International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2022-09-30T08:14:55+00:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> SOME PHYSICAL LAWS SUCH AS CONSTANT SPEED OF LIGHT CAN BE EXPLAINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLE THAT ANY MATTER MUST HAVE FINITE ENERGY 2022-09-30T08:14:42+00:00 Hua Ma <p>In this paper, a physical principle that any matter must have finite energy is first proposed, which is expressed that any matter must have energy and the energy is finite under any conditions. According to this principle and energy conservation principle, some physical laws with unclear reasons are explained: The mass of a composite particle is greater than the sum of the mass of component particles; The potential energy of a composite particle is smaller than the potential energy sum of the component particles; Any massless matter must move at the speed of light under independent conditions; The velocity of static field without mass can be zero; Deriving inverse square law of massless field strength; Conditions for electromagnetic oscillation to form electromagnetic waves.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hua Ma PREVALENCE OF CERVICOGENIC HEADACHE AMONG YOUNG POPULATION 2022-09-30T08:14:55+00:00 Vadivelan Kanniappan Shalu Sam Abraham T. S. Veeragoudhaman <p>Background: Cervicogenic headache (CEH) is a secondary headache characterized by unilateral headache, signs of neck involvement and often worsened by neck movement, sustained awkward head position. Excessive stress to the neck, degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis, a prolapsed disc in the neck, or a whiplash injury can cause cervicogenic headache. The current young generation uses smart phones for a high amount of time. The researchers found that there is a strong positive correlation with pain intensity, headache and neck disability index suggested that long time use of Smartphone had a strong relationship with neck pain. The first line treatment for cervicogenic headache is physiotherapy management.<br />Objective: To check the prevalence of cervicogenic headache among young population. Methodology: Nonexperimental and observational type.<br />Outcome Measures: Prevalence of Cervicogenic Headache Questionnaire (Self prepared questionnaire).<br />Procedure: Subjects were selected according to inclusion criteria; the questionnaires were sent and later it was scored, and statistics were made.<br />Results: The study shows that there is prevalence of cervicogenic headache among young population. Among the 272 individuals 26 individuals showed proneness to cervicogenic headache.<br />Conclusion: the study concludes that there is 10.4% prevalence and proneness of cervicogenic headache among young population, it can be due to the strain in the neck while using Smartphone, laptops or while doing other activities like studying, playing games.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Vadivelan Kanniappan, Shalu Sam Abraham, T. S. Veeragoudhaman SCHOOL HEADS’ HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, TEACHERS’ SCHOOL ENGAGEMENT, AND TEACHING PERFORMANCE 2022-09-30T08:14:47+00:00 Rowell Olaivar Leonarda Loayon <p>The main thrust of the study was to evaluate the school heads’ human resource management (HRM) practices in relation to teachers’ school engagement and teaching performance. The study employed a descriptive survey method. It was conducted among the 55 private elementary schools in the Division of Bohol using modified questionnaire checklists from Khan N. (2015), Klassen et al. (2012), and the Education Manpower Bureau (2003). The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient determined the relationship between variables, while the p-value tested the significance level. With the sudden shift in the educational landscape, school heads’ HRM practices, teachers’ school engagement, and teaching performance among private schools have not shown an interdependent relationship since their p-values 0.846, 0.103, and 0.178, respectively, are greater than the 0.05 level of significance. Teachers have independently performed their duties and responsibilities in the new normal setup regardless of the intervention of their school heads. School heads’ human resource management practices have not been associated with teachers’ school engagement and teaching performance. Hence, the researcher recommends that the Board of Directors (BODs), owners, and school heads of private elementary schools should maintain the high practice of the human resource management policies and procedures with more emphasis on the compensation and reward management and conduct of professional developmental activities for teachers regarding modular distance learning delivery modality. Moreover, teachers should maintain school engagement, focusing more on the issues they met in implementing modular distance learning, like student cheating. They should design an anti-cheating scheme regarding the answering of learning modules. Also, teachers should safeguard their mental health as they carry out their roles and responsibilities as curriculum implementers in the new normal. In terms of teaching performance, teachers should stress more on providing support to their students to ensure quality learning despite the absence of face-to-face interaction between them and their students.