International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2394-3629 <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> AGILITY IN ADVERSITY: NAVIGATING THE SHIFT TO REMOTE WORK WITH AGILE METHODOLOGIES DURING COVID-19 <p>This article examines the critical role of Agile methodologies in navigating the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which forced a sudden shift to remote work. It discusses how the inherent flexibility of Agile principles has allowed teams to maintain productivity and adapt to new work dynamics. The article will explore the Agile adaptation for remote settings, the challenges overcome, and the potential for future work models.</p> Harun Gultekin Taha Kara Ruobing Liu Xinxuan Lyu Yibo Li Zisen Qin Copyright (c) 2024 Harun Gultekin, Taha Kara, Ruobing Liu, Xinxuan Lyu , Yibo Li, Zisen Qin 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 12 1 1–13 1–13 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5450 PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC ACID AND SOLUBILIZATION OF INORGANIC PHOSPHATE BY A BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL <p>Many agricultural soils have significant phosphorus (P) reserves, much of which builds up because of frequent P fertilizer applications. However, roughly 95 to 99% of soil phosphorus is found as insoluble phosphates and is therefore unavailable for plant uptake. The current investigation characterized a bacterial strain that was obtained from contaminated soil and showed the ability to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphates. An efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacterium was isolated in polluted soil in Mumbai. The phosphate solubilization index of this isolate was assessed using tribasic calcium phosphate-supplemented Pikovskaya’s (PVK) medium. After growing under constant agitation for seven days, the medium pH decreased from 7.0 to 3.5 units. Based on the colony morphology, microscopic analysis, and MALDI-TOF sequencing, the bacterial isolate was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Phosphate solubilization was linked to a pH drop caused by bacterial growth in a medium with glucose as a carbon source. The secretion of organic acids by these phosphate-solubilizing bacteria is responsible for their ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of carbamic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetra decanoic acid, and trifluoroacetic acid in the culture supernatant. The amount of phosphate solubilized by the bacterium was determined by phosphomolybdate assay and was found to be 667.0 ug/ml which was much higher than the control bacterium S. aureus which was 131.0 ug/ml. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report mentioning the isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacterium from polluted soil in Mumbai.</p> Sinal Tuscano Nilima Gajbhiye Copyright (c) 2024 Sinal Tuscano, Nilima Gajbhiye 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 12 1 14–25 14–25 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5470 BEHAVIOR OF PHYSICAL AND DENSITY PROPERTIES OF SOFT SOIL STABILIZED WITH NICKEL SLAG <p>Soft soils have become a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering, due to their low bearing capacity and susceptibility to deformation. Chemical stabilization using nickel slag is an alternative solution and is considered more environmentally friendly. This article focuses on the utilization of nickel slag as a binder material aimed at behavior of physical and mechanical properties of soft soil stabilized with nickel slag soft soil. The nickel slag was carried out with variations of 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by weight of soil. All the test using ASTM procedure in order to gain physical and mechanical value. The results of this study showed that plasticity index decrease with the increasing of slag nickel concentration, where it is an indication of a change in soil consistency, shifting from initially soft to now medium. Futher, the optimum dry density (d-opt) value of the original soil used was 1.09 gr/cm3, while the optimum dry density (d) values at 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% nickel slag addition were 1.12 gr/cm3; 1.15 gr/cm3; 1.19 gr/cm3 and 1.22 gr/cm3, respectively. These results show that the presence of nickel slag can increase influence the physical and density properties of soft soil, which indicates that nickel slag has the potential to be used as a stabilization material in soft soil.