• Sampson E. Akwafuo Center for Computational Epidemiology and Response Analysis (CeCERA), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
  • Armin R. Mikler Center for Computational Epidemiology and Response Analysis (CeCERA), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
  • Fariba A. Irany Center for Computational Epidemiology and Response Analysis (CeCERA), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, USA
Keywords: Disasters, Public Health Emergencies, Vehicle Routing Problem, Algorithms, Heuristics


Emergency response preparedness increases disaster resilience and mitigates its possible impacts, mostly in public health emergencies. Prompt activation of these response plans and rapid optimization of delivery models and are essential for effective management of emergencies and disaster. In this paper, existing computational models and algorithms for routing deliveries and logistics during public health emergencies are identified. An overview of recent developments of optimization models and contributions, with emphasis on their applications in situations of uncertainties and unreliability, as obtainable in low-resource countries, is presented. Specific recent improvements in biologically-inspired and intelligent algorithms, genetic algorithms, and artificial immune systems techniques are surveyed. The research gaps are identified, and suggestions for potential future research concentrations are proffered.


Download data is not yet available.


AbdAllah, A.M; Essam, D. L; Sarker, R.A. 2017. “On Solving Periodic Re-Optimization Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems.” Applied Soft Computing 55: 1–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2017.01.047

Ai, The Jin, and Voratas Kachitvichyanukul. 2009. “Particle Swarm Optimization and Two Solution Representations for Solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem.” Computers and Industrial Engineering 56 (1): 380–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2008.06.012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2008.06.012

Al-dahash, Hajer, Menaha Thayaparan, and Udayangani Kulatunga. 2016. “Understanding the Terminologies : Disaster ,.” Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ARCOM Conference 2 (September): 1239–48.

Alenezy, Eiman J. 2020. “Solving Capacitated Facility Location Problem Using Lagrangian Decomposition and Volume Algorithm.” Advances in Operations Research 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5239176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5239176

Alonso, F., M. J. Alvarez, and J. E. Beasley. 2008. “A Tabu Search Algorithm for the Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Vehicle Trips and Accessibility Restrictions.” Journal of the Operational Research Society 59 (7): 963–76. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602405. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602405

Anisya, A., and Ganda Yoga Swara. 2017. “Implementation of Haversine Formula and Best First Search Method in Searching of Tsunami Evacuation Route.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 97 (1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/97/1/012004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/97/1/012004

Bagherinejad, Jafar, and Azar Niknam. 2018. “Solving the Competitive Facility Location Problem Considering the Reactions of Competitor with a Hybrid Algorithm Including Tabu Search and Exact Method.” Journal of Industrial Engineering International 14 (1): 171–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40092-017-0216-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40092-017-0216-8

Balcik, B., and B. M. Beamon. 2008. “Facility Location in Humanitarian Relief.” International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications 11 (2): 101–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/13675560701561789. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13675560701561789

Barzinpour, Farnaz, Mohsen Saffarian, Ahmad Makoui, and Ebrahim Teimoury. 2014. “Metaheuristic Algorithm for Solving Biobjective Possibility Planning Model of Location-Allocation in Disaster Relief Logistics.” Journal of Applied Mathematics 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/239868. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/239868

Belhaiza, Slim, Rym M’Hallah, and Ghassen Ben Brahim. 2017. “A New Hybrid Genetic Variable Neighborhood Search Heuristic for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Time Windows.” 2017 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC 2017 - Proceedings, 1319–26. https://doi.org/10.1109/CEC.2017.7969457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CEC.2017.7969457

Ben-Akiva, Moshe E., Song Gao, Zheng Wei, and Yang Wen. 2012. “A Dynamic Traffic Assignment Model for Highly Congested Urban Networks.” Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 24: 62–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2012.02.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2012.02.006

Boloori Arabani, Alireza, and Reza Zanjirani Farahani. 2013. “Facility Location Dynamics: An Overview of Classifications and Applications.” Computers and Industrial Engineering 62 (1): 408–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2011.09.018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2011.09.018

Bonabeau, E; Dorigo, M; Theraulaz, G. 2000. “Inspiration for Optimization from Social Insect Behaviour.” Nature 406 (6791): 38–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/35017500

