BIOMEDICINES-CINA AGAINST COVID-19: CONTROLLED PLANT DISEASES ENRICHED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMUNICATION GREEN ECONOMY
Biomedicines-Cina against COVID-19: Controlled Plant Diseases
Keywords:Biomedicines-Cina, Controlled-COVID-19-Plant-Diseases, Enriched, Science-Technology-Communication-Green-Economy
The economic-plant-mulberry is infected by different pathogens causing diseases and significantly reduces silk production. Though pesticides are the most effective means of control, but they are expensive and not environment friendly. On the other hand, the ongoing spread of the novel coronavirus, forming epidemic, affecting human civilizations, because recently, no appropriate antiviral drugs for effective treatments or vaccines against COVID-19. To meet the challenge, it is reported that the therapeutic value of traditional-, complementary- and alternative-biomedicines-Artemisia nilagirica, has been used for centuries, to overcome various medical disorders. So, to concur with the situation, it will require new and more efficient solutions, technologies, and products. Present pretreatment with ultra-high-diluted biomedicines-Cina, prepared from the flowering meristems of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) pamp, mixed with water at an extremely low dose, were applied by foliar spray once daily for 15 days @ 10 ml/plant, against naturally occurring, root-knot-, leaf spot-, powdery mildew-, mosaic- and tukra- mulberry diseases, in field trials and silkworms rearing. Pretreatment-investigations have revealed that ultra-high-diluted-Cina, highly effective in ameliorating different mulberry-diseases by inducing their natural defense-response against pathogens-infection and leaving no residual-toxicity in the leaves to affect the growth of silkworms also. It can be concluded that the ultra-high-diluted, eco-friendly easily-available, easily applicable-Cina, at an extremely low dose, not only used as a potential-biomedical-drug against various plant-diseases, by inducing natural-defense- response, but also, it may be effective against COVID-19 for vaccinations and clinical trials by boosting the natural immune system for the improvement of Science and Technology communication cost-effectiveness green-economy and biodiversity conservations as well as bio-applications issues. And the future clinical-scientists develop all aspects of clinical-case-reports by publishing in the appropriate medical research archives, with the sincere hope that this crisis will soon be over and the whole world, may fight against the COVID-19 war, retaining normal forms of human civilizations globally.
Teotia RS, Sen SK. Mulberry disease in India and their control. Sericologia 1994; 34:1-18.
Datta SC, Sinhababu SP, Sukul NC. Improved growth of silkworms from effective treatment of mulberry diseases by Acacia auriculiformis extract. Sericologia 1997; 37:707-715.
Datta SC. Bio-nematicides in the control of root-knot nematode. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India 1999 (unpublished).
Datta SC. Plant Parasitic nematodes - an agricultural problem and its solutions. Visva-Bharati Quarterly 2005; 11:89-100.
Datta SC. Effects of Cina on root-knot disease of mulberry. Homeopathy 2006a; 95:98-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.homp.2006.01.005
Datta SC. Possible use of amaranth as catch crop for root-knot nematodes intercropped with okra. Phytomorphology 2006b; 56:113-116.
Datta SC, Datta R. Liquid homeopathic medicine Cina enriches sericulture industry. Journal of Environmental & Sociobiology 2006; 3:55-60.
Datta SC, Datta R. Increased silk production by effective treatment of naturally infected root-knot and black leaf spot diseases of mulberry with acaciasides. Journal of Environmental & Sociobiology 2007a; 4:209-214.
Datta SC, Datta R. Intercropping amaranth with mulberry for managing root-knot nematodes and improving sericulture. Sericologia 2007b; 47(3):297-302.
Datta SC. Mulberry disease: Problem in sericulture. SEBA NEWSLETTER, Environment & Sociobiology 2007;4:7-10.
Datta SC, Datta R. Potentized Artemisia nilagirica extract Cina increases silk production and effective rate of rearing in a field trial. Hpathy Ezine 2008.
Datta SC. The Role of Cina in the Field of Enriched Sericulture. Hpathy Ezine 2010.
Datta SC, Datta R. Control root-knot disease of mulberry by homeopathic medicines: Aakashmoni [MT, 30C, 200C & 1000C] prepared from the funicles of Acacia auriculiformis. Hpathy Ezine 2011a.
