• Dr. Manasvi Shrivastav Department of Clinical Psychology, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar (UK), India



Self-Confidence, Superstitious Behavior, Rural Female, Rural Male, Urban Female, Urban Male

Abstract [English]

The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of self-confidence on superstitious behavior of people of UP. 300 participants were selected through quota sampling from various places of UP. Age and education related factors treated as controlled variables. ASCI (Agnihotry’s Self-Confidence Inventory) of Rekha Agnihotry(1987) has been used, consisting 40 items. Superstitious behavior scale (self-constructed) has been used, which also consisting 40 items. Each item have three alternatives: (a) I will definitely do it. (b) If not possible, I will not do it. (c) I don’t believe in it. Ex-post facto research design is used. Data was analysed by Chi-square technique. Result show that low self-confidence is responsible for high of superstitious behavior.


Download data is not yet available.


Agnihotry, R. (1987). Agnihotry’s Self-Confidence Inventory [Measurement Instrument]. Agra, UP: National Psychological Corporation

Brebner,K.(19,Feb.,2012). Superstitions:Illogical phenomena? Or Uniquely useful behaviours? By Sigmund Freud. Retrieved from:

Campbell, (1996). Half Belief and the paradox of Ritual Instrumental Activism: A Theory of Modern Superstition. The British Journal of Sociology, 47,1,151-166. DOI:

Damisch, L.,Stoberock, B.,Mussweiler ,T. (2010). Keep your fingers crossed! How superstition Improves Performance. Psychological Science. 21(7). 1014-1020. Retrieved from: DOI: 10.1177/0956797610372631. DOI:

Feltz, D.L.,Short S.E., Sullivan, P.J. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport. [Human Kinetics]. Part 1.Retrieved from:

Langer, E.J. (1977). The Psychology of chance. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 7(2).185-203. Retrieved from: DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5914.1977.tb00384.x DOI:

Langer, E.J., Roth, J. (1975). Heads I win, tails it’s chance: The illusion of control as a function of sequence of outcomes in a purely chance task. Journal of Personality and social psychology, 32, 951-955. Retrieved from: DOI:

Malinowski (1948). Myth in Primitive Psychology. Magic, Science and religion and other essays. New Delhi: Kessinger Publishing.

Moyer, R.M.(2010). Maintaining self-integrity through superstitious behavior. [HKU SPACE]. Retrieved from:

Piaget,J.(1928).The child’s conception of the world. London. Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Sachs, J. (2004). Superstition and self-efficacy in Chinese Post Graduate students. Psychological Reports.95(2). pp. 485-486.Retrieved from: DOI: 10.2466/PR0.95.6.485-486 DOI:

Shrivastav, M. (2017). Superstitious behavioral scale. A study of psycho-social factors contributing to superstitious behavior. Unpublished thesis.

Simmons, L.C. and Schindler, R.M. (2003). Cultural superstitions and the price endings used in Chinese advertising, Journal of International Marketing, 11, 101-111. DOI:

Singh, M. (2002). Stress Scale [Measurement Instrument]. Mumbai, Maharashtra: Institute of Research and Test Development

Skinner, B.F.(1953). Science and human behaviour. New York.NY: Macmillan.

Vyse,S.A. (1997). Believing in Magic The Psychology of superstition. New York.NY. Oxford University Press.

Wright, P.B., Erdal, K.J. (2008). Sport superstition as a function of skill level and task difficulty. Journal of sport behavior. 31(2). P.187-199. Retrieved from:




How to Cite

Shrivastav, M. (2017). STUDY ON SELF-CONFIDENCE CONTRIBUTING TO SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 5(7), 219–228.