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rowell Olaivar, Dr. Leonarda D. Loayon THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL WATER POLICIES WITH FOCUS ON THE DRAINAGE WATER REUSE PRACTICES AND THE MEGA WATER PROJECTS 2022-09-30T08:14:50+00:00 Wael M. Khairy <p>The overgrowing water scarcity in Egypt should be the motive to develop alternative water resources. The article focuses on a technical review of the state-of-the-art water policies for the reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation worldwide and in Egypt, due to the increasing pace of implementing mega water projects. Satisfying future water demands in Egypt depends on better utilization and efficient use of the available water resources. Optimal water management, particularly the nonconventional water resources, is an essential prerequisite for the sustainable development of Egypt. The hypotheses examined are that the available quantities of agricultural drainage water in Egypt shall decrease and the quality of that drainage water shall improve. In the meantime, it is expected that soil and water salinity rates shall rise as a result of the multiple reuses of the drainage water and also due to the expansion of modern irrigation practice not only in the newly reclaimed desert lands but also in some old heavy soil lands. In addition, a technical review of the impacts of those changes above on the phenomenon of seawater intrusion in the northern parts of the Nile Delta is presented. It is concluded that the impact of the national water-saving, irrigation improvement projects, and expansion in land reclamation in the desert are inversely proportional to the resulting amount of agricultural drainage water in Egypt. That reduction is interpreted as about 20%, which needs further extensive applied research to verify. That amount might be compensated with the safe reuse of treated wastewater, with the due health safeguards. Accordingly, as stated in the NWRP2037, caution should be taken while projecting the future available agricultural drainage water for reuse in each geographic zone in Egypt.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Wael M. Khairy NATURAL REGENERATION CAPACITY OF VITELLARIA PARADOXA (SHEA TREE) ON THE HILLS OF BASSAR (NORTH-TOGO) 2022-09-30T08:14:45+00:00 Wagbe Tchapo Dermane Minkilabe Djangbedja Hodabalo Kamou <p>As the consequence of anthropic pressure along with climatic factors, the vegetation of the hills of Bassar is degrading day after day and a regression of many woody species is observed. Vitellaria paradoxa is a highly valued multi-use species, but it is threatened with extinction in the area. The "bell" and "L" shapes of the diameter class distribution histograms reflect aging and/or disturbed populations. Stand disturbance is illustrated by the low proportion of large diameter class individuals. The "L" shape reveals an advanced state of degradation characterized by a near absence of large diameter trees. The study of the natural regeneration of Vitellaria paradoxa on the hills of Bassar shows that the density of regeneration by seedlings, shoots and suckers depend on the diameter of the individual stem. The larger the diameter increases, the higher the density of seedlings becomes. However, plantlets stemming from seedlings are higher, and weaker from suckers and shoots. The density of Vitellaria paradoxa seedlings is lower in shrub savannahs than in tree savannahs. The analysis of variance showed that whether under the crown or outside the crown, there was a significant difference between individuals from regeneration in all the formations studied. In the inventory plots, the densities of young trees are equally variable under the crown and outside the crown as those of large trees.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dermane Wagbe Tchapo, Djangbedja Minkilabe, Kamou Hodabalo THE ROLE OF INDONESIAN DIPLOMACY IN MANAGING GLOBAL MENTAL HEALTH CASES 2022-09-30T08:14:40+00:00 Brilliant Windy Khairunnisa <p>The cases related to mental health become one of the most essential things in international discussions due to the existence of victims in these cases can interfere with the effectiveness of the world's human resources, especially in Indonesia itself. Furthermore, the attention to mental health issues is driven by the existence of the UN's grand plan through the SDGs which includes the concern for mental health. In this case, Indonesian diplomacy has a fairly large role in handling it in light of the fact that a large number of mental health disorders cases occur in Indonesia as well. It will be supported by the existence of national interests and foreign policies issued regarding the concern of mental health issues. This research is based on policy research that aims to determine the role of Indonesia's diplomacy in dealing with global mental health issues, which will be supported by policy recommendations. The research method uses exploratory qualitative with primary data derived from interviews and observation while secondary data derived from literature studies as the source. The results of the study indicate that cases of mental health disorders can interfere with the performance of international relations therefore it requires more practice in the diplomacy world. Indonesia's diplomacy is expected to strengthen communication in international forums in discussing mental health issues especially in its G20 Presidency, as well as provide positive facilities for Indonesian citizens through education including open literacy regarding the importance of mental health.