Boonmee, Chawis, Mikiharu Arimura, and Takumi Asada. 2017. “Facility Location Optimization Model for Emergency Humanitarian Logistics.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 24 (September): 485–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJDRR.2017.01.017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.01.017

Bozorgi-Amiri, Ali, M.S Jabal-Ameli, Mahdi Heydari, and Mehdi Alinaghian. 2013. “A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Disaster Relief Logistics under Uncertain Environment.” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 60: 357–371. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3596-8

Campbell, Ann Melissa, Dieter Vandenbussche, and William Hermann. 2010. “Routing for Relief Efforts.” Transportation Science 42 (2): 127–45. https://doi.org/10.1287/trsc.1070.0209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/trsc.1070.0209

Caunhye, Aakil M., Xiaofeng Nie, and Shaligram Pokharel. 2012. “Optimization Models in Emergency Logistics: A Literature Review.” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 46 (1): 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2011.04.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2011.04.004

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Emergency Preparedness Report. 2016. “Receiving, Distributing, and Dispensing Strategic National Stockpile Assets.” Washington DC. https://www.orau.gov/sns/v11/ReceivingDistributingDispensingSNSAssets_V11.pdf.

Chen, Huey Kuo, Che Fu Hsueh, and Mei Shiang Chang. 2006. “The Real-Time Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem.” Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 42 (5): 383–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tre.2005.01.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tre.2005.01.003

Church, R. Velle, C. R. 1974. “The Maximum Covering Location Problem.” Pap. Sci 32: 101–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01942293

Contardo, Claudio, and Rafael Martinelli. 2014. “A New Exact Algorithm for the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem under Capacity and Route Length Constraints.” Discrete Optimization 12 (May): 129–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.DISOPT.2014.03.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.disopt.2014.03.001

Cordeau, Jean-Franc ßois, and Gilbert Laporte. 2004. “A Tabu Search Heuristic for the Static Multi-Vehicle Dial-a-Ride Problem.” Transportation Research Part B 37 37: 579–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-2615(02)00045-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-2615(02)00045-0

Dantzig, G B, and J H Ramser. 1959. “The Truck Dispatching Problem.” Management Science Series 6 (1): 80–91. https://andresjaquep.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/2627477-clasico-dantzig.pdf. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.6.1.80

Escobar, John Willmer, Rodrigo Linfati, Paolo Toth, and Maria G. Baldoquin. 2014. “A Hybrid Granular Tabu Search Algorithm for the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem.” Journal of Heuristics 20 (5): 483–509. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10732-014-9247-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10732-014-9247-0

Ferrer, José M., M. Teresa Ortuño, and Gregorio Tirado. 2020. “A New Ant Colony-Based Methodology for Disaster Relief.” Mathematics 8 (4): 1–23. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040518. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040518

Fu, Z., and D Luo. 2015. “The Logistics Distribution Route Research of Ant Colony Algorithm.” Computer Knowledge and Technology 269 (2): 501–15.

Gai, Wen Mei, Zhong An Jiang, Yun Feng Deng, Jing Li, and Yan Du. 2015. “Multiobjective Route Planning Model and Algorithm for Emergency Management.” Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/565403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/565403

Gao, S; Wang, Y; Cheng, J; Inazumi, Y; Tang, Z. 2017. “Ant Colony Optimization with Clustering for Solving the Dynamic Location Routing Problem.” Pplied Mathematics and Computation 285: 149–73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2016.03.035

Gharib, Z, A Bozorgi-Amiri, R Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, and E Najaa. 2018. “A Cluster-Based Emergency Vehicle Routing Problem in Disaster with Reliability.” Scientia Iranica E 25 (4): 2312–30. https://doi.org/10.24200/sci.2017.4450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24200/sci.2017.4450

Han, Chuan Feng, and Chao Zhang. 2009. “Genetic Algorithm for Solving Problems in Emergency Management.” 5th International Conference on Natural Computation, ICNC 2009 4 (September 2009): 259–64. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICNC.2009.333. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICNC.2009.333