</p> Abdul Gaus Ichsan Rauf Komang Arya Utama M. Taufiq YS Linda Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Gaus, Ichsan Rauf, Komang Arya Utama, M. Taufiq YS, Linda 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 12 1 26–33 26–33 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5485 STUDY ON SEALING PERFORMANCE OF AIRTIGHT BUCKLE UNDER COMPLEX LOADS <p>The existing studies on sealing performance of airtight buckle of production strings in oil and gas extraction mainly focus on complex loads without bending moment. In this paper, a numerical model of an airtight buckle under the complicated load with bending moment is constructed. The precision of the model is verified by comparing with theoretical value for thick-walled cylinders. The impact of simple and complex loads on the contact stress of the sealing surfaces is discussed. It should be noted that the contact stress exhibits a combined effect of multiple factors, and the internal pressure plays a dominant role. However, the influence of bending moments on the contact stress of the sealing surface can “reverse” under specific load combinations. The reason for this phenomenon is that the sensitivity of the tension side and compression side to internal pressure is different under bending moment. The obtained results can guide the design and usage for airtight buckle of the production string.</p> Hao Chen Wenwu Yang Yuhan Tao Xin Li Copyright (c) 2024 Hao Chen, Wenwu Yang, Yuhan Tao, Xin Li 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 12 1 34–48 34–48 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5487 NOVEL WAY OF DETERMINING SUM OF KTH POWERS OF NATURAL NUMBERS <p>Since ancient times, mathematicians across the world have worked on different methods to find the sum of powers of natural numbers. In this paper, we are going to present the relationship between sum of kth powers of natural numbers and sum of (k–1) th powers of natural numbers using the differential operator and associated recurrence relation. Interestingly, the Bernoulli numbers which occur frequently in mathematical analysis, play an important role in establishing this relationship.</p> V.R. Kalyan Kumar R. Sivaraman Copyright (c) 2024 V.R. Kalyan Kumar, Dr. R. Sivaraman 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 12 1 49–54 49–54 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5491 EVALUATION OF WATER POLLUTION STATUS OF TRIYUGA RIVER IN UDAYAPUR DISTRICT, NEPAL <p>The present investigation has been conducted to assess the status of physiochemical and microbiological parameters to understand the present scenario of water quality at Triyuga River water at Belaka municipality of Udayapur district, Nepal. The temperature ranged from 180C to 200C, the TDS value ranged from 89 mg/L to 112 mg/L and were below the WHO guideline value of 1200 mg/L, the pH values of the surface water sources in the present study were found to be alkaline ranging above from 7.6 to 7.9 were found within the range of WHO guideline value of 6.5-8.5. Similarly the values of dissolved oxygen ranged from 6.4 mg/L to 10.4 mg/L and were above the WHO guideline value of 5 mg/L, the bicarbonate (HCO3) value ranged from 105 mg/L to 125 mg/L and were below the WHO guideline value of 125-350 mg/L, the values of Nitrate ranged from 3 mg/L to 5 mg/L and were below the WHO guideline of 50 mg/L, the values of Nitrite ranged from 0.3 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L, the value of Ammonium ranged from 0 mg/L to 0.3 mg/L, the values of Iron ranged from 1 mg/L to 1.5 mg/L and were above the WHO guideline of 0.3 mg/L and the phosphate was not detected in all the three different sites of surface water samples. The fecal coliform was found to be positive in all the samples and the value of fecal coliform recorded was 15, 15 and 21 MPN/100ml in Site I, II and III respectively.</p> Bishnu Dev Das Sonu Pradhan Amrita Sardar Niroj Paudel Ranjan Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Bishnu Dev Das, Sonu Pradhan, Amrita Sardar, Dr. Niroj Paudel, Dr. Ranjan Kumar Mishra 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 12 1 55–63 55–63 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5442 A STUDY ON MACROECONOMIC AGGREGATES IN INDIA (2016-17 TO 2022-23) <p>This abstract presents a succinct summary of the main insights and discoveries obtained from a dataset of macroeconomic aggregates in India covering the period from 2016-17 to 2022-23. The data presents a number of noteworthy patterns, such as a consistent upward trajectory in population figures, as well as sustained expansion in both Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross National Income (GNI). The per capita income indicators also demonstrate a positive trend, indicating an enhancement in living standards. The levels of savings and capital formation have exhibited variability throughout the years, underscoring the imperative of implementing stable economic policies that foster investment.<br />In addition, it is crucial to emphasize the significance of prompt and precise data collection and reporting in order to facilitate informed decision-making, as evidenced by the tentative nature of the data for the period of 2022-23. In summary, the aforementioned findings offer valuable insights for policymakers and analysts, underscoring the importance of implementing inclusive economic policies, ensuring economic stability, and consistently improving data collection and analysis to steer India's economic advancement.</p> Ramakrishna G.N. Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. G.N. Ramakrishna 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 12 1 64–69 64–69 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5496 THE BATTLE OF CHAERONEA: 86 BCE <p>In 86 BCE Proconsul Lucius Cornelius Sulla’s (138-78 BCE) looked over the potential battlefield at the broad plain near Chaeronea. He heard horses neigh, and men rumble as they set up camp. Sulla knew the upcoming engagement of his 30,000 legionnaires against the 120,000-man army of Mithridates VI (135-78 BCE) (Appian 12.3.17, 12.6.41) of Pontus would be bloody, brutal, and deadly. General Archelaus commanded the Pontic forces. Sulla may have reflected on the cascade of events which placed him in this dire situation.<br />In 107 BCE. Consul Gaius Marius (157-86 BCE) initiated policies designed to enhance the efficacy of the Roman army. One of these reforms placed the responsibility to supply and manage an army under the authority of the commanding general, rather than the Consul and Senate. This change allowed charismatic, ambitious generals to divert the primary loyalty of soldiers to themselves rather than the State. Sulla used this change in loyalty to march on Rome in 88 BCE and 82 BCE. (Plutarch 2.3.1)<br />In 89 BCE Mithridates embarked on a policy of military expansionism. He invaded Bithynia and Cappadocia, even though Roman officials warned him to respect Bithynia’s sovereignty. The Roman Senate declared war on Pontus, appointed Sulla to prosecute the war, and the First Mithridatic War began (89-84 BCE). (Appian 12.4.22, 12.5.30) Mithridates’ army overran Roman provinces in Asia Minor. Cassius Dio reported: “All the Asiatic, at the bidding of Mithridates massacred the Romans.” (Dio 31.101) Mithridates then invaded the Roman province of Greece. The seizure of Roman territory and murder of Roman citizens was a grievous affront to the honor of Senatus Populusque Romanus (the Senate and People of Rome). Mithridates must have known from the history of Carthage what fate awaited him and Pontus if his military adventurism failed. Either he must destroy the Roman Republic, or it would destroy Pontus and humiliate, then kill him. Control over the region of the Eastern Mediterranean was at stake. Civil War diverted Sulla’s attention, but he finally advanced against Pontic armies in Greece in 87 BCE. He quickly drove two Mithridatic armies into the fortifications of Athens and the Piraeus. Then he successfully moved against these two fortifications. Archelaus escaped by sea to Boeotia. Sulla followed him with his army to Chaeronea, in central Greece. He had Legates Sulpicious Galba, Licinious Murena, and Lucius Hortensius under his command (Plutarch 15.17).</p> Valentine J. Belfiglio Copyright (c) 2024 Valentine J. Belfiglio 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 12 1 70–73 70–73 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5402 LEARNING RESULTS OF MUHAMMADIYAH 2 GEMOLONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS SRAGEN DISTRICT <p>A student's observable and quantifiable abilities, including their knowledge, attitudes, and skills, are known as learning outcomes. Learning motivation, study interest, learning style, and self-efficacy are some of the internal and environmental elements that impact learning outcomes. The objective of this research is to get a better understanding of how factors such as students' self-efficacy, learning style, study interest, and motivation affect their academic performance at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong in Sragen. This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach. There are a total of 398 students enrolled in this study, with 99 serving as a representative sample from the population of SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong in Sragen. Observation, surveys, interviews, recording, and citations to relevant studies are all part of the data gathering process. The method for analyzing the data makes use of traditional tests for assumptions and hypothesis testing. The t-test, multiple regressions, and coefficient determinations are all tools used in hypothesis testing. This study found that students' levels of motivation significantly impacted their performance in the classroom at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong in Sragen. Students' levels of interest do not affect their performance in class at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong in Sragen. Students' learning results at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong, Sragen are positively impacted by learning style characteristics. Students at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Gemolong in Sragen have high levels of self-efficacy, which positively affects their academic performance.