• Al Farsi Hakam S.H. Ministry of Education, Oman
  • Dr. Juma N. College of Education, SQU, Oman
  • Dr. Issan S.



School Principals, Supervisors, Communication, Educational Communication


The study aims at identifying the reality of communication practices between school principals and supervisors in basic education in the Sultanate of Oman. It aims also at identifying the reality of communication between the school principal and the supervisor at Basic Education schools in the Sultanate of Oman, and identifying differences according to job position, gender, academic qualifications, years of experience, educational district, the number of schools the educational supervisor supervises, the size of the school, and the number of head teachers in the school. Finally, the study aims at reaching recommended processes to activate the communication between school principals and supervisors in basic education. The most significant findings of the field study are as follows the estimates of the responses of the study sample regarding the four aspects of the activation of communication between school principal and educational supervisor in Basic of Education schools in the Sultanate of Oman, varied between high and low. In the light of the study findings; the researcher has reached a number of proposed procedures to activate the communication between school principals and educational supervisors in the Basic Education schools in the Sultanate of Oman. A number of further research studies have also been proposed.


Download data is not yet available.


Abu Abed, Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed (2006). Recent trends in effective educational leadership. Amman: Dar Al Amal for Publishing and Distribution.

Al-Asadi, SaeedJassim; Ibrahim, Marwan Abdel-Majid (2003). Educational supervision. Amman: House of Culture and International Scientific Publishing House.

Batah, Ahmed (2006). Contemporary issues in educational management. Amman: Dar Al Shorouk.

Greenberg, Gerald & Baron, Robert (2004). Conduct management in organizations. Translation: Rifai, Rifai Mohammed and Bassiouni, Ismail Ali. Riyadh: House of Mars.

Habib, Abdul Rahman bin Mohammed (2003). Obstacles of joint work between the educational supervisor and the school principal, unpublished research, College of Education, King Saud University, Riyadh.

Hamdan, Mohamed Ziad (2000). The psychology of educational communication. Amman: Modern Education House.

Kharabsheh, Omar Mohammed Abdullah (2008). Building a training program for the development of competencies of administrative communication with administrative staff in the official Jordanian universities, Journal of the Federation of Arab Universities for Education and Psychology, Volume VI, No. 1, Scientific Association of Faculties of Education and its Institutes in Arab Universities, Faculty of Education, Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic.

Drucker, Peter P (1997). Managing and Working Worldwide in the Art of Management, edited by Joseph Al-Bassawar, Asaad Abu Lebda, Amman: Dar Al-Bashir.

Dweik, Tayseer; Yasin, Hussein; Adas, Mohammed Abdul Rahim; Dweik, Mohamed Fahmy(2009). Principles of Educational and School Administration and Educational Supervision. Amman: Dar Al Fikr for Publishing and Distribution

Davis, Brandt; Allison, Linda (2004). School administration in the 21st century. Translated by: Abdulaziz Al - Hawashi, Cairo: The Egyptian Renaissance Library.

Rabie, HadiMishaan (2006). School administration and modern educational supervision. Amman: Arab Society Library for Publishing and Distribution.

Salama, Yasser Ahmed (2003). Modern school administration. Amman: House of Culture.

Al-Salmi, Sa'udSaeedMesfer (2004). Proposed Strategy for Conflict Management among Principals of General Education Schools and Educational Supervisors of Jeddah Governorate: A Field Study. Unpublished PhD thesis, Girls College, Ain Shams University, Cairo.

Shizawi, Sheikha Mohammed Ali (2007). A proposed proposal to achieve integration in educational supervision between the educational supervisor and the school leaders in general education schools in the Sultanate of Oman, unpublished master thesis, Institute of Arab Research and Studies, League of Arab States, Cairo.

Tafesh, Mahmoud (2004). Creativity in educational supervision and school administration. Amman: Dar Al Furqan.

Ayesh, Ahmed Jamil (2008). Applications in educational supervision. Amman: Dar Al Masirah for Publishing, Distribution and Printing.

Abdel Razzaq, Hussein Mohamed Ali (2005). Educational Communication Activities at the General Secondary School in Giza Governorate, Egypt, Unpublished Master Thesis, Cairo University.