Han, Yunjun, Xiaohong Guan, and Leyuan Shi. 2011. “Optimization Based Method for Supply Location Selection and Routing in Large-Scale Emergency Material Delivery.” IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 8 (4): 683–93. https://doi.org/10.1109/TASE.2011.2159838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASE.2011.2159838

Hsueh, Che-Fu, Huey-Kuo Chen, and Huey-Wen Chou. 2008. “Dynamic Vehicle Routing for Relief Logistics in Natural Disasters.” In Vehicle Routing Problem. InTech. https://doi.org/10.5772/5641. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/5641

Hu, Zhi-Hua. 2010. “A Network for Emergency Logistics Management Inspired by Immune Multi-Affinity Model.” In 2009 International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering, 22–25. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIII.2009.467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIII.2009.467

Huang, Rong Hwa, and Tung Han Yu. 2017. “An Effective Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Objective Job-Shop Scheduling with Equal-Size Lot-Splitting.” Applied Soft Computing Journal 57: 642–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2017.04.062. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2017.04.062

Hvattum, Lars Magnus, Arne Løkketangen, and Gilbert Laporte. 2007. “A Branch-and-Regret Heuristic for Stochastic and Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems.” Networks 49 (4): 330–40. https://doi.org/10.1002/net.20182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/net.20182

Jaradat, Ameera;, Bara’ah; Matalkeh, and Waed Diabat. 2019. “Solving Traveling Salesman Problem Using Firefly Algorithm.” In 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JEEIT.2019.8717463

Jotshi, Arun, Qiang Gong, and Rajan Batta. 2009. “Dispatching and Routing of Emergency Vehicles in Disaster Mitigation Using Data Fusion.” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 43 (1): 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2008.02.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2008.02.005

Keim, Mark E. 2008. “Building Human Resilience. The Role of Public Health Preparedness and Response As an Adaptation to Climate Change.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35 (5): 508–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.08.022

Kennedy, James, Russell Eberhart, and Bls Gov. 1995. “Particle Swarm Optimization.” In Proceedings of 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1942–1948.

Khalid, Mohd Nor Akmal, and Umi Kalsom Yusof. 2015. “An Artificial Immune Approach for Optimizing Crowd Emergency Evacuation Route Planning Problem.” ICAART 2015 - 7th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, Proceedings 2 (August): 503–8. https://doi.org/10.5220/0005275305030508. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5220/0005275305030508

Knott, R. P. 1988. “Vehicle Scheduling for Emergency Relief Management: A Knowledge-Based Approach.” Disasters 12 (4): 285–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.1988.tb00678.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.1988.tb00678.x

Kumar, Suresh Nanda, and Ramasamy Panneerselvam. 2012. “A Survey on the Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Variants.” Intelligent Information Management 04 (03): 66–74. https://doi.org/10.4236/iim.2012.43010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/iim.2012.43010

Li, Xia, and Anthony Gar On Yeh. 2006. “Integration of Genetic Algorithms and GIS for Optimal Location Search.” International Journal of Geographical Information Science 19 (5): 581–601. https://doi.org/10.1080/13658810500032388. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13658810500032388

Li, Ziyao. 2010. “Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Emergency Rescue VRP Based on Matlab.” ICCASM 2010 - 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling, Proceedings 14 (Iccasm): V14-497-V14-499. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCASM.2010.5622143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCASM.2010.5622143

Lin, Yeh-Hung;, Rajan Batta, and Peter Rogerson. 2012. “A Logistics Model for Emergency Supply of Critical Items in the Aftermath of a Disaster.” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 45 (4): 132–45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2011.04.003

Ma, Yongjie, Tian Ye, and Wenjing Hou. 2011. “Dynamic Path Optimization of Emergency Transport Based on Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm.” Advances in Swarm Intelligence, 445–52.

Mangla, Monika;, Rakhi; Akhare, and Smita Sanjay. 2015. “Implementing Genetic Algorithm to Solve Facility Location Problem.” Mathematica.

