International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> en-US <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> (Editor) Tue, 31 Jan 2023 06:57:15 +0000 OJS 60 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON NEUROTOXICITY OF PYRETHROIDS <p>Pyrethroids are synthetic derivations of natural pyrethrins from the factory Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They comprise esters of chrysanthemum acid (ethyl, 2-dimethyl-3-(1-isobutenyl) cyclopropane-1-carboxylate) and halogenated derivations of their acids and alcohols. Pyrethroids are generally used in menage diseases and companion beast ectoparasite control products, and their limited use in the home terrain raises the trouble of exposure and adverse goods in the general population for humans and advanced creatures. Exploration with a wide range of pyrethroids has indicated that the choreothetosis-expectoration (CS) pattern frequently occurs as substances like deltamethrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate, which have the mode T- cyano-3-phenoxybenzylalcohol. General, extensively used bracket of Pyrethroid composites are determined grounded upon the symptomology of nonentity goods noted in neurophysiological tests. Numerous lines of substantiation indicate that the voltage sensitive sodium channel for both insects is the one main molecular destination for all pyrethroids and DDT analogues. In biophysical and biochemical examinations, the changes in sodium channel functioning are nearly connected to the impact of these substances on complete neurons. The pyrethroid sodium channel discovery point demonstrates the strict stereo particularity anticipated by in vivo nonentity neurotoxicity estimates. Composites of type I and type II have qualitative goods on currents of the sodium channel tail, divergent impact on complete neurons and differing goods on muscle excitability of the invertebrate shell. Knowledge of the molecular events bolstering pyrethroid neurotoxicity is directly applicable to determining whether this large and important class of diseases constitutes a single “common medium” group or multiple groups for the purposes of cumulative trouble assessment.</p> Zeeshan Ahmed, Saman Athar Copyright (c) 2023 Zeeshan Ahmed, Saman Athar Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A RARE CASE OF DYSPNEA <p>Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery defines the presence of a benign enlargement of the pulmonary trunk with or without the involvement of the rest of the arterial tree in the absence of a detectable cardiac or arterial systemic disorder. An IDPA patient’s symptoms and physical examination are not significant in diagnosis confirmation. Imaging techniques such as contrast-enhanced computed tomography, right heart catheterization, and angiocardiogram constitute the foundation of IDPA diagnosis. But an extended observation period is also necessary to exclude other possible dilatation explanation. Our patient, a forty-six-year-old female, was admitted to the Pulmonology clinic of “ShefqetNdroqi” University Hospital with dyspnea, dry cough, vertigo, and fatigue for several months before admission. The patient's contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography revealed a dilatation of the pulmonary trunk. The dilatation of the pulmonary trunk was confirmed with the Cardiac CT, and other abnormalities were excluded.</p> Olvis Petre, Tashi Bani Irma, Hasani Jola, Shestani Justi, Bala Silvana, Hafizi Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 Olvis Petre, Tashi (Bani) Irma, Hasani Jola, Shestani Justi, Bala Silvana, Hafizi Hasan Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIAL MEDIA RESEARCH ON "LAMINATE VENEER": DURING COVID 19-PANDEMIC <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The difficulty of asking questions to each other during the appointment process with their doctor, the long waiting times of the patients in the waiting rooms in the clinics, and the fact that it is easier to get medical information on the internet due to the ongoing COVID-19 virus infection. Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) have been frequently used to restore anterior teeth for nearly three decades, thanks to their aesthetic appeal, durability, and biocompatibility.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> YouTube™ was searched by a researcher of this study using the keyword 'laminate veneer' on April 17, 2021. The most frequently used terms in this regard are 'laminate veneer' and 'laminate veneer restoration'. Analyzes were made on the Instagram application, along with YouTube.