• Wollner Materko Biomedical Engineering Program (PEB), COPPE Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
  • Rhenan Bartels Biomedical Engineering Program (PEB), COPPE Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
  • Gabriel Casulari Motta-Ribeiro Biomedical Engineering Program (PEB), COPPE Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
  • Agnaldo José Lopes Rehabilitation Sciences Post-Graduation Program, University Center Augusto Motta, RJ, Brazil. cUniversitary Hospital Pedro Ernesto, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
  • Jurandir Nadal Biomedical Engineering Program (PEB), COPPE Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
  • Alysson Roncally SilvaCarvalho Laboratory of Respiration Physiology, Carlos Chagas Filho InstituteofBiophysics, Universidade Federal do Riode Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Keywords: Heart Rate Variability, Spectral Analysis, Respiratory, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Breathing


Motivation/Background: Cardiorespiratory interaction is known to cause a peak in the heart rate variability (HRV) spectrum, characterized as sinus arrhythmia. This study evaluates standard indexes of HRV spectral analysis with and without the influence of respiratory signal in elderly subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, N=14) and healthy lungs (N=14). In the last, all subjects controlled their breathing at 0.1 Hz (CGL) and breathed freely (CG). Method: Anthropometrical characteristics were similar, with increased heart rate in COPD (75±11.1 vs. 62±8.3 bpm). Cardiac and respiratory signals in supine position were recorded with a portable data acquisition system during 5 min and processed in frequency domain. To remove the influence of the respiration in HRV, a 2th order Butterworth band-stop filter, was applied to the RRi signal. Results: In CGL main respiratory frequency was significantly lower (ANOVA with post-hoc Turkey's test, α = 0.05) and with the influence of respiratory signal differed from without the influence of respiratory signal to HRV spectral analysis (Student t-test, α = 0.05) with increased low frequency contribution (51.0±11.4 vs. 42.0±11.6, respectively). PG and CG showed no significant differences in with or without influence of respiratory signal to HRV spectral analysis. Conclusions: The results of the present study have showed a low frequency respiration at 0.1 Hz provided an increase in low frequency and decrease in high frequency power spectral analysis, showing an error in the HRV analysis.


Download data is not yet available.


Akselrod S., Gordon D., and Ubel FA., Shannon DC, et al. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuation: a quantitative probe of beat-to-beat cardiovascular control. Science. 213, 1981, 220- 222. DOI:

Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology the North American Society of Pacing Electrophysiology, Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation. 93, 1996, 1043-1065. DOI:

Hayano JUNICHIRO., Mukai SEIJI., Sakakibara, MASAHITO., Okada, AKIYOSHI., Takata K, and Fujinami TAKAO. Effects of respiratory interval on vagal modulation of heart rate, American Journal of Physiology. 267, 1994, H33-H40. DOI:

Berntson GG., Cacioppo JT., and Quigley KS. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: autonomic origins, physiological mechanisms and psychophysiological implications. Psychophysiology. 30, 1993, 183-196. DOI:

Pomeranz B., Macaulay RJ., Caudill MA., Kutz I., Adam D., Kilborn KM., Barger AC., Shannon DC., Cohen RJ., et. Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis. American Journal of Physiology. 248, 1985, H151-H153. DOI:

Larsen PD., Tzeng YC., Sin PYW., and Galletly DC. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in conscious humans during spontaneous respiration. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 174, 2010, 111- 118. DOI:

Hirsch JA., and Bishop B. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in humans: how breathing pattern modulates heart rate. American Journal of Physiology. 241, 1981, H620-H629. DOI:

Bartels MN., Jelic S., Ngai P., Gates G., Newandee D., Reisman, SS. The effect of ventilation on spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability during exercise. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 144, 2004, 91-98. DOI:

Beda A., Simpson DM., Carvalho NC., and Carvalho ARS. Low-frequency heart rate variability is related to the breath-to-breath variability in the respiratory pattern. Psychophysiology. 51, 201, 197-205. DOI:

