International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2394-3629 <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> PROMOTING BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION WITH SUPRA-REGIONAL CONNECTIONS. CASE STUDY OF A MEDITERRANEAN REGION, TUNISIA <p>Ecological network aims to ensure the survival of animal and plant species. It is considered a new public policy to avoid the loss of biodiversity by persevering the landscape connectivity and natural habitats from fragmentation. This research proposes a methodology that is based on identifying the sub-frames representatives of the study area and their selected species. Thus, the methodology developed comprises five steps. In the first step, the land use map was analyzed. Then, the major types of habitat were extracted. In the third step, a forest habitats sub-frame, a semi-open habitats sub-frame, and a wetlands sub-frame were determined. Then, the selected species were characterized. Finally, supra-regional connections were proposed to enhance biodiversity conservation in this region. As a result, crucial ecological corridors can be optimized along with the proposed supra-regional connections to the neighboring cities, and contributing to promote sustainable projects. Thus, the methodological approach developed can be a reference to other local or regional studies. It can be integrated into planning documents that should be a part of a decision-making perspective in public policies for sustainable landscapes, preserving biodiversity, and enhancing well-being.</p> Safa Bel Fekih Boussema Marianne Cohen Faiza Khebour Allouche Copyright (c) 2022 Safa Bel Fekih Boussema, Marianne Cohen, Faiza Khebour Allouche 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 10 8 1 10 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4723 MODERN METHODS OF MILK ANALYSIS <p>Milk is a product of the mammary gland obtained by proper and regular milking of healthy, properly fed cows, sheep, goats, without adding or taking anything away.<br />This paper describes modern methods used for milk analysis and their working principle. 30 samples of raw milk were collectedas follows: 10 samples of cow, 10 samples of goat and 10 samples of sheep raw milk.<br />The obtained results of raw milk quality parameters were processed, analyzed and compared with the maximum permissible concentrations prescribed by the Ordinance on raw milk.The work was written by the method of prospective study (experimental research). Milk testing was conducted during the period from 1 March 2020 to May 1, 2020.Samples were collected from primary producers of raw milk from the territory of Canton 10 in the manner prescribed by the Regulation on the method of sampling milk. They were transported and analysed in the Laboratory for Quality and Microbiology of Raw Milk - Department of Food and Veterinary Medicine of Canton 10.During this period, tests of raw milk were performed on the MilkoScan 7 device , a milk analyzer that works on the principle of close infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform.</p> Ana Planinić Stipe Čelan Orjana Semren Zora Pilić Copyright (c) 2022 Ana Planinić, Stipe Čelan, Orjana Semren, Zora Pilić 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 10 8 11 19 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4724 INTRODUCING METHODOLOGY TO DETECT DEAD TISSUE STORED ENERGY <p>The presence of Catalase essential for dead or alive biological tissue energy emission.<br />In a seminal paper describing the origin of magnetic fields in the human body Cohen D. by using sophisticated equipment stated: “Most of the field over the head is produced by electrical sources associated with the hair follicles of the scalp; this field is produced only as a response to touching or pressing the scalp…”. Recently, a tabletop optical microscopy (TTM) method was developed in 2015 and published a year later by Scherlag et al. also enabling detection of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in plant and animal tissue. That novel microscopy method was achieved in the absence of mechanical instrumentation (as used by Cohen) due to a most interesting property of Potassium Ferricyanide of formula K₃ [Fe (CN)₆ allowing for the total absorption of incoming EMFs. For simplicity, in this manuscript K₃ [Fe (CN)₆ will be replaced by the acronym K3Fe. This manuscript applies TTM methodology able to detect and display EMFs energy emitted from three lizards’ tails; one estimated dead for four weeks, the second and third harvested while alive and used as control. This communication supports a long-standing definition of dead matter “matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment”. Experiments herein presented support adding the presence of stored remnant energy to the definition. This energy could now be easily displayed even in the absence of life.