• Lucas Albert Jerome Hamidu Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute 10, NBRRI Way/ I.T. Igbani Street, off Awolowo Way, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria
  • Umar Omeiza Aroke Department of Chemical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria
  • Odeh Adey Osha Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Idris Misau Muhammad Department of Chemical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, P.M.B. 0248, Bauchi, Nigeria




Adhesive, D-optimalMixture Design, Formulation, Modeling, Polystyrene Waste and Response


The importance of polystyrene in handling and transportation of fragile equipment for safe delivery cannot be under stated. However; the post-usage has raised serious concern due to adverse effects caused by the litters on environment in blocking water-ways due to its weightlessness, release of oxides of carbon and resisting decomposition among others. This work was intended to model produced adhesive from polystyrene waste using Design Expert version 6.0.8 software and D-optimal mixture design for the responses analyses to obtain the best adhesive. Eight (8) experimental runs were generated for resin formulations with only 3 feasible, coded: R1, R4 and R7, based on 2 factorial design of experiment for resin formulations. Furthermore, 14 adhesive formulations were generated for each resin, coded: R1AD, R4AD and R7AD, that is, the formulated resin was combined with additives to produce adhesive using 3 factorial mixture designs and 4 responses, namely: viscosity, pH, percentage moisture content and percentage solid content. The responses were modeled using D-optimal mixture design: the viscosity response modeling was best fitted with quadratic model for R1AD produced adhesives, while R4AD and R7AD produced adhesives were fitted with Cubic model. The pH, percentage moisture content and percentage solid content responses were all fitted with cubic model based on the statistical and modeled data. The modeling solution was further optimized and validated for the three adhesive productions, the general selection of produced adhesive based on desirability factor and line with experimental analyses from the responses shows:  R7AD2>R4AD1>R1AD1 produced adhesives in the order of fitness.


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How to Cite

Hamidu, L. A. J., Aroke, U. O., Osha, O. A., & Muhammad, I. M. (2021). D-OPTIMAL RESPONSE MIXTURE DESIGN MODELING OF POLYSTYRENE WASTE ADHESIVE FORMULATIONS. International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 8(3), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.29121/ijetmr.v8.i3.2021.867