</p> Ninik Sumarni Bambang Mursito Sakidi Copyright (c) 2024 Ninik Sumarni, Bambang Mursito, Sakidi 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 12 1 74–85 74–85 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5471 PARENTAL BACKGROUND AS DETERMINANT OF CAREER CHOICE AMONG STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES, ACCRA, GHANA <p>The aim of the study was to examine how parental background variables (education, occupation and income) serve as determinants of career choice among the students of the University of Professional Studies, Accra. The simple random technique was used to select 200 respondents for this study. The Parental Variable and Career Choice questionnaires were used in collecting data. Descriptive statistical tests were used in analyzing data with the aid of the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software. Frequency distribution tables, pie chart and bar graph, binomial test, chi square and Mann-Whitney test were used to fulfil the objectives of the study. The results showed that both parental educational and occupational background have influence on the career choice of the students. Parental income however, did not prove to have any influence on career choice. Gender difference was also not found to influence career choice amongst target population. It was concluded that, parental educational and occupational background have an influence on students’ career choice but parental income was not found to determine students’ career choice. It is, therefore, recommended that parents and other stakeholders in career development of students take into consideration influence of parental education and occupation on career development of students and use them in guiding, shaping, educating, and introducing students to surge into the world of career interest exploration and career choice. Students should be encouraged to choose role models whose educational and occupational levels placed them high on good career progression to become their images of inspiration in career choice and preference.</p> Daniel Bruce Akua Bema Asante Copyright (c) 2024 Daniel Bruce, Akua Bema Asante 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 12 1 86–101 86–101 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5473 JAUNDICE IN PATIENTS WITH GALL BLADDER CANCER- A SURROGATE MARKER OF ADVANCED DISEASE <p><strong>Background:</strong> Gall bladder cancer (GBC) is most common cancer of biliary tract. R0 resection is the most important predictor of survival. Patients with GBC and jaundice do worse than those without jaundice.<br />Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively kept data of patients with GBC admitted to the department of Surgical Gastroenterology at a tertiary care hospital in northern India over10 years from 2011 to 2020. Data on patient demography, clinical profile, imaging characteristics, clinical course, staging, and operative procedures was extracted and analyzed to compare the experience of patients with GBC with jaundice and GBC without jaundice.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> There were 401 patients with GBC; 75 with jaundice and 326 without jaundice. Patients with GBC and jaundice had a significantly higher incidence of pain abdomen, loss of appetite, loss of weight and presence of an abdominal lump, gastric outlet obstruction and hypoalbuminemia, a shorter duration of symptoms, more number of hospital admissions, a less frequent (4% vs 10.7%) incidental diagnosis of GBC and a higher incidence of GB neck tumors (80% vs 20%). In patients with GBC and jaundice detection of metastatic or locally advanced unresectable disease on imaging (31%), laparoscopy (11%) or laparotomy (31%) precluded resection in majority of patients. Only 2.6% patients with GBC and jaundice could undergo definitive surgery as compared to 71.2% of patients without jaundice.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients with GBC and jaundice are very likely to have advanced, unresectable disease. Chances of complete resection are slim even after extensive preparation requiring more extensive, time-consuming, costly, multidisciplinary interventions.</p> Vijay Kumar Sharma Anu Behari Supriya Sharma Rajneesh Kumar Singh Ashok Kumar Gupta Ashish Singh Rahul Ashok Kumar Rajan Saxena Copyright (c) 2024 Vijay Kumar Sharma, Anu Behari, Supriya Sharma, Rajneesh Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar Gupta, Ashish Singh, Rahul, Ashok Kumar, Rajan Saxena 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 12 1 102–110 102–110 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5478 A REVIEW STUDY ON EVALUATION OF ALCOHOL BASED HERBAL HAND SANITIZER <p>The necessity of good hand hygiene, particularly in light of public health emergencies, has caused a spike in the demand for hand sanitizers worldwide in recent years. Interest in alcohol- based herbal hand sanitizers is rising as natural and herbal goods become more and more popular. In contrast to traditional alcohol-based sanitizers, the goal of this review is to thoroughly evaluate the efficacy, safety, safety &amp; possible advantages of herbal alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The review emphasises how crucial it is to formulate and concentrate alcohol in herbal hand sanitizers correctly in order to get the