International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> en-US <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> (Editor) Fri, 31 May 2024 05:22:18 +0000 OJS 60 ENHANCING FIREFIGHTER SAFETY: EVALUATING PPE FOR COMFORT AND EFFECTIVENESS <p>Exploratory research was conducted among 160 firefighters from two Indian states - Goa and Maharashtra, to evaluate the ergonomic aspects of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Clothing, focusing on firefighter comfort and operational effectiveness. Using a validated self-constructed questionnaire, researchers conducted structured interviews with firefighters to gain insights into the strengths and limitations of current PPE designs. The study revealed critical gaps in PPE utilization, informing recommendations for precise improvements to enhance firefighter safety and operational efficiency during emergencies. These findings aim to improve training programs and protocols, ensuring firefighters are not exposed to high-risk temperatures without adequate PPE. The study's results can influence policy decisions and research resource allocation, ensuring optimal equipping of firefighters to handle diverse hazards safely and comfortably. The research has broader implications, aiming to drive advancements in PPE materials and technologies, focusing on ergonomics, thus benefiting firefighting practices globally. By prioritizing comfort and functionality in PPE design, the study seeks to enhance the overall well-being and performance of firefighters in hazardous environments. Ultimately, the study aspires to inform better training programs, strengthen disaster response capabilities, and shape policies that prioritize firefighter safety worldwide, contributing to improved public safety on a global scale.</p> Tahira Ticlo, Roopa Rao Copyright (c) 2024 Tahira Ticlo, Roopa Rao Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MEDIA USE AND EXPOSURE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN <p>This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the media use and exposure of preschool children and its association with parental monitoring. A total of 420 children and their parents from independent kindergartens in Bucak district, Turkey, participated in the study during the 2023-2024 academic year. Data were collected using a General Information Form and a Media Usage Level Child and Parent Interview Form. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results showed that children watched TV for an average of 110.5 minutes per day, used computers for 92.3 minutes per day, and had a total media exposure time of 186.6 minutes per day. The majority of children had their TV program content monitored by their mothers. Maternal employment status, age, and educational level were found to be associated with children's media use patterns. Working mothers were associated with longer TV watching and phone usage times compared to non-working mothers. Older mothers were more likely to have children with longer TV watching and phone usage times. University graduate mothers were associated with lower TV watching times but higher computer and phone usage times compared to other educational groups. University graduate mothers were also more likely to monitor the content of media usage. These findings suggest the importance of parental monitoring in influencing children's media use habits. Effective guidance is needed to help parents establish healthy media habits and minimize potential negative impacts on children's development. Further research with larger samples is recommended to explore these findings in more depth.</p> Yahya Ergezen, Halil Ibrahim Tasdemir, Ayse Urcan, Emir Can Dundar, Gamze Karaagac, Senanur Canbaz Copyright (c) 2024 Yahya Ergezen, Halil Ibrahim Tasdemir, Ayse Urcan, Emir Can Dundar, Gamze Karaagac, Senanur Canbaz Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THORACO-OMPHALOPAGUS CONJOINED TWINS: A CASE REPORT <p>Conjoined twinsis a rare congenital disorder with high mortality and morbidity rates. Thoracomphalopagus, a type of conjoined twins that involves the heart, is the most uncommon. We report a case in which a multigravida woman was admitted with a diagnosis of thoraco-omphalopagus conjoined twins by ultrasonography at 36 weeks of gestation. Conclusion birth planning and fetal separation of conjoined twins depend on prenatal identification.</p> Sardjana, Gulam Gumilar Copyright (c) 2024 Sardjana, Gulam Gumilar Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVESTOCK IN MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS IN WESTERN CAMEROON <p>The present study highlights some social characteristics of livestock in Western Cameroon medium-sized towns. To carry it out, a questionnaire was given to 300 breeders, whose 100 in each of the towns of Dschang, Mbouda and Foumbot, three studied medium-sized towns in Western Cameroon. The choice of neighborhoods in these cities, as well as that of persons to be surveyed, was based on the intensity of livestock activities. The main results showed that male breeders are significantly more numerous (60%), married (76.70%) with 26.70% of households having a size between [5-6] members. The age of the breeders surveyed varied from 10 to 89 years, the most represented age group being 50 to 59 years (20.70%), and most of them (54.30%) have a secondary school level. 