• David Gayadang Graduate Student, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate Studies, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
  • Narcisa Luz T. Mission Teacher I, DepEd-Ifugao, Philippines
  • Elsa L. Cajucom Director, Center for Natural Sciences, Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines



Green Synthesis, Betel Leaf, Nanotechnology, Antimicrobial Resistance, Lethality Assay, Disk Diffusion Assay


Silver nanoparticles have diverse qualities with significant applications. Amidst the challenge of growing antimicrobial resistance, incorporating these nanoparticles into drug delivery systems could offer solutions. Thus, their extensive production holds promise, particularly in healthcare. This experimental research aimed to unveil the potential of Betel leaf (Piper betel) extracts to formulate Silver Nanoparticles and their antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties. UV-VIS Spectrophotometry was utilized to quantify the bioformulated AgNPs. The presence of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was verified by the color change in all five varying concentrations of solution from greenish to dark brown. The decrease in bacterial growth rate becomes noticeable as the concentration of Ag nanoparticles rises. AgNPs in Sample 5 (higher concentration) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity for Staphylococcus aureus (11.25 mm and Escherichia coli (11.20 mm)—both partially active. The lowest activity was observed in Sample 1(lowest concentration) for both S. aureus and E. coli (10.16 mm). The result of the study shows that at 1000 ppm for the first three hours, no shrimps died. On the other hand, in the succeeding hours, the mortality rate increases. The study revealed that silver nanoparticles can be synthesized in a simple method using betel leaf extract. It is a straightforward, effective, and environmentally friendly process.


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How to Cite

Gayadang, D., Mission, N. L. T., & Cajucom, E. L. (2023). BIOFORMULATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM BETEL LEAF (PIPER BETEL) EXTRACT AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES. International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 10(8), 33–44.