IMPACT OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES AND GENDER
Keywords:Alien Species, Biodiversity, Gender, Livelihoods, Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries
Invasive Alien Species (IAS) is considered the second major cause of biodiversity loss and habitat degradation. They pose a serious threat to different ecosystems of Nepal such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries and natural systems. Invasive alien species affect people's livelihoods and human well-being.
Some species are important sources of fuel wood, fodder, timber and food products for local households and communities. Similarly, some species hold cultural, spiritual and recreational significance. In contrast, they also harm livelihoods and increase vulnerability via land encroachment and reduction in mobility or access. In some cases, they also diminish the abundance of natural resources used by households and reduce agricultural production. This results in a loss of their income and increases vulnerability. Furthermore, some invasive species have also negative implications on human health and safety. Likewise, they are responsible for reducing the cultural value of landscapes.
Invasive Alien Species are well-recognized drivers of social-ecological change. Extensive research on invasive species in Nepal has yet to be done. Therefore, the impact of invasive species on livelihoods and human well-being is a lesser-known concept. The effect of benefits and costs analysis of invasive species on livelihoods and human well-being remains pivotal for policy-making and management. This article is based on the development of a comprehensive national strategy and plan of action to control and manage IAS in Nepal. It discusses the broader aspect and status of IAS in Nepal.
Boy, G., Witt, A. Invasive Alien Plants and Their Management in Africa. Synthesis report of the UNEP/GEF Project. Removing Barriers to Invasive Plant Management in Africa, CABI, Africa, 2013.
Czech, B. and Krausman, P. R. Distribution and causation of species endangerment in the United States. Science 277: 1997, 1116-1117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5329.1116
GISP. Tropical Asian invaded the growing danger of invasive alien species. The Global Invasive species programme, 2004, 64.
Thapa, G. J., Subedi, N., Pandey, M. R., Thapa, S. K., Chapagain, N. R. and Rana A. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Invasive Alien Species Management. National Trust for Nature Conservation, Nepal. 112-122.
IUCN. IUCN guidelines for the prevention of biodiversity loss caused by alien invasive species. IUCN, Switzerland. 2000, 24.
Mack, R. N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W. M., Clout, M. and Bazza, E.A. Biotic Invasion: Causes, Epidemiology, Global Consequences and Control. Ecological Applications, 2000, 10: 689.
Mack, R. N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Evans, H., Clout, M. and Bazzaz, F.A. Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications, 2000, 10: 689-710. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0689:BICEGC]2.0.CO;2
MEA. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Global Assessment Reports Current State and Trends., 2 Washington DC: Island Press. 005, MFSC, 2014, 553-586.
Nepal Fifth National Report to Convention on Biological Diversity. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu.
MFSC. Nepal National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2020. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, 2014b.
Miththapala, S. ed A Strategy for Addressing Issues of Aquatic Invasive Alien species in the Lower Mekong Basin: Mekong Wetland Biodiversity Program and Regional Species Conservation Program. IUCN Asia, Sri Lanka., 2007.
S. Shrestha. Climate Change and Food Security from Gender Perspective, 2016.
S., Shrestha J. K. C., Shrestha B. B. and Adkins S. W. Genetic Diversity Assessment of the Alien Invasive Weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. in Nepal.In Thapa, G. J., Subedi, N., Pandey, M. R., Thapa, S. K., Chapagain, N. R. and Rana A. (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Invasive Alien Species Management. National Trust for Nature Conservation, Nepal. 2014, 30-38.
Siwakoti M., Siwakoty M., Chaudhary R. N. and Thapamagar H. Status of Invasive Alien Plant Species in the Protected Areas of Nepal with special reference to the Parsa Wildlife Reserve, Central Nepal. A report submitted to University Grants Commission, Nepal. 2014.
Siwakoti, M. Mikania Weed: A challenge for Conservation. Our Nature 5: 2007, 70-74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/on.v5i1.801
Siwakoti, M. and Shrestha, B. An Overview of Legal Instruments to Manage Invasive Alien Species in Nepal. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Invasive Alien Species Management, NTNC, Chitwan, Nepal 2014, 101-111.
Siwakoti, M., Chaudhary, R., Thapa Magar, H. Status of Invasive Alien Plant Species in the Protected Areas of Nepal with Reference to Parsa Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. A Report Submitted to the University Grants Commission, Sanothimi, Nepal, 2014.
Subedi, N. Effects of Mikania micrantha on the Demography, Habitat Use and Nutrition of Greater One Horned Rhinocers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Ph.D. thesis, Forest Research Institute University, Deharadun., 2013.
Thomas, D. F. Invasive species in the United States of America. Country Report. Proceeding of the Asian-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Conference. Kunming, China., 2003.
Tiwari, S., Adhikari, B., Siwakoti, M. and Subedi, K. An Inventory and Assessment of Invasive Alien Plant Species of Nepal. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Nepal. Viii+, 2005, 116.