</p> Abraham A. Embi Copyright (c) 2022 Abraham A. Embi 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 10 8 20 29 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4733 HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AEROPLANES IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT IN PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD <p>Winning the blue sky became possible with the invention of the motor operated aero plane by Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright—the Wright Brothers in 1903. Shortly after their invention, aeronautic companies established in America and Europe started manufacturing aero planes. The year 1911 marked the beginning of the Civil Aviation in India when the Humber-Sommer biplane manufactured in England by Humber took 10-kilometre (approx.) flight in 15 minutes carrying about 6,500 mails. Since then, a continuous technological advancement in aero plane manufacturing had been noticed that not only contributed significantly to the military aviation during the two World Wars but also flourished the Civil Aviation sector for fastest communication worldwide. Prior to the Independence of India, a good number of aero plane models manufactured by different companies occupied the Aviation Sector. It is a matter of proud that India was among the privileged countries where aviation started within a decade of its invention. More than a century old Indian Civil Aviation at present is one of the fastest developing aviation markets in the world according to the International Air Transport Association (IATA). In this present paper an attempt has been taken to document the various aero planes flew in the sky of the Indian Subcontinent to understand the history of the Indian Civil Aviation in the pre-Independence period in the light of its demand and popularity that led India in achieving scientific temperament and technological advancement.</p> Moitreya Ray Copyright (c) 2022 Moitreya Ray 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 10 8 30 44 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4727 NURSE’S PRACTICE REGARDING USE OF INFECTION CONTROL SAFETY MEASURES IN HEMODIALYSIS UNITS- AT KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN <p>Background: Nurses play an important role at the dialysis units, they are the key health caregivers responsible for applying the foremost skills and principles of infection control steps throughout the process of hemodialysis. This may reflect their attitude and knowledge of infection control principles. Aim: This study aims at Assess Nurse’s Practice Regarding Use of Infection Control Safety Measures Blood Born Diseases in Hemodialysis Units.<br />Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional hospital-based study, conducted at Khartoum main haemodialys). Itentres- Khartoum State, Sudan. Six main governmental hospitals were selected, plus the hospitals that provide haemodialysis. Seventy nurses providing haemodialysis nursing were enrolled in this study, data was collected using self-administered questionnaire with an observational check list for data collection, data analysis was carried out using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), and the results were presented in descriptive and numerical forms as well as cross tables.<br />Result: This study, revealed that the level of practice and using of the standards of infection control percussions; 65 (92.9%) of participants used gloves among isolated and re-used it among non-isolated patients, around half of the participants 36 (51.4%) did not use hand washing, following patient or patient’s tools touching, where may have led to spread of blood borne diseases. There was no significant relationship between the practices and the study group, regarding the of level experience P-value &lt; 0.445. The level of practices was satisfied. So, the level of practice regarding the hazards of contamination is recommended to establish in- service regular staff training to encourage infection control management, standardize practices check list.</p> Aldawaha Mohammed Aldawaha Higazi Mohammed Ahmed Hanadi Mohammed Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2022 Aldawaha Mohammed Aldawaha, Higazi Mohammed Ahmed, Hanadi Mohammed Mukhtar 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 10 8 45 50 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4564 AWARENESS AND USE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCE BY VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS AT DELHI UNIVERSITY <p>For the purpose of determining if visually impaired students at Delhi University are aware of and making use of online resources, researchers utilized a survey approach that relied on structured interviews to examine 300 students who were blind or partially sighted. Using 'SPSS version 23', the data was evaluated and compiled. More than 90% of visually impaired pupils (90%) are aware of and utilize e-books and e-newspapers, according to the study's findings (83.33 percent). Furthermore, the results of this study are expected to help professionals in libraries and institutions serving the visually impaired to develop effective electronic services to facilitate access to knowledge in a digital environment. trends among others. Institutions. This study's goal is to learn more about the educational institutions' efforts to accommodate blind students and the challenges they face. Students from the University of Delhi who were blind for the duration of the research participated in this investigation. Researchers used a questionnaire they developed after conducting extensive literature reviews on the subject of the present study to interview several pupils with visual disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the different services given by their individual universities, assistive technology available in their libraries, and the difficulties experienced by visually impaired students in accessing information via the available resources. Students with visual impairments have access to Braille books, large-screen computers with assistive technology, recorded audiobooks on CDs or cassettes, and other necessary infrastructure, according to the findings of this research. Additionally, libraries provide their patrons a variety of services, including access to tutors and writers to aid in the completion of assignments and exams. A lack of suitable assistance equipment and assistants, a lack of internet connection, and a lack of adequate assistive technology are among the challenges students confront while using the library for their research.