International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2394-3629 <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING EARLY SIGNS OF ORAL CANCER AMONG ADULTS IN SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITY, WEST BENGAL <p>Oral cancer is one of the public health problem in today’s world. It is one among the ten commonest cancers within the world. Recognition of early signs helps in early diagnosis of oral cancer and quick, successful, and less aggressive treatment or management. If the cancer is detected at an initial stage, then the 85% people can survive for 5-year.<br /><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to assess the knowledge regarding early signs of oral cancer among adults in selected rural and urban community, West Bengal.<br />Methods: A descriptive survey research was carried out with total 200 male adults aged 18 to 50 years, of selected rural and urban community, West Bengal. Data were collected through non probability purposive sampling technique. Validated structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were collected on adults’ demographic characteristics and knowledge regarding early signs of oral cancer.<br /><strong>Result:</strong> The result revealed that in rural community most of the adults (50%) had average knowledge and in urban community most of the adults (37%) had good knowledge. There is significant difference between the knowledge scores among adults of rural and urban community (p&lt;0.001). Adults of urban community are more knowledgeable than adults of rural community. Chi- square test revealed that there was a significant association of knowledge with age, educational status (p&lt;0.001) and habit and addiction (p&lt;0.01) of rural adults and monthly family income, habit and addiction and information received by the adults of urban community are significantly associated with their knowledge (p&lt;0.001).<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is the need to increase awareness in the community through educational programmes on early signs of oral cancer which will be helpful in early detection and diagnosis of same, as well as take timely precautionary measures to prevent oral cancer and thereby reducing the morbidity, mortality, and global burden of oral cancer.</p> Tanuja Pain Manika Mazumder Chandrima Maity Copyright (c) 2023 Tanuja Pain, Manika Mazumder, Chandrima Maity 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 11 8 1–14 1–14 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5269 ASSESSMENT OF ESTHETIC SMILE COMPONENTS BY DENTAL STUDENTS <p><strong>Background:</strong> The present information indicates that most students utilized the technology-based system well, but they missed some practical activities. Assessment of students’ satisfaction with the e-learning activities and asking for feedback can help institutions to improve the know-how about e-learning practices. Hopefully, the sudden pandemic-related shift through modes of education will not be considered an unfavorable impact on education but an evolving experience to pave a comprehensive way to technology-based educational activities.<br /><strong>Material and methods:</strong> The study was performed on 580 dental students. Among the eight components of the balanced smile, six factors (the smile arc, smile line, dark buccal corridors, gingival margin and incisal edge asymmetries, tooth axis, and dental midline inclinations) apart from those related to dental and gingival ones, were examined on photographs. Manipulations were made on the photo of a female patient with the ideal smile.<br />Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the preclinical and clinical groups and, in binary comparisons, between curricular years at pre-clinical and clinical levels (P &lt; 0.05).<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our findings confirm the reports from previous investigations considering the impact of dental education on dental students’ perception of dentofacial esthetics.</p> Zeynep Basagaoglu Demirekin Muhammed Hilmi Buyukcavus Copyright (c) 2023 Zeynep Basagaoglu Demirekin, Muhammed Hilmi Buyukcavus 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 11 8 15–27 15–27 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5265 PSO BASED HARMOIC MITIGATION IN SINGLE PHASE SINE WAVE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER <p>This paper explains the pruning of power harmonics in a single-phase voltage source inverter using PI controller by calculating the optimized values of PI constants by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm. The mapping state space model of the sine wave inverter was formulated by considering the operating sequence of full bridge sine wave inverter. The controller acts effectively thereby reducing the voltage and current THDs in an inverter. The PSO technique is implemented which estimates the optimized parameters of constant for PI controller thereby tuning the controller for reducing the total harmonics of a full bridge inverter. The MATLAB / SIMULINK tool and experimental verifications are done for harmonic reduction, and it is found that its harmonics were reduced well than IEEE standards with improved transient response.