PRODUCTION OF A NEW ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM PALM FRONDS BY THERMAL ACTIVATION
Keywords:Adsorption, Activated Carbon, Thermal Activation, Palm Fronds
A new activated carbon has been thermally produced from palm fronds, obtained from palm trees, cultivated widely in desert areas. A (21.75%) yield of Palm Fronds Activated Carbon (PFAC) was obtained from via a physical method. Characterization of PFAC was studied. Welldeveloped porosities verified by SEM were about 14% higher than that of commercial activated carbon. The nature of the product was identified by XRD. The activation process caused both the formation of graphite layers and the increase in bulk density, the graphite layers occurred due to breaking of chemical bonds and carbon burn-off through weak carbon –CO2 oxidation. The development of micro porosity will lead to promising applications for the removal of metal ions, that can be achieved through the surface functional groups of PFAC, detected by FTIR. PFAC is very effective for the adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions with great removal (99.5%).
Lee J.W., Choi S.P., Shim W.G., Moon H., Evaluation of the performance of adsorption and coagulation processes for the maximum removal of reactive dyes. Dyes Pigments, 69, (2006), 196– 203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2005.03.008
Sourja C., Sirshendu D., Sunando D., Jayanta K.B., Adsorption study for the removal of basic dye: experimental and modeling, Chemosphere,58, (2005), 1079–1086.
Martin M.J., Artola A., Balaguer M.D., Rigola M. Activated carbons developed from surplus sewage sludge for the removal of dyes from dilute aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. J., 94, (2003), 231–239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1385-8947(03)00054-8
Radhika M., Palanivelu K., Adsorptive removal of chlorophenols from aqueous solution by low cost adsorbent-Kinetics and isotherm analysis, J. Hazard. Mater. B, 138, (2006), 116–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.05.045
Basar C.A., Applicability of the various adsorption models of three dyes adsorption onto activated carbon prepared waste apricot, J. Hazard. Mater. B, 135, (2006), 232–241. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.11.055
Onal Y., Akmil- Basar, C¸ Sarici Ozdemir C., Erdogan S., Textural development of sugar beet bagasse activated with ZnCl2, J. Hazard. Mater.142, (2007), 138–143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.07.070
Legrouri K., Khouya E., Ezzine M., Hannache H., Denoyel R., Pallier R., Naslain R., Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid, J. Hazard. Mater.B.118, (2005), 259–263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.11.004
Prakash Kumar B.G., Shivakamy K., Miranda L.R., Velan M., Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust (Heveabrasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics, J. Hazard. Mater.B.136, (2006), 922–929. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.01.037
Wang S. L., Tzou Y. M., Lu Y. H., Sheng G., Removal of 3-chlorophenol from water using ricestraw-based carbon, J. Hazard. Mater.147, (2007), 313–318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.031
Hameed B.H., Din A.T.M., Ahmad A.L., Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: Kinetics and equilibrium studies, J. Hazard. Mater.141, (2007), 819–825. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.07.049
Hameed B.H., Ahmad A.L., Latiff K.N.A., Adsorption of basic dye (methylene blue) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust, Dyes Pigments 75, (2007), 143–149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2006.05.039
Tan I.A.W., Hameed B.H., Ahmad A.L., Equilibrium and kinetic studies on basic dye adsorption by oil palm fiber activated carbon, Chem. Eng. J.127, (2007), 111–119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2006.09.010
TanI. A.W., Hameed B.H., Ahmad A.L., Optimization of preparation conditions for activated carbons from coconut husk using response surface methodology, Chem. Eng. J. 137, (2008), 462– 470. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.04.031
Jassem M. S., Abdulkarim M, S. and Firyal M. A., Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue Dye onto Date stone activated carbon. Al-Mustansiriyah J. Sci.22, (2011), 6.
Chaouch N., Ouahrani M. R. and Laouini S. E. Adsorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solutions onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones of Phoenix dactylifera L (Ghars variety) by H3PO4Activation. Orient J.Chem.30, (2014), 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13005/ojc/300349
El Hadrami A, Daayf F, El Hadrami I. Date Palm Genetics and Breeding. Date Palm Biotechnology. (2011) ,479-502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1318-5_23
El-Juhany L.I. Degradation of date palm trees and date production in Arab countries: causes and potential rehabilitation. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences.4, (2010), 3998-4010.
Johnson D. Worldwide Dispersal of the Date Palm from Its Homeland. IV International Date Palm Conference. 882, (2010); 369-375. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.882.42
Zabar A.F., Borowy A. Cultivation of date palm in Iraq. Anneals Universitatis Mariae Curie Sklodowska, Lublin –Polonia.22, (2012), 39-54.
Heuzé V., Tran G., Delagarde R. Date palm leaves and date pedicels. Prodinera. F).
Genin D, Kadri A, Khorchani T, Sakkal K, Belgacem F, Hamadi M. Valorisation of date-palm byproducts (DPBP) for livestock feeding in Southern Tunisia. I-Potentialities and traditional utilisation. Option medit. (2004), 221-226.
Souad R., Marc B., Amor H., Herve D., Hameed B.H. Physically activated microporous carbon from a new biomasssource: Date palm petioles. C. R. Chimie. 20, (2017), 881–887. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2017.05.003
Mutasim H. Elhussien, Rashida M. H. Sumia A. N., Mawia H. Elsaim. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Palm Tree Leaves Impregnated with Zinc Chloride for the Removal of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solutions. American Journal of Physical chemistry. 6,4, (2017), 59-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajpc.20170604.12
Maulina S.and Anwari FN. Utilization of oil palm fronds in producing activated carbon using Na2CO3 as an activator. Mater. Sci. Eng. (2018), 309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/309/1/012087
Hassan M. Al-Swaidan and Ashfaq Ahmad. Synthesis and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Saudi Arabian Dates Tree’s Fronds Wastes. IPCBEE .20, (2018), 25-31.
Marcos J.P.,Francisco R.R. Chemical versus physical activation of coconut shell: A comparative study. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 152, (2012), 163-171. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2011.11.040
Salman J.M., Hameed B.H. Effect of preparation conditions of oil palm fronds activated carbon on adsorption of bentazon from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials.175, (2010), 133– 137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.139
Supriya, Palanisamy P.N. and Shanthi P. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Casuarina for the Removal of dyes and textile wastewater. Advances in Applied Science Research.1, 1, (2010), 58-65.
Yang.T and Lua. A.C, Characteristics of activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells by potassium hydroxide activation. Micropor. Mater., 63, (2003), 113–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1387-1811(03)00456-6
How to Cite
License and Copyright Agreement
In submitting the manuscript to the journal, the authors certify that:
- They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- The work described has not been formally published before, except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, thesis, or overlay journal.
- That it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
- That its release has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out.
- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere.
- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement.
Authors who publish with International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or edit it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) before and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
For More info, please visit CopyRight Section