</p> Reetika Rani Javed Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Reetika Rani, Dr. Javed Khan 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 10 8 51 56 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4745 STABILITY ANALYSIS OF ROCK BLOCKS WITH ENTIRE SPHERE STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION BASED ON THE BLOCK THEORY: A CASE STUDY FOR A TUNNEL ENTRANCE PROJECT <p>This paper presents a static equilibrium kinematic analysis of rock performed in the tunnel entrance project using entire sphere stereographic projection under block theory. The objective of this study is to improve the predictive analysis of rock masses in terms of stability in rock masses area. Different key blocks with failure modes are determined. The conventional upper hemisphere stereographic projection is also employed for comparative analysis. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the planar failure is not probable in the case of the kinematic and block theory method in the tunnel entrance area. However, the wedge failure is more probable in both cases of analysis and the number of possible slide blocks in the case of kinematic analysis was found to be less than in the case of block theory; In these conditions, the support system should be provided for the reasons of safety. The comparative analysis shows that the results of block theory analysis are close to reality and provide more precision on the stable and unstable block than the results of kinematic analysis; Moreover, the block theory method using the entire sphere stereographic projection provides more precision on the sliding angle than the use of one sphere stereographic projection. Based on this study, the tunnel entrance is more stable for the dip slope face equal to 45 and not probable for slope face 60˚ and 85˚; but these results were limited in the case of stability analysis under gravitational loading.</p> Djohn Josia Weaver Mboussa Shulin Sun Paul Nkombe Joseph Yan Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Djohn Josia Weaver Mboussa, Shulin Sun, Paul Nkombe Joseph, Yan Zhang 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 10 8 57 72 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4735 INVESTIGATION OF THE LASER POWER ATTENUATION IN OPTICAL FIBER <p>Attenuation characteristics of the power of the laser beam in the optical fiber of different lengths were investigated. Two continuous wave (CW) diode lasers of two different wavelengths, 532 nm, and 671 nm, in the visible spectral region, were used for the injection of the laser beam into the optical fiber. The output powers of both lasers can be varied over the range 0 - 50 mW. The attenuation coefficient (α) of the optical fiber was determined for the chosen wavelengths, 532 nm, and 671 nm. The attenuation coefficient (α) was measured as a function of the laser input power (Pin) and the optical fiber length. The obtained results show that the power attenuation of the laser beam is wavelength dependent. The power attenuation is significantly affected by changing the wavelength of the injected laser beam. It is observed that the increase in the laser input power (Pin) leads to an appreciable decrease in the attenuation of the laser power in the optical fiber.</p> Imad Al - Deen Hussein Ali Al - Saidi Copyright (c) 2022 Imad Al-Deen Hussein Ali Al-Saidi 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 10 8 73 80 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4739 THE IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MARKETING ON FIRM PERFORMANCE: MEDIATING EFFECT OF NETWORK DIVERSITY AND LEARNING CAPACITY; MODERATING EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE INTENSITY <p>This study investigates the role of entrepreneurial marketing as a predictor of firm performance. The research integrates variables of the dynamic interaction: mediating role of diversity of network and learning capability, moderating role of competitive intensity on the relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and performance of the firm.<br />The study is explanatory in nature. To ensure the accuracy of quantitative results based on the experience of study participants, we employed a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative data collection. Data was collected in two stages: 1) field survey, 2) interviews of SMEs owners in Oman. The sample was purposively drawn from SMEs managers perceived to be knowledgeable about the tourism industry.<br />No significant relationship was found between entrepreneurial marketing and firm performance. In addition, it was found that network selection mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and firm performance; however, learning capability does not.