</p> Spencer Prathap Singh N.M Ajitha T Copyright (c) 2023 Spencer Prathap Singh N.M, T. Ajitha 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 11 8 28–38 28–38 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5229 FACTORS AFFECTING CLOTHING PURCHACE <p>This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting consumers' choice during clothing purchace. Questionnaire method was used as the data collection technique in the research and data were obtained from 826 people living in Izmir province. The questionnaire consists of 8 sections. These are demographic information (age and gender), shopping frequency, the meaning of the brand, reasons for purchasing clothes, factors affecting clothing preference, the importance of the brand according to the product type, preferred places for shopping and finally the impressions created by the brand were tried to be determined. Evaluations and comments were made in the light of the data obtained.</p> Alime Aslı İlleez Önder Yücel Copyright (c) 2023 Alime Aslı İlleez, Önder Yücel 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 11 8 39–48 39–48 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5277 MOVING TOWARDS DIGITALIZATION: UNVEILING CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF E-MARKETING IN LEAST DEVELOPED ECONOMIES – THE CASE OF YEMEN <p>This study aims to shed light on the challenges and potential opportunities for e-marketing in developing economies with particular reference to Yemen. Secondary data from relevant reports, research papers, books, and other Internet resources is used in the study. The current study indicated that e-marketing in Yemen confronts several challenges, including poor communication infrastructure, lack of e-marketing knowledge, limited Internet and social media users, an unstable power supply, lack of trust, and lack of government incentives. However, there are prospects for e-marketing to thrive in Yemen, such as the growing youthful population, the rise in mobile phone users, and the introduction of 4G technology. The study suggests investing in infrastructure, increasing digital literacy, resolving security concerns, and active collaboration among businesses, government entities, and other stakeholders. Implementing these suggestions can improve e-marketing effectiveness and contribute to the country's economic growth.</p> Salah Naji Taher Sanad Nawar A. S. AL-Shameri Shaima Saleh Mohammed Al-Radai Copyright (c) 2023 Salah Naji Taher Sanad, Nawar A. S. AL-Shameri, Shaima Saleh Mohammed Al-Radai 2023-09-06 2023-09-06 11 8 49–61 49–61 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5273 सिद्धं सिद्धैः प्रमाणैस्तु WSR TO SARVA ROGA PRASHAMANI <p>Treating diseases is the important goal of Ayurveda. As a nature based medicine; Ayurveda clinical practice mostly depends upon herbal or herbo-mineral preparations. Mineral or metals are Achetana and hence need an intermediate process before it applied in human system. Some traditional healers introduce the technique of Sendriya Karitwa. Triturating some herbal extraction, adding medicinal plant part herbomineral formulation become easy acceptable to body. One of the such famous herbomineral is Arogya Vardhini. With its reference to Rasaratna Sammuchaya, a review work was undertaken to propagate good effect of this formulation.</p> Bishnupriya Mohanty Vaishnavi Anand Govekar Sangram Keshari Das Sarang S. Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Bishnupriya Mohanty, Vaishnavi Anand Govekar, Dr Sangram Keshari Das 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 11 8 62–66 62–66 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5231 MANAGEMENT OF CONGENITAL BILATERAL ABDUCTOR VOCAL CORD PALSY FOR TRACHEOSTOMY IN A NEONATE <p>Bilateral abductor vocal cord palsy is very rare, and is still the second most common cause of congenital stridor in neonates. It can also cause breathing difficulty and cyanosis in neonates during increased crying spells, and hence eventually might require invasive airway management. This is a case report of a 7-day old neonate posted for tracheostomy under general anaesthesia.</p> Valsa Abraham Narjeet Kaur Osahan Ria Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Valsa Abraham, Dr. Narjeet Kaur Osahan, Dr. Ria 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 11 8 67–70 67–70 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5299 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THREE B.ED. CURRICULA: EMPHASIZING ON THE TEACHER EDUCATION IN POST-INDEPENDENCE ERA <p>Introduction: Teacher education or teacher training denotes the formal programs, actions, guidelines, and requirements, planned to prepare teachers by inculcating information, beliefs, manners, methodologies, and abilities in a way that is needed by them for performing their responsibilities proficiently in the classroom, institution and in a larger area.<br />Objectives: To understand and find out the differences between the three B.Ed. curricula.<br />Methodology: The study is based on Documentary Analysis. For data collection, the syllabus of B.Ed. 1-year, 2-year &amp; 4-year Integrated B. A. B. Ed. and B.Sc. B. Ed. Courses have been followed here. Besides journals, articles, educational policies, and recommendations of various commissions regarding the preparation of teachers are reviewed.<br />Findings: In the 4-Year Integrated B. A. B. Ed. and B. Sc. B. Ed. programme student-teachers have to prepare two school subjects, the duration of the school internship will be of 20 weeks, 120 Lesson plans need to be prepared, Final teaching will be assessed only by internal evaluators, too much importance is given to the subject of Education, which can hamper mastery of other subjects.