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Thirty-three videos were determined on YouTube™ on the topic of laminate veneer. The mean number of views was 46277.84 ± 128674.71, with the minimum view as ten and the maximum as 682478. The videos had a mean duration of 5:48 ± 4:64 with a range of 0:24–14:55. The mean number of "likes" for each video was 198 ± 424, and the mean number of "dislikes" was 17 ± 48. The most-liked video received 1700 "likes." The most-disliked video received 236"dislikes." The mean number of comments was 13.65 ± 31.58. The interaction rate was 1.67 ± 5.18, and the viewing rate was 2939.11 ± 6076.75</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> YouTube™ and Instagram still cannot be accepted as a completely confident resources of knowledge for patients who want to learn about oral aesthetic rehabilitation treatment with laminate veneers</p> Zeynep Basagaoglu Demirekin, Esra Buyukcavus Copyright (c) 2023 Zeynep Basagaoglu Demirekin, Esra Buyukcavus Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 REVIEW ON ADVANCES IN BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOLS: KINETICS, MODELLING AND MASS TRANSFER <p>Harmful pollutants like phenol and its derivatives are found in wastewater from a wide range of industries, including oil refining, medicines, coal conversion, chemistry, and petrochemistry. The high concentration, high toxicity, and difficult-to-degrade characteristics of phenols in wastewater pose a serious threat to the environment and to human health. By employing different strains of microorganisms and biocatalysts to create biodegradation procedures of diverse pollutants and a wide spectrum of hazardous compounds, biotechnology has successfully addressed significant environmental challenges. Among various phenols removal techniques, biodegradation is both economical and environmentally friendly. During the study of microbial degradation processes, there is a great deal of interest in the potential for mathematical modelling to forecast microbial growth and degrade harmful or inhibiting environmental pollutants at variable quantities. Such mathematical models are frequently created using aromatic compounds like phenol. The review discusses the following topics: kinetics, modelling, and mass transfer; future scope and directions; diverse microorganisms, bioreactors, the metabolic pathway of phenol, influencing factors, and recent advancements in biological therapy.</p> Ladi Reshma, V Sridevi, M N N Sai Rachana, J Akhila, M Yamini, Katru Ramya Sugandhi, Husam Talib Hamzah, R. Sri Harsha Copyright (c) 2023 Ladi Reshma, V Sridevi, M N N Sai Rachana, J Akhila, M Yamini, K Ramya Sugandi, Husam Talib Hamzah, R. Sri Harsha Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EXPLORE AND ANALYSE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT TYPES AND FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF A FULL-LENGTH SHOT IN TSAI MING-LIANG’S FILM WORK <p>Among the directors of the rise of movies in Taiwan in the 1990s,undoubtedly,Tsai Ming-liang is one of the most artistic and personalized directors.Tsai focuses on the present and shows an indifferent attitude towards the future.This kind of indifferent attitude,which has been continued in the lens language,makes the full-length shots have an indifferent spectator perspective,depicting a post-modern industrial society which have a defamiliarization effect and full of dreamlike color,and setting off people’s marginality and sense of unbelonging.The figure have no goals and ideals in the shot.Tsai focuses on young people in modern society,describing the muddleheaded state of life to the full,conveying the disillusionment spirit of ideal home.</p> Youyou Zhang, Huansong Yang, Shaoli Zhang Copyright (c) 2023 Youyou Zhang, Huansong Yang, Shaoli Zhang Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 KHMER ART SAMPLINGS: IDEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE OF INDIAN KNOWLEDGE THROUGH HINDU DIVINITIES <p>The importance of the medieval art history of Southeast Asia is still a virgin site, which needs to be explored with multi-disciplinary approach and methodology. The transcultural aspects between India and Southeast Asia from ancient to late medieval period cannot be contemplated through a single medium, it need to be analyzed from various angles through religious sources, philosophical materials and visual contents. The main focus of the present study is on interlinks of religious arts. Few iconographical sample forms from the various monuments of Angkor are taken for critical analysis, such as Śeṣaśāyī, Vamana, Kāḷiyamardana and Dance of Śiva. The common designs in iconographic cornice will have to be recognized in comparative religious studies, getting beyond the shackles of spirituality if we are to discover the ancient heritages. There is no much deviation in representation of the Buddhist and Hindu imagery in India and Southeast Asia but the localization is visually sensed. The cultural links of ancient Indian Knowledge System between Southeast Asia, China and Japan is entangled in the annals of the history.