CO-SOLVENT TETRAHYDROFURAN IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM USED COOKING OIL USING THE TRANSESTERIFICATION METHOD
Keywords:Used Cooking Oil, Co-Solvent THF, Transesterification, Biodiesel
Used cooking oil is a waste oil derived from cooking oil that has the potential to be produced into biodiesel because it contains fatty acids and triglycerides like other vegetable oils, however, its utilization is still low. This study aimed to analyze the effect of co-solvent THF based on reaction time and oil: methanol molar ratio in the manufacture of biodiesel using used cooking oil as raw material. Transesterification is a method used in biodiesel production by reacting raw materials with alcohol. KOH1% is used as a catalyst in the process of converting used cooking oil into biodiesel. In its operation, reaction time variations of 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 minutes and molar ratios of 1:3, 1:6, 1:9, 1:12, and 1:15 were used at a temperature of 65oC. The results showed that when entering the reaction time of 10 minutes the density and viscosity tend to be stable and meet the standards of SNI 7182:2015, namely the density is stable at 0.88 gr/ml and the viscosity is in the range of 4.6238 cSt-5.7336 cSt. Meanwhile, based on the molar ratio, it was obtained only at a molar ratio of 1:6 which is in accordance with the characteristics of biodiesel based on SNI 7182:2015 which has a density of 0.88 gr/ml and a viscosity of 4.6238 cSt. The best % yield was at a 1:6 molar ratio with a reaction time of 13 minutes, that is 88.8199% with a heating value of 33.0398 MJ/kg and a cetane number of 66.9. Based on the methyl ester test with GC-MS, the methyl ester (biodiesel) content in the product was 87.24%, dominated by Oleaic (9(Z)-Octadecenoic) acid or 49.33% oleic acid and Palmitic (Hexadecanoic) acid. or palmitic acid by 34.08%.
Alleman, T. L., Mccormick, R. L., Christensen, E. D., Fioroni, G., Moriarty, K., and Yanowitz, J. (2016). Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (5th Ed). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. https://doi.org/10.2172/1332064. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2172/1332064
Aprobi. (2022). Pemerintah Perlu Serius Memaksimalkan Used Cooking Oil Sebagai Biodiesel. Tribunnews.Com. (Diakses. Juni 20, 2022).
Arfah, M., and Razak. (2015). Optimasi Reaksi Esterifikasi Asam Laurat dengan Metanol Menggunakan Katalis Asam Sulfat Pekat. Online. Natural Science, 4(1), 46-55.
Boocock, D. G. B., 24 Bolland Crescent. (2003). Single-Phase Process for Producyion of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Frommixture Triglyseides and Fatty Acids. LIS. Verlag 3G7.
Boocock, D. G. B., Konar, S. K., Mao, V., and Sidi, H. (1996). Fast One-Phase Oil-Rich Process for the Preparation of Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters. Biomass and Bioenergy, 11, 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/0961-9534(95)00111-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0961-9534(95)00111-5
Dahlia, N., Rahmalia, W., and Usman, T. (2019). Adsorpsi Asam Lemak Bebas Pada Crude Palm Oil Menggunakan Zeolit Teraktivasi K2CO3. Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2(3), 112-120. https://doi.org/10.26418/indonesian.v2i3.36892. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26418/indonesian.v2i3.36892
Daryono, E. D., Rahman, F. F. A., and Zukhriyah. (2022). Penggunaan Metanol Sisa Reaksi Sebagai Reaktan Pada Proses Transesterifikasi Minyak Kelapa Sawit Menjadi Biodiesel. Jurnal Teknologi. Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, 14, No.2.
Elfian, F. (2017). Adsorpsi Arang Aktif Cangkang Kelapa Sawit Terhadap Warna Dan Asam Lemak Bebas Pada Crude Palm Olein. Karyailmiah [Program Studi Diploma] Kimia Departemenkimia :Universitas Sumatera Utara.
Haas, M. J. Scott, K.M., Alleman.T.L. dan Mc Cormick, R.L.2001. (1207-12). Engine Performance of Biodesel Fuel Prepared from Soybean Soapstock: A. High Quality Renewable Fuel Produced from a waste Feedstock. Energy and Fuels, 15. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef010051x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ef010051x
Knothe, G., and Gerpen, J. V. danKrahl, J. (editor). (2005). The biodesel handbook. AOCS press, Champaigh. IL. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781439822357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781439822357
Mardina, P., Faradina, E., and Setiyawati, N. (2012). Penurunan Angka Asampada Used Cooking Oil. Jurnal Kimia, 6(2).
Purwaningrum, S. D., and Sukaryo, S. (2018). Uji Karakteristik Biodiesel Berbahan Dasar Limbah Jeroan Ikan Diproses Menggunakan Mikro Gelombang. METANA, 14(2), 37-42. https://doi.org/10.14710/metana.v14i2.20333. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/metana.v14i2.20333
Sangha, M. K., Gupta, P. K., Thapar, V. K., and Verma. (2005). Storage Studies on Plants Oil and Their Methyls Esters. College of Agricultural Engineering, Punyab Agricultural University.
Setyawati, E., and Edwar, F. (2012). Teknologi Pengolahan Biodiesel Dariminyak Goreng Bekas Dengan Teknik Mikrofiltrasi Dantransesterifikasi Sebagai Alternatif Bahan Bakar Mesin Diesel, Jurnalriset Industri, 6(2), 117-127.
Soerawidjaja, T. H. (2003). Standar Tentatif Biodiesel Indonesia Dan Metode-Metode Pengujiannya, Disampaikan Dalam Diskusi Forum Biodiesel Indonesia, Bandung, 11 Desember, 2003.
Traction Energy Asia. (2019). Pemanfaatan Used Cooking Oil Untuk Produksi Biodiesel Dan Pengentasan Kemiskinan Di Indonesia. TNP2K.
Wahyuni, S., Kadarwati, S., and Latifah. (2011). Sintesis Biodiesel Dariused Cooking Oil Sebagai Sumber Eenergi Aalternatif Solar. Jurnal Sain Danteknologi, 9(1), 51-62.
Wahyuni, S., Kadarwati, S., and Latifah. (2020). Pedoman dan penyimpanan biodiesel and B30. [Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral].
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Robiah, Marhaini, Amrina Rosyada
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
- That its release has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
For More info, please visit CopyRight Section