• Lorenzo Baños Hernández CIB labs S.L., Calle Arena 1, 5 35002 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)
  • Jose María Emperador Alzola SIANI, Edificio Central del Parque Cientifico y Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)
Keywords: Ocean Wave Energy, Fluid-Structure Interaction, BEM, Diffraction/ Radiation, Floating Cylinder


This work condenses various modeling techniques for different Point Absorber configurations. An alternating frequency - time domain model is implemented in MatlabFORTRAN in order to compute the displacement, velocities and the power absorbed in the heave mode for both single and multiple body configurations. Coupling of different degrees of freedom are merely contemplated with regard to a single buoy motion. NEMOH and BEMIO solvers are applied in the solution of Newtons second law according to the Boundary Element Methodology. Initially, this Wave-to-Wire model is validated through comparison with previous experimental results for a floating cone cylinder shape (Buldra-FO3). A single, generic, vertical floating cylinder is contemplated then, that responds to the action of the passing regular waves excitation. Later, two equally sized vertical floating cylinders aligned with the incident wave direction are modeled for a variable distance between the bodies. In deep water, we approximate the convolutive radiation force function term through the Prony method. Using for instance triangular or diamond shaped arrays of three and four bodies respectively, the study delves into the interaction effects for regular waves. The results highlight the most efficient layout for maximizing the energy production whilst providing important insights into their performance, revealing displacement amplification-, capture width-ratios and the commonly known park effect.


Download data is not yet available.


Agamloh, E., Wallace, A. and von Jouanne, A. "Application of fluid-structure interaction simulation of an ocean wave energy extraction device", Renewable Energy 33, pp. 748- 757, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.04.010

Alves, M. "Numerical Simulation of the dynamics of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters using frequency and time domain approaches ", Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, PhD thesis, 2012.

Babarit, A. "A database of capture width ratio of wave energy converters", Renewable Energy 80, pp. 610-628, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.02.049

Babarit, A. "On the park effect in arrays of oscillating wave energy converters.", Renewable Energy 58, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.03.008

Babarit, A., Borgarino, B., Ferrant, P. and Clement, A. "Assessment of the influence of the distance between two wave energy converters on the energy production", Proceedings of the 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 2008.

de Backer, G. "Hydrodynamic Design Optimization of Wave Energy Converters Consisting of Heaving Point Absorbers", Ghent University, PhD thesis, pp. 103-104, 2012.

Banos Hernandez, L., Frigaard, P. and Kirkegaaard, P. "Numerical modeling of a wave energy point absorber", Proceedings of the Twenty Second Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics, Aalborg University | ISSN 1901-7278 DCE Technical Memorandum No. 11, 2009.

Bellew, S., Stallard, T. and Stansby, P. "Optimisation of a Heterogeneous Array of Heaving Bodies", University of Manchester, UK, 2013

Borgarino, B., Babarit, A. and Ferrant, P. "Impact of wave interactions effects on energy absorption in large arrays of wave energy converters", Ocean Engineering 41, pp. 79-88, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2011.12.025

Bosma, B. "On the Design, Modeling, and Testing of Ocean Wave Energy Converters", Oregon State University, PhD thesis, pp. 40-41, 2013.

Budal, K. and Falnes, J. "A resonant point absorber of ocean-wave power", Nature 256: pp. 478-479, doi:10.1038/256478a0, 1975. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/256478a0

Child, B. "On the configuration of arrays of floating wave energy converters.", The University of Edinburgh, PhD thesis, 2011.

Clement, A. and Babarit, A. "Discrete control of resonant wave energy devices", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Vol. 370, Issue 1959, pages 288-314, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0132

Cruz, J. "Ocean Wave Energy - Current Status and Future Perspectives", Springer Verlag, 978-3-540-74894-6, 2008.

Cruz, J. and Salter, S. "Numerical and experimental modelling of a modified version of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy device", Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, DOI: 10.1243/14750902JEME53, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1243/14750902JEME53

De Andres, A., Guanche, R., Meneses, L., Vidal, C. and Losada, I. "Factors that influence array layout on wave energy farms", Ocean Engineering Volume 82, Pages 32-41, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.02.027

De Rouck, J. "SEEWEC, A promising WEC : multiple point absorbers in a floating platform", EC contractors meeting, Bremerhaven, 2006.

Eriksson, M., Isberg, J. and Leijon, M. "Hydrodynamic modelling of a direct drive wave energy converter", International Journal of Engineering Science 43, pp. 1377-1387, 2005.