60% of these breeders have already had conflicts with their neighbors, the main cause of these conflicts being the olfactory and noise pollution of the animals raised, unsanitary conditions, and the destruction of gardens by animals. Urban livestock is a source of conflicts between breeders and neighbors in western Cameroon medium sized towns.</p> Djeugap Guédia Amélie Mermoze Copyright (c) 2024 Djeugap Guédia Amélie Mermoze Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN TEXTILE AND FASHION WORLD <p>Before 1949, computers lacked intelligence. They could not record commands, but they could carry them out. However, between 1957 and 1974, artificial intelligence flourished. Computer storage has increased, as has speed, cost, and accessibility. Artificial intelligence (AI) means that machines can perform various jobs that humans or animals need to do with their natural intelligence. The fathers of artificial intelligence, Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy, defined artificial intelligence in 1950. Artificial intelligence enables machines to understand and achieve certain goals. Deep learning, on the other hand, makes it possible to absorb huge amounts of unstructured data in the form of text, images and audio. Artificial intelligence is appearing in almost every industry that is the future of humanity. It will also be the driving force behind new technologies such as big data, robotics and the Internet of Things (IoT) in the near future. Computer algorithms and machine learning have been widely used in textile testing since the 1980s. Testing and quality control functions can be handled by image processing, automation, deep learning and neural networks. Most of the textile industry today uses computer-aided machinery to produce certain designs on a larger scale and more efficiently. AI can access maintenance data in real time to provide insights that can be used to increase operational efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology makes it easier to improve the quality of life in the industry and detect defects, check patterns, match colors and classify fabrics for textile production more objectively. It also precisely defines the advantages of fine, solid and staple fiber. The use of artificial intelligence in the manufacture of textiles has emerged with a new possibility, i.e. smart clothes that use the Internet of Things and electronic sensors to create a more pleasant health experience. In this article, the researcher tried to give an overview of the artificial intelligence used in the textile industry.</p> Purva Bansode, Dr. Pratima Goyal Copyright (c) 2024 Purva Bansode, Dr. Pratima Goyal Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EMPOWERING WOMEN THROUGH MILLET ENTREPRENEURSHIP: CULTIVATING SUCCESS AND SUSTAINABILITY <p class="Normal1" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;">The value addition of millets presents significant opportunities for elevating the economic status and livelihoods of rural women not only for increased income, but also for enhancing national productivity, creating employment, and fostering economic independence, personal growth, and social upliftment. Major millets, minor millets, and little millets constitute distinct types within the millet family. In India, minor and little millets are classified as coarse cereals. Women SHGs in Odisha have been directly involved in the marketing of millets and millet-based products since 2021.This report seeks to investigate the extent to which women active in millet marketing are empowered. The study is for doing a qualitative analysis of the respondents' abilities to promote the product and focus on drawing useful conclusions on how they are being empowered. The sample for the study would involve one woman from each Self Help Group (SHG) and 5 to 6 SHGs would be taken for the collection of data. This study understands the processes involved in marketing of millets and throws light on how women empowerment is possible through it.