Al-Asfour, Abdul Rahman bin Ahmed Abdul Aziz; Al-Salim, Walid bin Sulayem bin Mohammed (2004). The relationship between the educational supervisor and the school principal as educational supervisor resident from the point of view of educational supervisors and principals of primary schools in the province of Ahsa, Ministry of Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Department of Educational Supervision in Ahsa.

Omar, Salem bin Said (2003). The extent to which the school principal exercises his supervisory and administrative roles in the schools of Dhofar Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman from the viewpoint of the principals, teachers and educational supervisors. Unpublished MA, Faculty of Education and Arts, Yarmouk University, Irbid.

Al-Anati, Khatem; Al-Ayazra, Ali (2007). Institutional communication in educational thoughtbetween theory and practice. Amman: Dar Al-Hamed and Dar Al-Raya Publishing and Distribution.

Al-Awfi, Mohammed bin Ali bin Masoud (2000). The Status of Educational Supervision in Public Education in the Sultanate of Oman and its Development Trends, Unpublished Master Thesis, Faculty of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat.

Ayazra, Ali Ahmed Abdul Rahman; Al-Fadhel, Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Awda (2006). Leading Communication in Educational Institutions. Amman: Dar Al-Hamed Publishing and Distribution.

Ayazra, Ali Ahmed Abdul Rahman; Al-Fadhel, Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Awda (2005). Studyingthe relationship between leadership and communication in educational institutions. Amman: Dar Al-Hamed Publishing and Distribution.

Issan, Salehah Abdullah; Alani, WajeehThabet (2007). The role of the educational supervisor andthe obstacles to his performance from the point of view of the supervisors themselves in the light of some variables in the Sultanate of Oman, Gulf Message Magazine, 28 (106): 15-43.

Al-Ghafri, Salim bin Suleiman bin Khamis (2002). Communication Obstacles among Faculty Members and Graduate Students at Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Unpublished Master Thesis, Yarmouk University, Jordan.

Fadli, Aida Abdullah Fadl (2000). The level of the relationship between the educational supervisors and the principals of schools and their impact on the educational guidance process in Abyan governorate, Republic of Yemen, unpublished master thesis, University of Aden.

Kassem, QassemJamil (P.T). Training and Management Development: Philosophy and Practice. Al Ain: University Book House.

Al-Qasimi, Aida Bent Butti Bin Rashid (2000). Obstacles of effective administrativecommunication between the directorates of education in educational areas and the principals of secondary schools in the Sultanate of Oman, unpublished master thesis, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat.

Al-Mashifari, Salim bin Ali bin Sulayem (2002). The expected and actual role of the educational supervisor in the professional development of teachers in secondary schools in Sultanate of Oman, unpublished master thesis, Faculty of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat.

Manji, Zahra BintSaif (2004). Administrative Communication in Omani Government Agencies: Analytical Study, Administrative Journal, Year 26, No. 96, Institute of Public Administration, Muscat.

Hawari, Sayed (2002). Management of assets and scientific foundations of the 21st century. Cairo: Ain Shams Library.

Ministry of Education (2009). Directory of School Performance Development System, Muscat: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education (2008). Yearbook of Educational Statistics. Version 38, p. 97, Mazoon Press: Muscat.

Ministry of Education (2007). Preparatory education development and ambition for the future. Apaper presented at the Twenty-first Educational Conference from 24-25 January 2007 in the Kingdom of Bahrain, Manama.

Ministry of Education (2007). Directory of Educational Supervision in the Sultanate of Oman. Muscat: Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education (2001). Directory of Basic Education Schools. Muscat: Ministry of Education.

Al-Ahmadi, Hamad bin Hilal bin Hamoud (1998). The extent to which principals of secondary andsecondary schools in Oman are practicing their role as resident educational supervisors, unpublished master's thesis, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat

Bennis, Warren (2002). Leadership& Communication.

BogoryaBuckzkowisi, Y. (1987). Strategic Management in Academic Institutions (as applied to several UWW institutions). Unpublished PDH Thesis. The Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities. p112

Davies, B. & Ellison L. (1997). School Leadership for the 21st Century. London & New York: Routledge.