Cammann H., and Michel J. How to avoid misinterpretation of heart rate variability power spectral. Cammann, H., & Michel, J. How to avoid misinterpretation of heart rate variability power spectra?. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. 68, 2002, 15-23. DOI:

Brown TE., Beightol LA., Koh J., and Eckberg DL. Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored. Journal of Applied Physiology. 75, 1993, 2310-2317. DOI:

Beda A., Jandre FC., Phillips DL., Giannella-Neto A., and Simpson DM. Heart-rate and bloodpressure variability during psychophysiological tasks involving speech: Influence of respiration, Psychophysiology. 44, 2007, 767–778. DOI:

Uijtdehaage SHJ., and Thayer JF. Accentuated antagonism in the control of human heart rate. Clinical Autonomic Research. 10, 2000, 107-110. DOI:

Aysin B., and Aysin E. Effect of respiration in heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, Proceedings of the 28th IEEE EMBS annual International Conference New York city, USA. Aug 30-sept 3, 2006,1776-1779. DOI:

Dames KK., Lopes AJ., and Melo PL, Airflow pattern complexity during resting breathing in patients with COPD: effect of airway obstruction. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 192, 2014, 39-47. DOI:

Volterrani M., Scalvinis S., Mazzuero G., Lanfranchi P., Colombo R., Clark AL., and Levi G. Decreased heart rate variability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest. 106, 1994, 1432-7. DOI:

GOLD. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Updated 2015.

Pino AV., Costa JCGD., Jandre FC., and Giannella-Neto A. “Mecânica – um sistema para análise do sistema respiratório”, In: Anais do XVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Biomédica. 2002, 253-257.

Bartels R., Neumamm L., Peçanha T., and Carvalho ARS. SinusCor: An advanced tool for heart rate variability analysis. Biomedical Engineering Online. 16(1), 2017, 110. DOI:

Cosio Piqueras MG., and Cosio MG. Disease of the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease European Respiratory Journal. 18(suppl 34), 2001, 41s-49s. DOI:

Sasaki K., and Maruyama R. Consciously controlled breathing decreases the high-frequency component of the heart rate variability by inhibiting cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity, Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 233, 2014, 155-163. DOI:

Schipke JD., Pelzer M., and Arnold G. Effect of respiration rate on short-term heart rate variability. Journal of Clinical and Basic Cardiology. 2, 1999, 92-4.

Sanderson JE., Yeung LY., Yeung DT., Kay RL., Tomlinson B., Critchley JA., Woo KS., Bernardi L. Impact of change in respiratory frequency and posture on power spectral analysis of heart rate and systolic blood pressure variability in normal subjects and patients with heart failure. Clinical Science (London). 91 (1996) 35-43.

Bernardi L, Wdowczyk-Szulc J., Valenti C., Castoldi S., Passino C., Spadacini G., and Sleight P. Effects of controlled breathing, mental activity and mental stress with or without verbalization on heart rate variability. Journal of American College of Cardiology. 35, 2000, 1462-1469. DOI:

Strano S., Lino S., Calcagnini G., Di Virgilio V ., Ciardo R., and Cerutti S., Calcagnini G., and Caselli G. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and cardiovascular neural regulation in athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 30, 1998, 215-9. DOI:

Wang YP., Kuo TB., Lai CT., and Yang CC. Effects of breathing frequency on the heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate acceleration capacity. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 115, 2015, 2415–2420. DOI:

How to Cite
Materko, W., Bartels, R., Motta-Ribeiro, G. C., Lopes, A. J., Nadal, J., & SilvaCarvalho, A. R. (2018). INFLUENCE OF THE RESPIRATORY SIGNAL IN HEART RATE VARIABILITY ANALYSIS IN THE RESPIRATORY PATTERN IN HEALTHY ELDERLY AND WITH COPD . International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 5(10), 1-8.