Marinakis, Yannis, Georgia Roumbini Iordanidou, and Magdalene Marinaki. 2013. “Particle Swarm Optimization for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands.” Applied Soft Computing Journal 13 (4): 1693–1704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2013.01.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2013.01.007

Mete, Huseyin Onur Zelda B. Zabinsky. 2010. “Stochastic Optimization of Medical Supply Location and Distribution in Disaster Management.” International Journal of Production Economics 1 (126): 78–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2009.10.004

Montoya-Torres, Jairo R., Julián López Franco, Santiago Nieto Isaza, Heriberto Felizzola Jiménez, and Nilson Herazo-Padilla. 2015. “A Literature Review on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Depots.” Computers and Industrial Engineering 79: 115–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2014.10.029. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2014.10.029

Mowafi, Hani, Christine Ngaruiya, Gerard O’Reilly, Olive Kobusingye, and Vikas Kapil. 2019. “Emergency Care Surveillance and Emergency Care Registries in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: Conceptual Challenges and Future Directions for Research Analysis.” BMJ Global Health 4: 1442. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001442

ogunwolu, L;Sosimi, VA. 2018. “Optimal Routing for Automated Emergency Vehicle Response for Incident Intervention.” Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 22 (5): 749–54. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem/article/view/172696/162093.

Osaba, Eneko, Roberto Carballedo, and Xin-she Yang. 2016. “An Evolutionary Discrete Firefly Algorithm with Novel Operators for Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows” 637 (February 2018): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30235-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30235-5

Pan, Fengshan, Chunming Ye, Kefeng Wang, and Jiangbo Cao. 2013. “Research on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows Using Firefly Algorithm.” Journal of Computers (Finland) 8 (9): 2256–61. https://doi.org/10.4304/jcp.8.9.2256-2261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4304/jcp.8.9.2256-2261

Pichpibul, Tantikorn, and Ruengsak Kawtummachai. 2013. “A Heuristic Approach Based on Clarke-Wright Algorithm for Open Vehicle Routing Problem.” The Scientific World Journal 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/874349. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/874349

Pillac, Victor, Michel Gendreau, Christelle Guéret, Andrés L Medaglia, Christelle Gú, and Andrés L Medaglia. 2013. “A Review of Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems.” European Journal of Operational Research 225 (1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2012.08.015ï. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2012.08.015

Prasanth, R S S, and Hans Raj Kandikonda. 2015. “Using Bio-Inspired Algorithm” 116 (September): 663–69.

Psaraftis, Harilaos N. 1980. “Dynamic Programming Solution To the Single Vehicle Many-To-Many Immediate Request Dial-a-Ride Problem.” Transportation Science 14 (2): 130–54. https://doi.org/10.1287/trsc.14.2.130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1287/trsc.14.2.130

Radianti, Jaziar, Ole Christoffer Granmo, Parvaneh Sarshar, Morten Goodwin, Julie Dugdale, and Jose J. Gonzalez. 2014. “A Spatio-Temporal Probabilistic Model of Hazard- and Crowd Dynamics for Evacuation Planning in Disasters.” Applied Intelligence 42 (1): 3–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10489-014-0583-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10489-014-0583-4

Rawls, Carmen G., and Mark A. Turnquist. 2010. “Pre-Positioning of Emergency Supplies for Disaster Response.” Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 44 (4): 521–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2009.08.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trb.2009.08.003

Ritchie, H; Roser, Max. 2019. “Natural Disasters - Our World in Data.” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.2202/1935-1682.1903. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2202/1935-1682.1903

Seidgar, Hany, Mehrdad Ezzati, Morteza Kiani, and Reza Tavakkoli-moghaddam. 2018. “An Efficient Genetic Algorithm For Two-Stage Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling With Preemption And Sequence Dependent Setup Time.” Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science 06 (04): 251–59. https://doi.org/10.22436/jmcs.06.04.01. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22436/jmcs.06.04.01

Sever, Derya, Lei Zhao, Nico Dellaert, Emrah Demir, Tom Van Woensel, and Ton De Kok. 2018. “The Dynamic Shortest Path Problem with Time-Dependent Stochastic Disruptions.” Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 92 (July): 42–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2018.04.018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2018.04.018

Shen, Ling, Fengming Tao, Yuhe Shi, and Ruiru Qin. 2019. “Optimization of Location‐routing Problem in Emergency Logistics Considering Carbon Emissions.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16 (16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162982. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162982

Shen, Maged;, Fernando; Dessouky, and JiaZhihong Ordóñez. 2007. “Rapid Distribution of Medical Supplies.” International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, 307–38.