highest level or germ-killing effectiveness. It also investigates how adding plant extracts, essential oil, other some natural components may work in concert to alcohol’s antibacterial qualities. The safety of these formulations is examined from all angles, with thorough analysis of factors such as skin irritation, allergic reaction, long term usage impacts. They provide information about the efficacy, safety, environmental effects of alcohol based herbal hand sanitizers. They also seek to compile the body of knowledge currently available on the subject. An alcohol-based herbal hand sanitizer was made using tulsi (oscimum tenuiflorum), aloe vera (aloe barbadensis Miller), neem bark (Azadirachta indica), ashwagandha root (Withania somnifera), and orange peel (citrus sinensis).</p> Deepak Kumar Sharma Bhawana Koranga Shaily Tyagi Copyright (c) 2024 Deepak Kumar Sharma, Bhawana Koranga, Shaily Tyagi 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 12 1 111–118 111–118 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5490 CONVERSION TO OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY - A SAFE ALTERNATIVE, NOT A FAILURE! <p>Background: Understanding factors that predict conversion in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to an open procedure is important as it allows better patient selection, preparation, operating list planning, referral, counseling and lowers the threshold for a safe conversion, thereby minimizing undue prolongation of attempts at laparoscopic completion and inadvertent complications.<br />Methods: Records of 1010 consecutive patients who were taken up for LC, at a tertiary care teaching institute in northern India, were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative and intraoperative characteristics of patients who underwent a successful LC were compared with those who required conversion to open surgery.<br />Results: The conversion rate was 7.5% (76 patients). The most common reason for conversion was the inability to define the ‘Critical view of safety’ in 48, (63%) of patients. Other reasons included dense peri-cholecystic 9 (12%) and intra-abdominal 8 (11%) adhesions, suspicion of bile duct injury 4 (5%) or malignancy 3 (4%). Prior upper abdominal surgery, intraoperative finding of a contracted and thick-walled gallbladder (GB), empyema GB, Mirizzi’s syndrome, cholecysto-enteric fistula, and a prior endoscopic common bile duct stone clearance were significant predictors of conversion. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis was found more commonly (43% vs 5%) in the conversion group.<br />Conclusion: Conversion to an open procedure during LC should always be treated as an integral component of sound judgement to achieve the safest outcome in a particular patient. Due consideration of pre-operative and intra-operative factors predictive of a higher chance of conversion assists pre-operative patient preparation and counseling as well as surgical planning, conduct and mentoring of residents-in-training.</p> Gaurav Singh Anu Behari Anand Prakash Rajneesh Kumar Singh Ashok Kumar Gupta Vinay K Kapoor Rajan Saxena Copyright (c) 2024 Gaurav Singh, Anu Behari, Anand Prakash, Rajneesh Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar Gupta, Vinay K Kapoor, Rajan Saxena 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 12 1 119–130 119–130 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5483 IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON ADOLESCENTS’ IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT <p>Identity development is significant during adolescence, which requires strong peer relationships through social interactions. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has created havoc in human life, where people distanced from each other to save themselves. To overcome this situation, adolescents already born into a digital era who used technology for fun previously increased their dependency on it to learn and develop.<br />This literature review study was conducted using specific criteria that included literature before and after the pandemic and addressed the problem of how adolescents could develop their identity while shifting from face-to-face to virtual platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. So, this study aimed to observe the adolescent’s identity development before and after the pandemic while considering Erikson’s theory of eight psychosocial stages and Marcia’s identity statuses.<br />Research findings revealed complex positive outcomes and significant negative consequences. The authors argued that whether positive or negative, adolescents’ identity development became weak and pushed them to a new social and historical context that impaired their ability to develop their identity.</p> Olivet Kiranmayi Neethipudi Chloe Fann M.S. Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Olivet Kiranmayi Neethipudi, Chloe Fann M.S. 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 12 1 131 140 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i1.2024.5484