vikara. These all classifications has described in Charaka Samhita 20th chapter (Maharoga Adhyaya). The group of Vatika Nanatmaja Vyadhi are called Vata Vyadhi. An attempt has been made to review the various types of Vata Vyadhi of the Charak Samhita. After critical analysis, one can come to the conclusion that vitiated Vata can cause different types of diseases depending on the Hetu, Ashaya, Avayava, Dhatu, Indriya affected. Vatavyadhi Hetu, Samprapti, types and prognostic factors etc are discussed here in detail.</p> Bishnupriya Mohanty, Tayaji Tushvita Tukaram, Swarali Navnath Mamlekar, Dr Sangram Keshari Das Copyright (c) 2023 Bishnupriya Mohanty, Tayaji Tushvita Tukaram, Swarali Navnath Mamlekar, Dr Sangram Keshari Das Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 VARIANTS OF RANGANATHAN’S FIVE LAWS: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY <p>The Five Laws of Dr. Ranganathan are the fundamental laws of library science which were propounded in the year 1931. Though more than 80 years have passed they are as useful as they were in their starting time but with some modifications. Various variants of Dr. Ranganathan’s Laws have been made in the changing environment of information and communication technology, this article explores most of them and discusses their implications in new era.</p> Anil Kumar Dhiman Copyright (c) 2023 Anil Kumar Dhiman Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 TO ASSESS THE LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF BUYERS IN THE REAL ESTATE SECTOR <p>The interpretation of customer satisfaction is a complex task due to its subjective nature, which is contingent upon the individual preferences and experiences of each customer. The Real Estate industry presents a heightened level of complexity as there exist numerous factors that contribute to the determination of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is closely linked to the perception of the customer, whereby meeting the customer’s perceived expectations results in their satisfaction. This research is on the Indian real estate business. This study was primarily conducted to assess the level of satisfaction of buyers in the real estate sector. The principal goal of this study was to examine the satisfaction level of buyers while buying a residential property. The paper is helpful for real estate agents. It helps real estate agents understand what buyers want and how they think.</p> Pankaj Mohindru, Jasmeen Kaur Copyright (c) 2023 Pankaj Mohindru, Jasmeen Kaur Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 UNILATERAL PAPILLEDEMA DUE TO IDIOPATHIC INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION: A CASE REPORT <p>Introduction: Papilledema is highly predicted and common to encounter in all causes of raised intracranial pressure including idiopathic intracranial hypertension; it is usually bilateral and symmetrical. Unilateral and asymmetrical papilledema is considered highly atypical and a rarity of presentation, posing significant diagnostic challenge to the poorly understood pathological phenomenon of IIH.<br />Case: We report a 40-year-old African female with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who fully fulfills the Modified Danddy Criteria; presenting with unilateral papilledema, with Left eye fundoscopic examination showing extensively hyperemic and swollen optic disc with an associated tortuously engorged retinal vein. Brain imaging via MRI revealed partial empty sella, bilateral prominent fluid signal projection that is more evident in the left optic nerve sheath and a prominent meckel’s cave on the left side measuring (6.1 mm) in the transverse diameter. MRA concluded an attenuated most lateral side of the left transverse sinus. Lumbar puncture was attempted and revealed an opening pressure of (45 cmH2O), and otherwise normal CSF cytology and chemical composition. Significant symptomatic relief was depicted upon lumbar puncture.<br />Discussion: papilledema is universally encountered as a bilateral and symmetrical phenomenon; thus, presentation of IIH with unilateral papilledema has been under extensive research recently in attempts to contemplate the exact pathophysiology. Amongst many other proposed theories, we endorse the variation of the optic canal diameter as a potential mechanism for asymmetry of papilledema in IIH. As larger optic canal diameter is postulated to be associated with higher CSF pressure force transduction with subsequent optic nerve damage.<br />Conclusion: Unilateral and asymmetrical papilledema is considered substantially unique and anecdotal rarities of presentation of IIH; posing a significant diagnostic troublesome and dilemma. Physicians should be aware and highly vigilant of such deviations of usual presentations to avoid consequential diagnostic and management adverse outcomes and unwanted complications.