<br />Conclusion: The model will certainly provide the necessary professional touch to the skills of teachers in the upcoming time and will benefit the students by providing them with the opportunity to acquire a dual degree and mastery of multiple skills if the policy is implemented properly.</p> Rini Mandal Jayanta Mete Copyright (c) 2023 Rini Mandal, Jayanta Mete 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 11 8 71–90 71–90 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5271 DUSHI VISHARTA ATIPIDITA BHAVANTI WSR TO MENSTRUAL HEALTH <p>Food is something that is indispensable and poisoning related to food is something that is hard to control. In this Era of fast-moving world What we all lack is to take the correct decision to the choice of food and the lifestyle that we opt. Poisoning is a major health concern that is becoming more common day by day. PCOS and infertility are one among the headlines that one gets to hear in his Era. Poisoning can be linked nowadays in a variety of areas, including junk food with chemical preservatives, various sorts of necessary products like wheat and rice, and pesticide- layered veggies. Women having various delicacies being served in the platter at a restaurant with non-veg particularly white meat can contribute to various kinds of hormonal and reproductive disorders. The chicken specifically that we eat Can have various injected hormones to gain the weight and for it to look most attractive to u but what now seems to be attractive may later gift u a disastrous future. Poultry is one such thing whose demand has increased more than ever. And with increased demand comes greediness of the poultry persons to adulterate and add to the bulk to the chicken by making them bulky as ever. With women consuming these delicacies, over the years have also caused an increase in the cases of PCOS and other reproductive diseases In Ayurvedic texts Acharya Vagbhata and Shushruta define Dushi Visha as any kind of poison that originates from inanimate (Sthavara) or animate (Jangama) sources or any artificial poison (Kritrima Visha) retained in the body after partial expulsion or detoxification, by the Visha Hara drugs, forest fire, the wind or the sun is termed as (Dushi Visha) there are several sources of obtaining of toxins. Such toxins are accumulated without eliminating through the body or remains with being the less potent inside the body for several years. All the signs and symptoms of Dushi Visha don't stand out. They appear so common that they are easily neglected by even the most intelligent doctors. Such accumulated Visha then vitiates Dosha and that leads to vitiation of different kinds of Dhatus. Here an attempt is made to understand the relation between the various hormones in poultry feed that can be correlated to Dushi Visha and its hazardous effect on female reproductive health.</p> Bishnupriya Mohanty Christina Racheal Noronha Sangram Keshari Das Avani Audumber Shinde Copyright (c) 2023 Bishnupriya Mohanty, Christina Racheal Noronha, Dr Sangram Keshari Das, Avani Audumber Shinde 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 11 8 91–95 91–95 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5235 MODIFIED INVERSE GENERALIZED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: MODEL AND PROPERTIES <p>A three parameter continuous probability distribution Modified Inverse Generalized Exponential Distribution: Model and Properties, is introduced in this article. To study the properties of the introduced model, probability distribution, density, survival and hazard rate functions are introduced. A data of real life is used for checking the application. Some important methods of estimation are used for estimation of the constants. Model validation is checked using Akakie’s information, Bayesian Information, Corrected Akaike’s information and Hannan Qiunan Information Criteria as well as by plotting the P-P and Q-Q plots. For testing the goodness of fit Kolmogrov Smirnov test, Anderson darling test and Cramer-von Mises test are used. All the data analysis is performed using R-language programming.</p> Lal Babu Sah Telee Vijay Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Lal Babu Sah Telee, Vijay Kumar 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 11 8 96–111 96–111 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5288 ORIGIN OF LIFE TRANSCENDS BIOLOGY <p>Just as exploration for ‘Life’ elsewhere in the Universe, Earth is considered as the bench mark and in the same vein unravelling the ‘Origin of Life, origin and evolution of human being’, endowed with intellect, cognition and consciousness, serves as the bench mark wherein Biology transcends all computations. The subject of ‘Jyotish’ (Vedic Astrology), one of the six Vedāngas belonging to the four Vedas of Hinduism of times immemorial which is perfect theism and all of science par excellence (nontheistic), affords a plausible clue, to the most tenacious problem wherein the most likely connection between biological and extra-terrestrial occurrences is solar disturbances and their particle emissions.</p> Y. V. Subba Rao Y. V. Ramana Rao Copyright (c) 2023 Y. V. Subba Rao, Y. V. Ramana Rao 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 11 8 112–122 112–122 10.29121/granthaalayah.v11.i8.2023.5303