Simić, Dragan, and Svetlana Simić. 2012. “Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Approaches on Vehicle Routing Problem in Logistics Distribution.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) 7208 LNAI (PART 1): 208–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28942-2_19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28942-2_19

Sina, Nayeri;, Ebrahim; Asadi-Gangraj, and S Emami. 2018. “Metaheuristic Algorithms to Allocate and Schedule of the Rescue Units in the Natural Disaster with Fatigue Effect.” Neural Computing and Applications 31 (10): 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-018-3599-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-018-3599-6

Stodola, Petr. 2018. “Using Metaheuristics on the Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Modified Optimization Criterion.” Algorithms 11 (5): 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/a11050074. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/a11050074

Tragantalerngsak, Suda, John Holt, and Mikael Ronnqvist. 2001. “An Exact Method for the Two-Echelon , Single- Source , Capacitated Facility Location Problem.” European Journal of Operational Research 123: 473–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(99)00105-8

Urbanovsky, Joshua Charles. 2018. “Computational Methods to Optimize High-Consequence Variants of the Vehicle Routing Problem for Relief Networks in Humanitarian Logistics.” PhD Dissertation, University of North Texas. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1248473/m2/1/high_res_d/URBANOVSKY-DISSERTATION-2018.pdf.

Walia, S S, K U S Somarathna, R Hendricks, A Jackson, and N Nagarur. 2018. “Optimizing the Emergency Delivery of Medical Supplies with Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles,” no. May: 1588–93. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85054014297&partnerID=40&md5=9f6044bd6717a0e5c5a00d21f2a1e9a0.

Wang, D., Zhang, G. 2006. “Model and Algorithm to Optimize Location of Catastrophic Rescue Center.” Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 26 (1): 265–69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11460-006-0035-y

Xiang, Xiaoshu, Jianfeng Qiu, Jianhua Xiao, and Xingyi Zhang. 2020. “Demand Coverage Diversity Based Ant Colony Optimization for Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems.” Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 91 (March): 103582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2020.103582. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2020.103582

Xu, Haitao; Pu Pan; Duan Feng. 2018. “Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems with Enhanced Ant Colony Optimization.” Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society 2018 (1): 1–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1295485

Yang, S; Tinos, R. 2007. “A Hybrid Immigrants Scheme for Genetic Algorithms in Dynamic Environments.” International Journal of Automation and Computing 4 (3): 243–55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11633-007-0243-9

Yang, Xin-She, and Mehmet Karamanoglu. 2013. “Swarm Intelligence and Bio-Inspired Computation: An Overview.” In Swarm Intelligence and Bio-Inspired Computation: Theory and Applications, 3–23. London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-405163-8.00001-6

Yao, Baozhen, Qianqian Yan, Mengjie Zhang, and Yunong Yang. 2017. “Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows.” PLoS ONE 12 (9): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181275

Yu, B; Yang, Z; Yao, B. 2009. “An Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Vehicle Routing Problem.” European Journal of Operational Research 196 (1): 172–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/40996(330)493

Yuan, Yuan, and Dingwei Wang. 2009. “Path Selection Model and Algorithm for Emergency Logistics Management.” Computers and Industrial Engineering 56 (3): 1081–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2008.09.033. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cie.2008.09.033

Zheng, Yu Jun, Sheng Yong Chen, and Hai Feng Ling. 2015. “Evolutionary Optimization for Disaster Relief Operations: A Survey.” Applied Soft Computing Journal 27: 553–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2014.09.041. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2014.09.041

How to Cite
Akwafuo, S. E., Mikler, A. R., & Irany, F. A. (2020). OPTIMIZATION MODELS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND POST-DISASTER DELIVERY LOGISTICS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT APPROACHES. International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 7(8), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.29121/ijetmr.v7.i8.2020.738