</p> Osama Khider Ahmed Elmansour, Sabah Elhagali, Anas Mohamed, Hibatalla Mohamed, Alwia Fadulalmola, Ahmed Hajhamed, Randa Abbas, Almothana Mohammedin, Tagwa Mergani, Zeinab Alhassan , Mohammed Naeem, Noura Abdelrazig, Ahmed Babikir Copyright (c) 2023 Osama Khider Ahmed Elmansour, Sabah Elhagali, Anas Mohamed, Hibatalla Mohamed, Alwia Fadulalmola, Ahmed Hajhamed, Randa Abbas, Almothana Mohammedin, Tagwa Mergani, Zeinab Alhassan , Mohammed Naeem, Noura Abdelrazig, Ahmed Babikir Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON STATE WISE AIR POLLUTION WITH REGARD TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN INDIA <p>This study looks at air quality in various Indian states, focusing on the prevalence and composition of particulate matter (PM) as a key indicator of air pollution. The study takes a comprehensive approach to assessing state-by-state variations in PM concentrations, taking into account a variety of geographical, climatic, and demographic factors. The research aims to identify patterns, trends, and potential sources of PM in different regions by utilizing extensive air quality monitoring data, statistical analyses, and geographical information systems (GIS).The environment and public health are seriously threatened by air pollution, particularly when it comes to particulate matter (PM). PM is composed of minuscule particles suspended in the atmosphere, which are often generated by combustion, natural, and industrial processes. Prolonged exposure to high particulate matter has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, as well as detrimental effects on the environment. Using data from the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI) for five years, from 2016 to 2021, and breaking down each state separately, this study examines the intricate rise of PM in India in great detail. Uttar Pradesh has the highest PM rate (2021) at 5.754. This implies that there has been a discernible increase in air pollution in this state. With the lowest is Arunachal Pradesh</p> Ramakrishna G.N., Qarya Adeeba Noor, Nazneen Mohammed Ismail, Jhanavi V R, Amal V Thomas Copyright (c) 2023 Ramakrishna G.N., Qarya Adeeba Noor, Nazneen Mohammed Ismail, Jhanavi V R, Amal V Thomas Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PUBLIC POLICIES, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND CREATIVE ECONOMY <p>Introduction. I.- The Origins of Studies on Agenda Formation and Public Problems. Ii.- The Formation of Agendas Like Object of Study of Political Science. Iii.- What They are and How Agendas are Formed. Iv.- The Institutional Variable. V.- The Effectiveness and Efficiency as Distinctive Signs of Policies Public. Vi.- The Decision-Making Process of Public Policies. Vii.- The Adaptability of Public Policies in Contexts Different. Viii.- Differences that the Concepts Keep Between Each Other Polity, Politics and Policy from The Disciplinary Side Of Public Politics. Ix.- Approaches And Distances Between Public Policies and Governmental Policies. X.- Policies Public, Democracy and Governance. Xi.- The Flow of Policies Public. Xii.- Steps for the Analysis of Public Policies. Xiii.- The Political in Different Properties. Xiv.- Public Policies, Intellectual Property nd Creative Economy. Conclusions. Bibliography.</p> Gelacio Juan Ramón Gutiérrez Ocegueda, Edgar Gutiérrez Aceves Copyright (c) 2023 Gelacio Juan Ramón Gutiérrez Ocegueda, Edgar Gutiérrez Aceves Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 AIR BUBBLE ENCAPSULATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND THERAPY FAILURES <p>Background: The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a newly discovered potential dangers of air bubbles used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes into the human body.<br />At present, the injection of air bubbles into the human body for diagnostic purpose is viewed positively by the medical/scientific community. In Vitro experiments are presented whereby cells isolation by air bubbles could interfere with chemotherapy treatments.<br />Methods: Author’s own saliva sample was spitted out onto the center of a clean 25X75x1mm glass slide. The sample was placed and focused on the viewing platform of a video microscope. A toothpick was used to harvest inner cheek cells and gently transfer onto the spitted out sample. After focusing, areas were selected showing floating cells and air bubbles. Different laminar levels were observed by cells migrating at different levels.<br />While microscopically observing the sample, the glass slide was disturbed by finger tapping, the aim to induce bubble bursting.<br />Results: Deformed cells were observed when adhering to the outer surface of air bubbles. Additionally, undeformed cells seen at two distinct perpendicular layers when trapped within the floating bubbles. Noticed was a selective attraction of cells by the outer edge of the floating bubbles. Cells attached to the bubble’s edge were being deformed and attracted to each other. Cells were also observed passing unattracted when in a separate laminar flow under the floating bubble. The provocative tapping causing air bubbles to cavitate and burst.<br />Conclusions: The bursting of an air bubble is not the only factor in floating eukaryotic cells deformation. In this manuscript video microscopy and still images are introduced demonstrating a newly found horizontal flat parallel energy field in the periphery of the oxygen bubble. This energy is evident in the free-floating air bubble interface as cheek eukaryotic cells adhere only to the flat round edge of a bubble. Cells are attracted, adhered to each other, and deformed by their own intrinsic attraction. Once the bubble bursts, cells and debris are dispersed, with cells adherence partially disturbed. Cell deformations persisting. It could be hypothesized that cancer cells trapped at different laminar layers inside the bubble be refractory to external chemotherapy agents thus retaining their cancer characteristics.</p> Abraham A. Embi Copyright (c) 2023 Abraham A. Embi Mon, 04 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000