Datta SC, Datta R. Homeopathic Medicines Protect Environment, Health and Development by Controlling Mulberry Diseases. JJ Homeop Ayurv Med 2011b; 1:104. doi:10.4172/2167-1206.1000104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1206.1000104
Datta SC, Datta R. Homeopathic Medicines Protect Environment, Health and Development by Controlling Mulberry Diseases. Journal of Traditional Medicine & Clinical Naturopathy 2012a; 1: 104.
Datta SC, Datta R. Homeopathic medicine Aakashmoni 200C control mulberry diseases enriching sericulture. J. Curr. Chem Pharm Sc 2012b; 2:37-49.
Datta SC, Datta R. Efficacy of pure compound- acaciasides A and B as potential bioagents against various plant pathogens. Journal of Environment & Sociobiology 2012c; 9(1):17-26.
Datta SC, Datta R. Efficacy of homeopathic medicine-Aakashmoni as potential bio-agent against various plant pathogens. J Biochem & Pharmacol 2013; 2:4. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0501.S1.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0501.S1.004
Datta SC, Das R, Chatterjee K, Mondal B, Das R. Amaranth Plant: Protects Climate, Health and Development by Controlling Root-Knot Disease. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology 2016; 6:341.
Datta SC, Datta R. Prevention and control of root-knot disease of mulberry plants using bioagents amaranth plants: improving sericulture by protecting climate health, health and development. J Environ & Sociobiol 2016a; 13:191-200.
Datta SC, Datta R. Acaciasides use as Potential Bio-Agents against Various Plant Pathogens. Book: New Innovations in Environmental Biotechnology. Publisher: Lenin Media Delhi Pvt.Ltd. Delhi, Chapter 14, 2016; Pages-20, Editors: Dr. M.M. Abid Ali Khan (India), Murtaza Abid (India), Dr. Abdeen Mustafa Omer (United Kingdom), Dr.Binna Rani (India) 2016b.
Datta SC. Enriched Sericulture from Effective Treatment of Mulberry Diseases by Homeopathic Medicines. Adv Biochem Biotechnol 2019a; 7:084. DOI: 10.29011/2574-7258.000084.
Datta SC. Improved Environment by Identification of More Susceptible Plant Between Cowpea and Mulberry for Root-Knot Disease. Open Access Journal of Environmental Soil Science 2019b;2(5):242-245. DOI: 10.32474/OAJESS.2019.02.000148.
Datta SC. Enriched Science and Technology Communication Economy in Agriculture by Use of Acacia sides as Potential Bio-Agents against Various Pathogens. Advances in Agriculture, Horticulture and Entomology 2020;2:1-13.
Sukul NC, Sinhababu SP, Datta SC, Nandi B, Sukul A. Nematotoxic effect of Acacia auriculiformis and Artemisia nilagirica against root-knot nematodes. Allelopathy Journal 2001; 8: 65-72.
Govindaiah, Sharma DD. Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting mulberry - a review. Indian Journal of Sericulture 1994; 33:110-113.
Gunasekhar V, Govindaiah, Datta RK. Occurrence of Altemaria Leaf blight of mulberry and a key for disease assessment. Int J Tropical Plant Dis 1994; 12:53-57.
Sukul NC. Plants antagonistic to plant parasitic nematodes. Indian Review of Life Science 1992; 12:23-52.
Christie JR, Perry VG. Removing nematodes from soil. Proceeding of Helminthological Society, Washington 1951;18:106-108.
James WC. An illustrated series of assessment keys for plant diseases, their preparation and usage. Can Plant Disease Surv 1971; 51:39-65.
Chatterjee A, Sukul NC. Total protein of galled roots as an index of root-knot nematode infestation of lady’s finger plants. Phytopathology 1981; 71:372-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-71-372
Lowry OH, Rossebrough NJ, Farr AR, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin-phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 195; 193:265-275.
Anonymous. The American Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. 9th edn, Philadelphia, USA: Boericke and Tafel 1920.
Datta SC, Datta R, Sinhababu SP, Sukul NC. Acaciasides and root-knot nematode extract suppress Melodogyne incognita infection in lady’s finger plants. Proceeding of the National Seminar on Environmental Biology 1998; 98:205-209.
