ASSOCIATION OF SERUM AUTO-ANTIBODIES AND THYROID FUNCTION TEST IN PATIENTS WITH NON-NEOPLASTIC THYROID DISEASES IN SHENDI LOCALITY, SUDAN
Keywords:Thyroid Gland, Thyroid Hormones, Thyroid Dysfunction, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Auto-Antibodies, TSH, TT4, fT4, TT3, fT3, TPO Ab, Tg Ab
Background: Thyroid disorders are the most second endocrine problem after diabetes mellitus in society. Environmental, immunological, and genetic factors lead to the development of thyroid disorders.
Objectives: The study intended to evaluate the role of thyroid antibodies and hormones in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, as well as the prevalence of thyroid antibodies in patients having thyroid disorders living in Shendi locality.
Study design: The current research was prospective, case - control, hospital-based study carried out from 2013-2017, in El-Mek Nimir Uiversity Hospital in Shendi town- Northern Sudan.-. River Nile State. Two hundred and eighty-three (283) participants selected randomly as study population, of whom Hundred and eleven (111) patients with hypothyroidism; Seventy-two (72) patients with hyperthyroidism; Hundred (100) healthy normal subjects as control group. Participants were recruited from outpatient clinics in El-Mek Nimir Uiversity Hospital in Shendi Thyroid hormones profile (TSH, T4, T3, fT3, and fT4) and Thyroid antibodies (Anti-thyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin) were measured.
Results: The study revealed that (60.7%) had hypothyroidism, (39.3%) had
hyperthyroidism, (91.9%) of hypothyroidism were female, and only (8.1%) were male, while (84.7%) of hyperthyroidism were female while male represented only (15.3%) of them.
The current study revealed that 107 of the case group (58.5%) were positive when evaluated for thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab), with level more than (40.0 IU/ml). 72 (64.9%) of them were hypothyroidism, whereas a 35 (48.6%) of them were hyperthyroidism. As regard Thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg Ab), 73 (39.9%) of the case studied were positive, 51 (69.9%) of them were hypothyroidism, and 22 (30.1%) of them were hyperthyroidism.
The study also revealed statistically significant positive correlation between the presence of TPO Ab and the values of fT3
Ajit S. Shinto, Leena Pachen, Sreekanth, Deepu George (2010) : Prevalence of Antithyroid Antibodies in Histologically Proven Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases and Correlation with Thyroid Dysfunction in South India. Thyroid Science 5(9) :1-5,
Aminorroaya A, Momenzadeh M, Hovsepian, S. Haghighi S, and Amini M. (2006) : Thyroid autoantibodies in women with and without thyroid disorders in an iodine-replete area Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2,
Anke Hannemann, Nele Friedrich, Robin Haring, Alexander Krebs, Henry Völzke, Dietrich Alte, Matthias Nauck, Thomas Kohlmann, Hans-Christof Schober, Wolfgang Hoffmann,and Henri Wallaschofski. (2010) : Thyroid function tests in patients taking thyroid medication in Germany : Results from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). BMC Res Notes. ; 3 : 227. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-3-227 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-3-227
Bianco AC, Salvatore D, Gereben B, Berry MJ, Larsen PR (2002) : Biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, and physiological roles of the of the iodothyronine selenodeiodinases. Endocr Rev 23 :38-89. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv.23.1.0455 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv.23.1.0455
Carayanniotis G, and Rao V. P, (1997) : "Searching for pathogenic epitopes in thyroglobulin : parameters and caveats," Immunology Today,, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 83-88, Retrieved fromm https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5699(96)10073-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5699(96)10073-6
Collison K.S, Banga J. P, Barnett P. S, Huang G.C, and McGregor A. M, (1991) : "Autoantibody stimulation of the human thyrotropin receptor : regulation of adenylate cyclase activity, thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase mRNA levels in primary cultures of Graves' thyroid tissue,”. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol.86, no.1, pp.61-65, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.1991.tb05774.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.1991.tb05774.x
Dufour D. (2007) : Laboratory Tests of Thyroid Function : Uses and limitations. Endocrinol Metab Clin N AM. 2007 ; 36 : 579- 594. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2007.04.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2007.04.003
Faranak Sharifi, Leila Ghasemi, and Nouraddin Mousa vinasab. (2008) : Thyroid Function and Anti-Thyroid Antibodies in Iranian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus : Influences of Age and Sex Iran J Allergy Asthma Immuno; 7(1): 31-36 Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2007.03.214 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2007.03.214
Gbadebo A. M, and Oyesanya T. M, (2005) : "Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa area of Ogun state, South western Nigeria," Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol.27, no.5-6, pp.491-499, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-005-6982-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-005-6982-z
Harington CR (1926) Chemistry of Thyroxine : Constitution and Synthesis of Desiodo-Thyroxine. Biochem J 20 :300-313. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0200300 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0200300
Hawa M. I, Picardi A, Costanza F. et al. (2006) : "Frequency of diabetes and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune endocrine disease fromCameroon," Clinical Immunology, vol.118, no. 2-3, pp. 229-232, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2005.09.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2005.09.016
Int Assoc of Medical Laboratories. (2007) : Guideline for the Use of Laboratory Tests to Detect Thyroid Dysfunction CLP 015,
Jayakumar RV : (2011) : Clinical Approach to Thyroid Disease, supplement to japi.. vol. 59.
