• Luna Al Hadidi Directorate of Water and Soil Researches, National Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 639, Baq'a 19381, Amman, Jordan



Constructed Wetlands, Wastewater Treatment, Ecology, Environmental Protection


Constructed wetlands are wastewater treatment systems composed of one or more treatment cells in a building designed and constructed to provide wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are classified into two types: free water surface (FWS) wetlands (also known as surface flow wetlands) closely resemble natural wetlands in appearance because they contain aquatic plants that are rooted in a soil layer on the bottom of the wetland and water flows through the leaves and stems of plants. Subsurface flow wetlands (SSF) or known as a vegetated submerged bed (VSB) systems do not resemble natural wetlands because they have no standing water. They contain a bed of media (such as crushed rock, small stones, gravel, sand, or soil) that has been planted with aquatic plants. When properly designed and operated, wastewater stays beneath the surface of the media, flows in contact with the roots and rhizomes of the plants, and is not visible or available to wildlife. Constructed wetlands are an appropriate technology for areas where inexpensive land is generally available and skilled labor is less available. In this paper, a comprehensive review covered types, characteristics, design variation and considerations, limitations, and the advantages and disadvantages of constructed wetlands.


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How to Cite

Hadidi, L. A. (2021). CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW . International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(8), 395–417.