</p> R.K.K. Rajarajan, S. Palanikumar Copyright (c) 2023 R.K.K. Rajarajan, S. Palanikumar Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 THE RELATIONSHIP MODEL OF CREATIVE ECONOMY CONCEPTS THAT AFFECT MARKETING SUCCESS <p>The objectives of this research article are 1) to study the general characteristics of community enterprise entrepreneurs and 2) to analyze the influence between creative economy concepts on marketing success. This research is quantitative research. Data were collected from 310 community enterprise entrepreneurs in Bangkok and its vicinity. The research tools were questionnaires that tested the concordance values between 0.60-1.00. The statistics used in the research consisted of descriptive statistics, factor analysis and path analysis.</p> <p>The results showed that most of the respondents were male, 178 people, representing 59 percent. The number of employees found that the largest number was between 21-40 with a total of 242 people. In the term of education, the result found that the large number of respondents graduate with bachelor's degree was 250 people, representing 83.3 percent. The result of age showed that the sample group was between 51-60 years old was the largest number of 240 people, representing 80 percent. And the results of influence path analysis revealed that creative economy concept variables to marketing success found that the coefficient was 0.579. For the marketing success to the competitive advantage had a path coefficient at 0.008 and the correlation path between marketing success to competitive advantage had a path coefficient of 0.0995.</p> Pattarapon Chummee Copyright (c) 2023 Pattarapon Chummee Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 HALDANE KINETIC STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION OF PHENOL -A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW <p>The chemical moreover petroleum industries are responsible for the production of a diverse range of organic contaminants that are extremely hazardous. As a result, these industries have contributed to the accumulation of damaging impacts on the surrounding environment. These companies' waste water typically contains aromatic organic chemicals, which are notoriously difficult to degrade through natural processes and, as a result, are found to be pervasive in the environment. Being the straightforward units for an extensive variety of organic substances, In industries such as oil refining, production of phenol and the various derivatives of it, pharmaceuticals, productions of resins, textile dyes, paints, disinfectants, petrochemicals, and paper mills, phenol and its derivatives are used, and as a result, The effluents produced by these industries often contain phenol as well as derivatives of phenol. The existence of phenolic compounds in water systems is associated with significant increases in the likelihood of adverse health effects being experienced by both human beings and other organisms. In light of this, the elimination of such potentially hazardous substances has garnered a significant amount of focus in recent decades. The removal of phenolic pollutants from aquatic environments by biodegradation is a technique that is both environmentally friendly and economical. For the purpose of optimising procedure process, building bioreactor systems, and scaling up microbial wastewater treatment procedures to fulfil the requirements of the effluent quality standard, having an understanding of the kinetics of microbial growth and biodegradation is absolutely essential. The current study concentrates on a number of different research publications on Haldane kinetic models, which are utilised to Describe the processes involved in the growth of microbes on phenol.</p> <p> </p> Veluru Sridevi, Husam Talib Hamzah, Nabil Majd Alawi, D. Divya Teja, Venkata Rao Poiba, Bandi Spandana, Husam Salah Mahdi Copyright (c) 2023 Veluru Sridevi, Husam Talib Hamzah, Nabil Majd Alawi, D. Divya Teja, Venkata Rao Poiba, Bandi Spandana, Husam Salah Mahdi Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT OF THE SELECTED GARMENTS FACTORIES IN BANGLADESH: AN APPLICATION OF DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA) <p>Readymade garments sector is the largest export earning sectors in Bangladesh. The efficiency of that sector is needed to compete and survive in the competitive global market. For the purpose of identifying the inputs and output variables which are deriving the efficiency of garments factories in Bangladesh, five garment factories have been selected purposively on the basis of availability of data as a sample size. Pearson coefficient correlation has been used to find out significant input variables related with output variable of sales revenue indicating the result that only cost of material and labour has significant impact among four input variables. From the method of CRS input oriented DEA, it is estimated that two garments factory are efficient relative to the(Fawellient factory of the rest three. If it is possible to reduce the excessive used of inputs (percentages) cost of material and labour then rest three inefficient factories would be capable as like as efficient two.