<br />This study adds to the literature of the Omani market context on a strategic issue and provides managers with useful insights. Mixed methods provide a methodological contribution to understanding the dynamic relationship between variables presented in the entrepreneurship literature.</p> Zaheer Ahmed Khan Uvesh Husain Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Zaheer Ahmed Khan, Uvesh Husain 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 10 8 81 98 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4741 SOMBOR INDEX OF LINE AND TOTAL GRAPHS AND PERICONDENSED BENZENOID HYDROCARBONS <p>Gutman proposed a new alternative interpretation of vertex-degree-based topological index, called Sombor index. It is defined via the term . In this paper, we determine the explicit expressions of Sombor index for line and total graphs and several pericondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons.</p> Yue Li Qingcuo Ren Jinxia Liang Chengxu Yang Qinghe Tong Copyright (c) 2022 Yue Li, Qingcuo Ren, Jinxia Liang, Chengxu Yang, Qinghe Tong 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 10 8 99 111 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4730 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND PLANT DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF ANBESSA FOREST IN WESEREN ETHIOPIA AND ITS CONRTIBUTION TO BIODIVESRITY CONSERVATION <p>The study was conducted at Anbessa forest in Western Ethiopia with the objectives to make an assessment of plant diversity and plant community. A systematic sampling technique was used and a total of 30 sample plots each with 20 x 20 m were laid along the altitudinal gradient. A total of 118 plant species were identified which belong to 93 genera in 46 families. Out of which 14.41 % were Fabaceae (17 species), followed by Asteraceae 11.86 % (14 species), Poaceae 8.47 % (10 species) and Lamiaceae 5.93 % (seven species). Out of the 118 identified plant species, 33.05 % were trees, 11.86 % shrubs, 11.86 % climbers and the rest 43.22 % were herbs. The present study reported nine endemic plant species are present in Anbessa forest. Moreover, 29 plant species were recorded as new records for Wellega floristic region from Anbessa forest. Four plant communities were identified. In Anbessa forest Combretum collinum - Dombeya quinqueseta -Securidaca longepedunculata community was the most diverse community, whereas Oxytenanthera abyssinica - Combretum molle - Syzygium guineense subsp. macrocarpum community was the lease diverse with H′ 0.16. The result showed that, Anbessa forest can play a significant role in biodiversity conservation.</p> Tamene Yohannes Gudaye Sebsebe Demissew Mekuria Argaw Sutuma Edessa Copyright (c) 2022 Tamene Yohannes, Sebsebe Demissew, Mekuria Argaw , Sutuma Edessa 2022-09-15 2022-09-15 10 8 112 130 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4746 CHANGING CUSTOMER INTENTIONS AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR FOR SECOND-HAND GOODS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES – A WAY FORWARD TO SUSTAINABILITY POST-PANDEMIC <p>Purpose: With the recent development in technology, the market of second-hand goods has widened to online platforms, which has provided consumers with more choices. This research paper examines the various factors that influence the buying decision of consumers for second-hand goods and how a shift from offline to online platforms has added to more sustainable growth in this sector. The study has analyzed how brand, price, risk, etc. influence the customer's buying behavior for second-hand goods.<br />Methodology/approach: For this purpose, a Conjoint Analysis statistical technique is used to prepare the questionnaire for the survey to determine how consumers value different attributes (features, benefits, functions) to an individual product or service. The objective behind using conjoint analysis is to understand what combinations of a limited number of attributes, influence the most to customers.<br />Findings: For the purpose of research survey was conducted on 100 people to understand their changing behavior towards second-hand goods and factors they keep in mind while purchasing the same. The study has found that around 78% of consumers prefer to buy branded second-hand products and between price and quality, they are more favorable towards cost-benefit. The study also revealed that consumers are shifting from offline to online markets as it helps them in cost-cutting and saving time. With increased preference for secondhand goods, long-term environmental sustainability can also be ensured to reduce wastage.<br />Practical implications: This study can help the second-hand goods industry like e-bay, 2-good and other online platforms in formulating different strategies to maximize the sales of second-hand goods and in decision making while making various strategies. As this study is focused on understanding consumer intention, this will help the management in building a sound consumer base.<br />Originality/Value: Though various research has been done related to the second-hand goods market, understanding the consumer’s willingness to pay and the perceived quality of the product has not been studied intensively. Also, sustainability and second-hand goods have not been researched thoroughly.