</p> Sitansu Ranjan Swain, Dr. Vijaya Rudraraju, Dr. Sasmita Nayak Copyright (c) 2024 Sitansu Ranjan Swain, Dr. Vijaya Rudraraju, Dr. Sasmita Nayak Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ROLE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND GENDER DIVERSITY IN CREATING INCLUSIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE <p>In the times of globalization where diversity, equity, and inclusion are at the forefront of organizational agenda to sustain business, expand and grow, cultivating an organizational culture that embraces inclusivity is imperative. Inclusivity now denotes not only a progressive culture, but also contributes significantly to the innovation, creativity, and sustenance of the business. In present research an attempt has been made to find out how employee engagement and gender diversity can create inclusive organizational culture. The study identified employee engagement and gender diversity as independent variables and inclusive organization as dependent variable. The workplaces seek employees who work together and collaborate for smooth functioning of the organization. For this they need to ensure that inclusiveness at all levels is taken care of in the organization. To make sure that employees stay loyal, motivated, and work hard, companies need to make them feel belonged and valued. The sense of belongingness in the organization is crucial to create an inclusive organizational culture. There are diverse set of people in the organization and when they are working with loyalty and commitment for the organization’s benefit, they create a culture wherein everybody feels included. There are many factors that lead to an inclusive organizational culture. The present research aims to find out the factors responsible for creating an inclusive organizational culture and how do employee engagement and gender diversity influence organizational culture.</p> Mehak Gusain, Dr. Harminder Kaur Gujral Copyright (c) 2024 Mehak Gusain, Dr. Harminder Kaur Gujral Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 VIEWING K. R. MEERA’S QABAR THROUGH A FEMINIST LENS <p>Technology and social media have played an increasingly significant role in shaping feminism in India over the past few decades, encouraging widespread mobilization and awareness. Over time, a number of legal reforms have been implemented to protect women's rights, including the use of online platforms to address pressing issues such as sexual harassment, gender-based violence, and workplace discrimination. In addition to laws prohibiting dowry, domestic violence, sexual harassment in the workplace, and ensuring equal pay for equal work, these laws are also in place. Despite significant strides, feminism in India still faces challenges, including deeply ingrained patriarchal norms, gender-based violence, and underrepresentation of women in positions of power and decision-making. However, the movement continues to make progress, with more women actively participating in various spheres of public life. Women are increasingly advocating for their rights and speaking out against gender discrimination and violence. This is supported by a number of initiatives, such as the formation of women's collectives, the introduction of gender-sensitive laws, and awareness-raising campaigns. This research article shows how all these systems fail to rise above patriarchal norms and impart justice to women, unless she herself evolve. This research paper views Bhavana, the protagonist, as a self-established woman. The paper also analyses the novella as a specimen of magic realism and how it’s a running political and social commentary.</p> Rekha K.G., Dr. Manjula K.T Copyright (c) 2024 Rekha K.G., Dr. Manjula K.T Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 WESTERN EDUCATION IN MALDAH: A CASE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF WESTERN EDUCATION IN MALDAH DISTRICT (1858-1905) <p>It is true that education is the pillar of a nation and continuously plays a significant role in the progress of any region or country. Since ancient times, different parts of the world have had their kind of education system, just as India has. But, over the time, the educational structure in India has transformed its nature and character, for example, the Gurukul system of education, then the Sangha or Mahavihara system of education, etc. In ancient times universities like Nalanda, Taxila, Odantapuri, etc., were established and became prominent learning centres. Then, in the seventeenth century when the Europeans came to India, they introduced Western education particularly the English education system in India. And this new system of education is still influencing India at present. Though Western education system was introduced by the British it gradually began to influence the nation. Hence, this research paper will be dealing with the development of Western education in the Maldah district before the partition of Bengal. It will also discuss the literacy rate of the district of that time.