Eriksson, M., Waters, R., Svensson, O., Isberg, J. and Leijon, M. "Wave power absorption: Experiments in open sea and simulation", Journal of Applied Physics 102, 084910, 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2801002

Evans, D. and Porter, R. "Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, Vol. 370, pp. 315-344, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0165

Evans, D. and Porter, R. "Near-trapping of waves by circular arrays of vertical cylinders", Applied Ocean Research 19, pp. 83-99, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1187(97)00015-1

Evans, D. V. "A theory for wave-power absorption by oscillating bodies", Journal of Fluid Mechanics 77 (1): 1-25, doi:10.1017/S0022112076001109, 1976. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001109

Falcao, A. "Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.11.003

Falnes, J. "Ocean Waves and Oscillating Systems: Linear Interactions Including Wave - Energy Extraction", Cambridge University press, ISBN 982-207-002-0, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511754630

Falnes, J. and Hals, J. "Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, Vol. 370, 246-277, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0249

Faltinsen, O. M. "Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0 521 45870, 1990.

Fossen, T. "Guidance and control of ocean vehicles", John Wiley and Sons Ltd, ISBN 0- 471-94113-1., 1994.

Garcia-Rosa, P., Cunha, J., Lizarralde, F., Estefen, S., Machado, I. R. and Watanabe, H. "Wave-to-wire model and energy storage analysis of an ocean wave energy hyperbaric converter", IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JOE.2013.2260916

Garnaud, X. and Mei, C. "Comparison of Wave Power Extraction by a Compact Array of Small Buoys and by a Large Buoy", IET Renewable Power Generation, Volume 4, Issue 6, pages 519-530, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0166

Hong-Wen Maa, H.-W., Shao-Ming, Y., Li-Quan, W. and Zhong, Z. "Analysis of the displacement amplification ratio of bridge-type flexure hinge", Elsevier Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 132, Issue 2, Pages 730-736, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2005.12.028

Koomey, J., Berard, S., Sanchez, M. and Wong, H. "", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 33, 3, 46-54., Article number 5440129, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MAHC.2010.28

Lewis, A., Alcorn, R. and Sheng, W. "On improving wave energy conversion, part I: Optimal and control technologies", Renewable Energy, Vol. 75, pp. 922-934, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.048

Li, Y. and Yu, Y.-H. "A synthesis of numerical methods for modeling wave energy converter-point absorbers", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16, pages 4352- 4364, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.008

Magagna, D. and Uihlein, A. "Ocean Energy Status Report: Technology, market and economic aspects of ocean energy in Europe", 2014 JRC , Report EUR 26983 EN, 2015.

Marquis, L., Kramer, M. and Frigaard, P. "First Power Production figures from the Wave Star Roshage Wave Energy Converter", 3rd International Conference on Ocean Energy ICOE, 2010.

McIver, P. "Wave interaction with arrays of structures", Applied Ocean Research 24 121-126, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-1187(02)00034-2

Mei, C. C. "Applied Dynamics of Ocean Surface Waves", World Scientific Pub, ISBN 9971507897, 1989.

Merino, J. and Veganzones, C. "Power system stability of a small sized isolated network supplied by a combined wind-pumped storage generation system: A case study in the canary islands", Energies Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 2351-2369, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en5072351

Paredes, G., Eskilsson, C., Palm, J., Bergdahl, L., Leite, L. and Taveira-Pinto, F. "Experimental and Numerical Modelling of a Moored, Generic Floating Wave Energy Converter", 10th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, 2013.

Perez, T. and Fossen, T. "Seakeeping Models in the Frequency Domain", One-day Tutorial, CAMS 07, Bol, Croatia, 2007.

Price, A., Dent, C. and Wallace, A. "On the capture width of wave energy converters", Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 31, pp. 251-259, 2009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2010.04.001

R., R., J., S. and T., P. "Time-domain models and wave energy converters performance assessment", 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, pp. 1-10, 2008.

Sandvik, C. M. "Wave-to-Wire Model of the Wave Energy Converter Bolt2", NTNU, Master thesis of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 2012.

Stoutenburg, E., Jenkins, N. and Jacobson, M. "Power Output Variations of Offshore Wind Turbines and Wave Energy Converters in California", Renewable Energy, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.04.033

Taghipour, R., Perez, T. and T., M. "Hybrid frequency-time domain models for dynamic response analysis of marine structures", Ocean Engineering 35, pages 685-705, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2007.11.002

Villate, J. L. and Brito e Melo, A. "Annual Report Ocean Energy Systems 2015", The Executive Committee of Ocean Energy Systems, 2015.

Wolgamot, H., Eatock Taylor, R. and Taylor, P. H. "The interaction factor and directionality in wave energy arrays", Ocean Engineering Volume 47, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.03.017

Yi-Hsiang Yu, Y. L. "Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system", Computers and Fluids 73, pp. 104-114, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2012.10.007

Yu, Z. and Falnes, J. "State-Space modelling of a vertical cylinder in heave", Applied Ocean Research 17, pages 265-215, 1995 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-1187(96)00002-8

How to Cite
Hernández, L., & Alzola, J. (2017). HYDRODYNAMIC ASSESMENT ON MOTION PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF GENERIC WAVE ENERGY POINT ABSORBERS . International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 4(4), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.29121/ijetmr.v4.i4.2017.72