</p> Sandhya Ragaur Copyright (c) 2022 Sandhya Ragaur 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 10 8 131 138 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4759 THE ALIGNMENT OF THE OMANI EFL READING CURRICULUM WITH THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH: LEARNER'S AND TEACHER'S ROLE ANALYSIS <p>This paper aims to investigate the alignment of the Omani English language curriculum with the communicative approach as indicated by the instructional approaches reflected in the Omani EFL reading curriculum for the second language (L2) reading. The alignment is examined by determining the types of Learner roles reflected in the Omani EFL Grade Twelfth reading curriculum and the types of teacher roles reflected in the Omani EFL Grade Twelfth reading curriculum. Two main questions arise here. Which are "What types of learner roles are implemented in the Omani EFL Grade Twelfth reading curriculum?" another question is "What types of teacher roles are reflected in the Omani EFL Grade Twelfth reading curriculum?" This data was gathered by analyzing the reading task statements extracted from the Engage with English (EWE) Curriculum Specifications Document, the Engage with English textbook, and classroom observations in selected schools. Then the researcher adopted the method analysis in Richards &amp; Rodgers and Sidek's model. The most important result is that the analysis of the first question shows that most of the reading-related activities in EFL reading curriculum documents were planned as individual tasks (69.9%) more than as pair/group tasks (30.0%). Moreover, in terms of the pattern of the teacher role, the reading-related statements in the EFL teachers' book (68.6% and 76.6%, respectively) were planned to be moderate and director in nature. In comparison (34.2% and 23.4%), the reading-related statements in the EFL teachers' book were designed to be a catalyst.</p> Rashid Hamed Al Azri Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Rashid Hamed Al Azri 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 10 8 139 155 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4743 CORRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MALADJUSTMENT, SOCIAL SUPPORT AND PSYCHOSOMATIC HEALTH IN FRESHMAN AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS <p>To investigate the relationship between psychosomatic health and psychological maladjustment, social support in freshman. By random cluster sampling, 2790 freshmen garrisoned on islands (study group) and 2790 sophomore and junior college students as control group were recruited in Changzhou and administered by Chinese Psychosomatic Health Scale (CPHS), Maladjustment Self-Assessment Scale (MSAS) and Chinese Social Support Scale (CSSS). The results were analyzed with t test analysis, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis by SPSS statistic 17.0. Compared with the controls, freshmen had higher scores of psychological disorder(anxiety depression, psychoticism) and of somatic disorder(respiratory apparatus, cardiovascular system, alimentary system, skeletal and musculature, integument, regenerative and endocrine, nervous system) except the factor of eye and ear; all factors of CPHS had positive correlation with most factors of MSAS, CSSS; regression analysis showed that behavioral problem, interpersonal relationship, environmental adaptation, subjective support, support degree of use entered into the regression equation. In conclusion, the psychosomatic health in freshman among college students is generally worse than those of the controls. Behavioral problem, interpersonal relationship, environmental adaptation, subjective support, support degree of use are associative factors predictive factors.</p> Lingming Kong Xiaoli Zhu Liyi Zhang Copyright (c) 2022 Lingming Kong, Xiaoli Zhu, Liyi Zhang 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 10 8 156 163 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4760 SOCIAL MANAGEMENT MODEL OF HOLISTIC GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK FOR PREVENTION OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE <p>In a country like India, which has a child population exceeding 472 million Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner (2011), Child safety is given paramount importance. According to research done by the "MWCD," 53.2 percent of children examined were victims of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA), with 20.9 percent being violently assaulted Kacker et al. (2007). “The "Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses Act" (POCSO) went into force on November 14, 2012”. It conferred protective rights to the victims of CSA cases. The rationale behind the formulation of the Statute was to obliterate CSA, and also to create awareness about the severity of CSA. It is imperative to note here that POCSO works only as a legislative deterrence and deterrence alone cannot annihilate the problem. This paper suggests a Social Management Model of Holistic Governance Framework effectively done by reviewing sixteen different prevention strategies associated with the development of the child community as a constructive solution at large.</p> Aslammoideen Chekkara Sony Kunjappan Copyright (c) 2022 Aslammoideen Chekkara, Dr. Sony Kunjappan 2022-09-21 2022-09-21 10 8 164 173 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i8.2022.4766