Kendall EC (1919) Isolation of the Iodine Compound Which Occurs in the Thyroid. J.Biol. Chem. 39, 125-147. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)87324-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)87324-0
McIntosh R, Watson P, and Weetman A, (1998) : 'Somatic hypremutation in autoimmune thyroid disease,' Immunological Reviews, vol. 162, pp. 219- 231, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.1998.tb01444.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.1998.tb01444.x
McLachlan S.M. and Rapoport B. (1992) : 'The molecular biology of thyroid peroxidase : cloning, expression and role as autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid disease,' Endocrine Reviews, vol. 13, no.2, pp. 192-206, 1992. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv-13-2-192 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv-13-2-192
Njemini R, Meyers I, Demanet C, Smitz J, Sosso M, and Mets T, (2002) : "the prevalence of autoantibodies in an elderly sub-Saharan African population," Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol.127, no.1, pp.99 -106. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.01713.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.01713.x
Noboru Hamada, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Yasuyuki Okamoto, Miki Ueda, Toshiaki Konishi, Toshimichi Fujisawa, Koichi Ito and Kunihiko Ito. (2010) : Measuring thyroglobulin autoantibodies by sensitive assay is important for assessing the presence of thyroid autoimmunity in areas with high iodine intake, Endocrine Journal, 57 (7), 645-649. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.K09E-353 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.K09E-353
Ogedebe H. (2007) : Thyroid function test : à clinical lab perspective. Medical Laboratory Observer, :10-19. Retrieved from https://europepmc.org/article/med/17375841
Pallavi Chaurasia, Bhautik Modi, Sarita Mangukiya, Pranay Jadav, Rita Shah, (2011) : Variation in thyroid hormones levels among people of different age, gender and seasons, Piparia, Gujarat. National journal of medical research, Vol 1 Issue 2 : ISSN 2249 4995 P57-59.
Sowerby Centre for Health Informatics at Newcastle. (1999) : Hypothyroidism, PRODIGY ; Available from : URL : Retrieved from http://www.prodigy.nhs.uk.
Thyroid Foundation of Canada. Health Guides on Thyroid Disease. (2009) : http://www.thyroid.ca/Guides/HG02.html#1, Accessed March 5 2009.
WHO. (2010) : World Health Assembly Progress Reports (A63/27) : Sustaining the elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (resolution WHA60.21). (2010) 63rd.available at URL http://www.who.int/ 2630, 2006.
Walsh J. P, Ward L. C, Burke V, et al., (2006) : "Small change in thyroxine dosage do not produce measurable changes in hypothyroid symptoms, well-being, or quality of life : results of a doublé blind, randomized clinical trial," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.91, no.7, pp. 2624-2630, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-0099 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-0099
Wu T, Liu GJ, Li P, and Clar C : (2002) : Iodised salt for preventing iodine deficiency disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (3) : CD003204 Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003204
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Abd Elwahab Abdien, Haghamad Allzain Mohamed Bulla, Motwakil lmam Awadelkareim lmam, Azahir Yousif, Tarig . A.H. Karar, M. H. Eltayeb, Rashid Eltayeb
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.
It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.