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Brilliant Windy Khairunnisa AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON INVESTORS’ PREFERENCE FOR MUTUAL FUND INVESTMENT 2022-09-30T08:14:34+00:00 Rajdeep Nag Dr. Sudip Chakraborty Dr. Nikhil Bhusan Dey <p>Savings and investment are important facets of a person’s life. These are the steps towards financial independence and well-being. When it comes to investment there are plethora of risky high return options as well as safe but low return options. Investment in high return options is considered necessary to create wealth and beat the negative impact of inflation. This calls for investment in risky capital market. In this context mutual funds have become one of the viable options for investors. This research article is an attempt to study the preference for mutual fund investment by the retail investors of Guwahati city of Assam. The study revealed that mutual funds has become one of the popular investment options among investors in Guwahati.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rajdeep Nag, Dr. Sudip Chakraborty, Dr. Nikhil Bhusan Dey VALIDATING A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ORIENTATION CONSTRUCT IN THE PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES CONTEXT IN JORDAN: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY 2022-09-30T08:14:32+00:00 Fakhri A. I. Bani Doumi <p>This study is an attempt to validate one of the knowledge managements constructs that is called knowledge management orientation (KMO), which was proposed and validated already by Wang and Ahmed (2004). The reason for this revalidation of the f KMO construct is to work in a different context where it will be applied to measure knowledge management performance in the private universities in Jordan. To achieve this, a random sample of 296 managerial position employees was selected from different private universities in Jordan, where confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test for model fit. The results revealed a modified model with only 19 items rather than the initial 30 items, where all the five factors remain the same. As for reliability and validity, the analysis shows the quality of measurement by conducting Internal and composite Reliability and Convergent and Discriminant validity.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Fakhri A. I. Bani Doumi THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF DROUGHT AND THE MARGINALISATION OF THE POOR 2022-09-30T08:14:53+00:00 C. Srinivasa Rao <p>The general theme of this paper is that drought, though an agro-climatic phenomenon, has phenomenon has far reaching socio-economic consequences. The adverse impact of drought on the poorer sections is devastating, while the richer classes may actually benefit from it. There actually may emerge a emerge, a new middle class consisting of the middle peasantry, rich families and traders in the countryside and a section engaged in urban based trading, industrial and services sector.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 C. Srinivasa Rao AN AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE OF DYSMENORRHOEA WSR TO KASHTARTAV 2022-09-30T08:14:29+00:00 Bhagwan Karale Vishnu Bawane <p>Due to sedentary lifestyle, improper diet and lack of exercise women facing many health problems. Dysmenorrhoea is one of the biggest health issues. In simple words dysmenorrhoea can define as a painful menstruati(Fawells cramp, labour like pain in lower abdomen. In Ayurvedic samhita, there is description of kashtartav. We can correlate that with Dysmenorrhoea.<br />In this review study, we described Dysmenorrhoea with special references to <em>kashtartav</em>. We collect all references from all available texts, samhitas, internet links and previous thesis and Research papers.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Bhagwan Karale, Vishnu Bawane EFFECTS OF IMPROVING SANITATION THROUGH COMMUNITY LED SANITATION APPROACH IN PREVENTING DISEASES IN RURAL COMMUNITIES 2022-09-30T08:14:37+00:00 James Mwashembe Malusha <p>In recent years there has been heightened adoption of CLTS approach to improve community sanitation in order to prevent or reduce diseases. This review article examines the effects of uplifting sanitation by way of community led sanitation (CLTS) methodology in addressing prevention and reduction of sanitation and hygiene related diseases in rural communities, especially in developing countries. Systematic review was performed by searching existing literature. Several articles were retrieved for this purpose. Most articles reviewed reported aspects of prevention and reduction of sanitation related diseases by improving sanitation through implementation of CLTS implying that it’s an effective approach. Further research is needed to compare effects of improving sanitation using other approaches or technologies in preventing or reducing diseases associated with low or poor sanitation. This will contribute to identifying cost-effective approaches for delivery of essential package of sanitation for promoting health and preventing diseases.</p> 2022-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 James Mwashembe Malusha