</p> Himansu Barman Copyright (c) 2024 Himansu Barman Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PERCEPTION, MISCONCEPTIONS AND SATISFACTION REGARDING CHHAYA (NON-HORMONAL WEEKLY CENTCHROMAN PILL) AMONG WOMEN WITHIN REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP ATTENDING GYNECOLOGICAL OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT IN A SELECTED HOSPITAL, KOLKATA <p>Population growth is a serious threat to the international community and a major obstacle for nation’s social and economic development, moreover it is one of the biggest problems developing country like India is facing at the moment and to satisfy the need of contraceptive as well as to fulfill the undertaking of the 2030 Agenda GOI has introduced ‘Centchroman’, non-hormonal or non-steroid based weekly pill which is relatively safer and better choice as contraceptive for the reproductive age women even for breastfeeding women as it has no side-effects like other steroidal contraceptives.<br />Aim: This study aims to assess the Perception, Misconceptions and Satisfaction regarding CHHAYA (Non-hormonal weekly Centchroman Pill) among women within the reproductive age group attending the Gynecological Out Patient Department in a selected hospital, Kolkata.<br />Methods: An exploratory survey research was carried out with 115 reproductive age group women using CHHAYA attending the Gynecological Out Patient Department in a selected hospital, Kolkata. The Total enumerative sampling technique was employed to select as subjects and the Data was collected by using self-developed, validated demographic proforma, perception assessment scale, misconception rating scale, satisfaction assessment tool through interviewing technique.<br />Results: The findings revealed that of all these women, 51.30% had positive perception, 60% had misconceptions and 55.65% respondents were satisfied with CHHAYA. Statistically a significant relationship was found between the perception and the satisfaction of the women regarding CHHAYA (‘ρ’=0.61, ‘t’ =8.18, p= 0.0008). Statistically significant association found between level of perception and partner’s approval (ꭓ2 = 5.94, p =0.01), duration of use (ꭓ2 = 7.65, p =0.005). It has also been outlined that there was statistically significant association between level of misconception and the religion (ꭓ2 = 6.94, p =0.008), education level of the women (ꭓ2 = 6.16, p =0.01). It also depicted that there was statistically significant association between level of satisfaction and the type of family (ꭓ2 = 8.33, p =0.003), partners approval (ꭓ2 = 4.64, p =0.03), duration of use (ꭓ2 = 8.93, p =0.002).<br />Conclusion: In spite of the fact that CHHAYA is an effective, inexpensive, easily accessible, lack of stringent schedule, safe in terms of side-effects like other OCPs, non-interference with sexual drive, reversible contraceptive method for women who opt for family planning it is mostly underutilized among contraceptives as there is negative perception, strong misconceptions, lack of satisfaction. As it is till now underuse due to insufficient information about it among the women, so collaborative efforts of proper counselling and follow up can be made by the health care providers reducing the misconceptions, discontinuation rates and to sustain compliance to CHHAYA.</p> Ishita Roy, Manika Mazumder, Rakhi Ghosh Copyright (c) 2024 Ishita Roy, Manika Mazumder, Rakhi Ghosh Thu, 13 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 TOWARDS IMPROVED THREAT MITIGATION IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENTS: A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR CYBERSECURITY ENHANCEMENT <p>In today's digital landscape, cybersecurity has become a critical concern due to the increasing sophistication of cyber threats. Traditional cybersecurity measures are often inadequate against evolving attacks, necessitating the development of comprehensive and adaptive threat mitigation frameworks. This study aims to address this gap by proposing a robust cybersecurity framework that integrates advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and blockchain to enhance threat detection, response, and recovery capabilities. The framework adopts a layered defense mechanism, real-time monitoring, and proactive threat hunting to provide a holistic approach to cybersecurity. By examining current methodologies and identifying their limitations, this research highlights the necessity for enhanced threat mitigation strategies. Through a mixed-methods approach involving online surveys and literature review, the study develops a flexible, scalable, and adaptive framework capable of countering sophisticated cyber threats. Key recommendations include adopting advanced technologies, continuous training, enhancing threat intelligence sharing, implementing a layered defense strategy, and conducting regular security audits. This comprehensive framework aims to improve organizational resilience, ensuring the safety and integrity of digital environments in the face of an ever-evolving cyber threat landscape.</p> Hewa Balisane, Ehigiator Iyobor Egho-Promise, Emmanuel Lyada, Folayo Aina Copyright (c) 2024 Hewa Balisane, Ehigiator Iyobor Egho-Promise, Emmanuel Lyada, Folayo Aina Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000