Deakin, Wilsone E. (1986).An Analysis of Principals' Attitudes Clinical Supervision as a Meansfor Enhancing Communication about Instructional Improvement. Ed.D. Dissertation: United States, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Amherst, Publication Number: AAT 8612028.

Dix, Colin & Baird, Chris (1998). Front Office Operations. 4th edition, United Kingdom: Longman.

Dodd, Gerald Blaine.(1997).Perceptions of Superintendents and High School Principals on the Relationship between Communications Systems and the Influence and Inclusion of Building Principals in the Formation of School District Policies and Procedures. Ed.D. Dissertation: United States, Michigan: Wayne State University, Publication Number: AAT 9815292.

Drucker, Peter F. (1997). From vision to victory: Communication key to effective leadership. Thrust of Educational Administration. United States, New York: Random House.

Fantozzi, Gregory P.(1997).A Comparison of the Perspectives of Superintendents and Principals on the Communication Process. Ed.D. Dissertation: United States, Illinois: Northern Illinois University, Publication Number: AAT 9818113.

Glatfelter, A. (2000). The Influence of supervisor’s communication competence on worker satisfaction. Unpublished Thesis, California State University. Fullerton.

Gupta, U. (2000). Information Systems, USA: Prentice Hall.

Herman, J. (1992). Strategic Planning: Reasons for Failed Attempts. Educational Planning, 8(4).pp 36-41.

Herrington, M. & Elizabeth, Ann (1990). Skills Required for Effective Communication with Patrons and Parents as Viewed by Principals of Elementary Schools in the State of Texas. Ed.D. Dissertation: United States, Taxas: East Taxas State University, Publication Number: AAT 910687.

Hoy, W. &Miskel, C. (1991). Educational Administration: Theory, research, practice. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hunt, O.; Tourish D. & Hargie O. (2000). The Communication experiences of education mangers: identifying strengths, weaknesses and critical incidents. International Journal of Educational Management.14(3). PP. 120-129.

Johons, Cheryl.(1997). Communication Competencies Necessary for Effective EducationalLeadership as Perceived by Public School Principals. Ed.D. Dissertation. United States, Texas: University of Houston, Publication Number: AAT 9725686.

Jones, Rachel L.(2006).The Effects of Principals' Humor Orientation and Principals' Communication Competence on Principals' Leadership Effectiveness as Perceived by Teachers. Ed.D. Dissertation: United States, Ohio: The University of Akron, Publication Number: AAT 3280772.

Luxin An. (2001). Communication in Japanese Multinational Organizations in the United States, Disseration Abstracts International, 15(1), P.720 .

Martin, Robert A. (1985).Supervisory Communications and Support Linkages between High School Principals and Teachers. Apr 1985: United State, Indiana. ERIC Document, Accession Number: ED 263669.

Meyers, Lawrence S.; Anthony Guarino, Glenn Gamst (2005). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation. Sage publications Inc, p. 20. ISBN 1412904129.

Moeller, L. (1999). The Big Four Mass Media: Actualities & Expectations. Rochelle Park, N.J: Hayden Book Co.

Sisson, D. A. & Stocker, H. R. (1989). Analyzing and Interpreting Likert-type Survey Data. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 31(2), pp. 81-85.

Smith,T.J. (1997). Principals Information Technology Backgrounds, The Extent of this Relationship to A Technology Rich School. Dissertation Abstracts International. 57(11). May 1997.p 4618A.

Stein. D. (2000). Teaching critical reflection, Myths and realities. ERIC.

Torrington, D. & Laura, H. (1998). Human Resource Management, USA: Prentice Hall.

Wood ,J.(1999). Establishing Internal Communication Channels that work. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management. 21(2) pp 135-150. DOI:

Yin Cheang Cheng (1996). School Effectiveness & School-Based Management: A Mechanism for Development. London: Falmer Press, pp 141-145. DOI:




How to Cite

Hakam S.H., A. F., Juma N., & Issan S. (2018). ACTIVATING COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND SUPERVISORS IN BASIC EDUCATION IN THE SULTANATE OF OMAN . International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research, 5(8), 54–63.