• Ashraf Mustafa Mohammed Osman Sahiroon Specialized Hospital [MBBSc, MSc]
  • Professor. Dr. Mohammed Al Fadil Gar al naby Professor of Radiology in Sudan University [MSc, PhD]
  • Dr. Asma Ibrahim Ahmed Associate Professor of Radiological Sciences, College of Medical Radiological Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology [MSc, PhD]
  • Dr. Babiker Abd Elwahab Awad alla Lecturer in College of Medical Radiological Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology [B.Sc., COMRS, PhD]



Doppler Ultrasonography, Hepatic Veins, IVC, Liver Transplants

Abstract [English]

The purpose of this study was to identify the specific Doppler criteria for the outflow vein (hepatic veins and inferior vena cava) obstruction in liver transplants. A case control study was done after performing venous Doppler sonographic studies in 300 normal (control) and 45 liver transplant cases (4 whole liver, 41 lobar) with no vascular obstruction. The ultrasonic Doppler study were classified as normal, occluded, or stenosed on the basis of gray scale and color flow mapping appearances as well as elevated or absent waves. The following Doppler parameters were evaluated: the outflow veins on color Doppler interrogation, venous pulsatility index on spectral trace. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. There were no cases of outflow vein obstruction found in our sample (neither stenosis, nor occlusion). Mean venous pulsatility index for normal outflow veins was 0.75 and is found ranging between (0.55-0.75). A venous pulsatility index of < 0.45 is specific for stenosis (5). The venous pulsatility index is a useful parameter for diagnosing venous stenosis in liver transplants.


Download data is not yet available.


Abu-Yousef MM. Normal and respiratory variations of the hepatic and portal venous duplex Doppler waveforms with simultaneous electrocardiographic correlation. J Ultrasound Med 1992;11(6):263–8. DOI:

Altinkaya N, Koc Z, Ulusan S, et al. Effects of respiratory manoeuvres on hepatic vein Doppler waveform and flow velocities in a healthy population. Eur J Radiol 2011;79(1):60–3. DOI:

American Journal of Roentgenology. 2007;188: W515-W521. 10.2214/AJR.06.1262. DOI:

Baik SK. Haemodynamic evaluation by Doppler ultrasonography in patients with portal hypertension: a review. Liver Int 2010;30(10):1403–13. DOI:

Buell JF, Funaki B, Cronin DC, Yoshida A, Perlman MK, Lorenz J, et al. Long-term venous complications after full-size and segmental pediatric liver transplantation. Ann Surg. 2002; 236:658–66. DOI:

Gallix BP, Taourel P, DauzatM, et al. Flow pulsatility in the portal venous system: a study of Doppler sonography in healthy adults. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;169 (1):141–4. DOI:

Gielecki J, Zurada A, Sonpal N, et al. The clinical relevance of coeliac trunk variations. Folia Morphol 2005;64(3):123–9.

Grenier N, Basseau F, Rey MC, et al. Interpretation of Doppler signals. Eur Radiol 2001;11(8):1295–307. DOI:

Ko EY, Kim TK, Kim PN, Kim AY, Ha HK, Lee MG. Hepatic vein stenosis after living donor liver transplantation: Evaluation with Doppler US. Radiology. 2003:806–10. DOI:

Kruskal JB, Newman PA, Sammons LG, et al. Optimizing Doppler and color flow US: application to hepatic sonography. Radiographics 2004;24(3):657–75. DOI:

Lafortune M,Madore F, Patriquin H, et al. Segmental anatomy of the liver: a sonographic approach to the Couinaud nomenclature. Radiology 1991;181(2):443–8. DOI:

McNaughton DA, Abu-Yousef MM. Doppler US of the liver made simple. Radiographics 2011;31(1):161–88. DOI:

Ohta M, Hashizume M, Kawanaka H, et al. Prognostic significance of hepatic vein waveform by Doppler ultrasonography in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. Am J Gastroenterol 1995;90(10):1853–7.

Oppo K, Leen E, Angerson WJ, et al. Doppler perfusion index: an interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility study. Radiology 1998;208(2):453–7. DOI:

Sacerdoti D, Merkel C, Bolognesi M, et al. Hepatic arterial resistance in cirrhosis with and without portal vein thrombosis: relationships with portal hemodynamics. Gastroenterology 1995;108(4):1152–8. DOI:

Shapiro RS, Winsberg F, Maldjian C, et al. Variability of hepatic vein Doppler tracings in normal subjects. J Ultrasound Med 1993;12(12):701–3. DOI:

Sutherland T, Temple F, Lee WK, et al. Evaluation of focal hepatic lesions with ultrasound contrast agents. J Clin Ultrasound 2011;39(7):399–407. DOI:

Tamsel S, Demirpolat G, Killi R, Aydin U, Kilic M, Zeytunlu M, et al. Vascular complications after liver transplantation: Evaluation with Doppler US. Abdom Imaging. 2007; 32:339–47. DOI:

Wang SL, Sze DY, Busque S, Razavi MK, Kee ST, Frisoli JK, et al. Treatment of hepatic venous outflow obstruction after piggyback liver transplantation. Radiology. 2005; 236:352–9. DOI:

Wood MM, Romine LE, Lee YK, et al. Spectral Doppler signature waveforms in ultrasonography: a review of normal and abnormal waveforms. Ultrasound Q 2010;26(2):83–99. DOI:




How to Cite

Mohammed Osman, A. M., Gar al naby, M. A. F. ., Ahmed, A. I., & Awad alla, B. A. E. (2018). SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF OUTFLOW VEINS IN SUDANESE LIVER TRANSPLANTS. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 6(12), 77–83.

Most read articles by the same author(s)