</p> Hamayet Hossain, Dr. Md. Mizanoor Rahman, Md. Nazmul Huda, Dr. Md. Abdus Copyright (c) 2023 Hamayet Hossain, Dr. Md. Mizanoor Rahman, Md. Nazmul Huda, Dr. Md. Abdus Fri, 03 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A NEW PHYSICS THEORY ABOUT THE KINETIC FORCE MECHANISM OF ENERGY FLOW <p>In this paper, according to the characteristics of massless field, the kinetic force mechanism based on the flow and variation effects of power is firstly proposed. This mechanism shows that when the massless field is moving and changing, the power received by the moving stressed object have flowing and changing state, therefore when this type of power is transferred to the stressed object in the form of energy flow, the stressed object will receive the kinetic force effects corresponding to the energy flow. According to the kinetic force mechanism, this paper has proposed the concepts of dynamic field force and variable field force and has established the expressions of dynamic field strength and variable field strength for the massless field with moving and changing state. Inspired by the kinetic force mechanism, some physical problems have been solved: the magnetic effect of electric field is essentially explained, the condition under which electromagnetic waves are excited is effectively described, the possible dynamics of the gravitational field under the conditions of motion and change is predicted, the possibility and generation mechanism of gravitational waves is demonstrated.</p> Hua Ma Copyright (c) 2023 Hua Ma Fri, 03 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF DESCHMAN INTELLIGENT DOOR LOCK SALES WEBSITE <p>In the past five years, the rapid progress of science and technology has also spurred the rapid rise of the economy, and the people's income level has also made significant progress and changes. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a high-quality living standard. In such a superior environment, the smart home products industry also came into being and quickly gained a foothold. As one of the most popular products, intelligent door lock has gradually entered the public's vision. However, due to its high customer unit price and customers' concerns about safety, it has brought great challenges to the promotion and sales of intelligent door locks. Making a professional sales website has naturally become one of the important means to establish brand image, improve customer trust and increase product sales.</p> Li-Wei Lin, Chih-Fu Hsu, Kuo-Liang Lu, Zhi-Peng Zheng Copyright (c) 2023 Li-Wei Lin, Chih-Fu Hsu, Kuo-Liang Lu, Zhi-Peng Zheng Sat, 04 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON ANALYSING THE DETERMINANTS OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL IN URBAN INDIA <p>This study attempts in investigating the reasons for out-of-school in urban India and analyse the factors that are responsible for children aged 5-18 years to discontinue education. For this, the study employs secondary data by pooling the 71st and 75th NSSO rounds (Education survey). The study finds that majority of girl students drop out to take care of household duties while boys dropout to take jobs to supplement household earnings. Other reasons include school being far off, lack of infrastructural amenities and disinterest in education. By using Logit regression this study presents evidence on likelihood of being out-of-school affected by social background and household characteristics. Muslim children and those belonging to lower caste face higher chance of being out of school. Children belonging to poor families drop out sooner and girls face a larger exclusion from continuing education in comparison to boys. Households that have more members also witness more dropouts while educated head of the household creates positive spill over in reducing dropout by motivating younger generation to continue education. Against this backdrop, the study suggests target specific programmes have to be laid so that awareness about the significance of continuing education can reach the disadvantaged and financially deprived sections of society. To address rising dropout rate, a proper strategy has to be undertaken by the government to promote human capital accumulation through encouraging female education.</p> Vidhi Maggo, Dr. Yamini Gupt Copyright (c) 2023 Vidhi Maggo, Dr. Yamini Gupt Sat, 04 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000