Valipour M. What is the tendency to cultivate plants for designing cropping intensity in irrigated area? Adv in Water Sci and Tech 2015a; 01:01-12.
Valipour M. Assessment of Important Factors for Water resources Management in European Agriculture. J of Water Resource and Hydraulic Eng 2015b;4(2):171-180 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5963/JWRHE0402007
WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) An international randomised trial of candidate vaccines against COVID-19 version. World Health Organization’s, R&D Blueprint 19 April 2020. https://www.who.int/blueprint/priority-diseases/key-action/novel-coronavirus/en/
Filetti S. The COVID-19 pandemic requires a unified global response. Springer Science Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature, Endocrine 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02293-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02293-6
Science Daily. The genetic quest to understand COVID-19: Unlocking the genetic code of the novel coronavirus will help us prevent other diseases. Science Daily, Science News, University of Sydney 26 March 2020. .
Julka A. Coronavirus India News Live Updates 24 April 2020: COVID-19 Cases Soar Past 24000. Grain Mart News, April 24, 2020.
Anand K, et al. Structure of coronavirus main proteinase reveals combination of a chymotrypsin fold with an extra α-helical domain. The EMBO Journal 2002; 21:3213-3224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/cdf327
Yang HT, et al. The crystal structures of severe acute respiratory syndrome virus main protease and its complex with an inhibitor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003; 100:13190-13195, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1835675100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1835675100
Buschman E, Skamene E. Genetic Resistance to Coronavirus Infection- A Review. Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series, Springer Nature Switzerland 2019;380:1-11.
Roujian L, Xiang Z, Juan L, Peihua N, Bo Y, Honglong W, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. 2020; l 395: 565-574. www.thelancet.com.
IUCN. Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, World Health Organization and World-Wide Fund for Nature. Gland, Switzerland1993.
Mukewar P. Trade in the time of COVID-19: The economic impact of coronavirus on India and beyond. India Today, New Delhi March 29, 2020.
Cohen J. United States should allow volunteers to be infected with coronavirus to test vaccines, lawmakers argue. Science, Posted in: Health Science and Policy Coronavirus. Apr. 21, 2020. doi:10.1126/science.abc3772. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc3772
Servick K. Antimalarials widely used against COVID-19 heighten risk of cardiac arrest. How can doctors minimize the danger? Science,Posted in: Health Coronavirus 2020. doi:10.1126/science.abc3816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc3816
Datta SC, Datta R, Sukul A, Sukul NC, Sinhababu SP. Relative attractiveness of four species of vegetable crops for Meloidogyne incognita. Environ Ecol 2000; 18:233-235.
Datta SC, Sinhababu SP, Banerjee N, Ghosh K, Sukul NC. Melodogyne incognita extract reduces Melodogyne incognita infestation in tomato. Indian J Nematol 1998; 28:1-5.
Datta SC, Datta R, Sinhababu SP, Sukul NC. Acaciasides and root-knot nematode extract suppress Melodogyne incognita infection in lady’s finger plants. Pro Nat Sem Environ Biol 1998; 98:205-209.
Datta SC. Improved midday meal by using cowpea as eco-friendly crop controlling root-knot forming global, green, growth and green economy. International Journal of Advanced Research (Accepted) 2019c.
Mohanty B, Puri S, Kesavan V. A Review on Therapeutic Potential of Artemisia nilagirica. J Plant Biochem Physiol 2018; 6:205. doi:10.4172/2329-9029.1000205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-9029.1000205
Panda S, Rout JR, Pati P, Ranjit M, Sahoo SL. Antimalarial activity of Artemisia nilagirica against Plasmodium falciparum. J Parasit Dis 2018;42(1):22–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-017-0956-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-017-0956-9
Arokiyaraj S, Sripriya N, Bhagya R, Radhika B, Prameela L, et al. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and free radical scavenging effects of Artemisia nilagirica, Mimosa pudica and Clerodendrum siphonanthus-An in vitro study. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical
Biomedicine 2012; 29: S601-S604.
Ahameethunisa AR, Hopper W. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia nilagirica leaf extracts against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010; 29:6.
Suseela V, Gopalakrishnan VK, Varghese S. In vitro antioxidant studies of fruits of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010; 72:644. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.78538
Sukul NC. Control of plant parasitic nematodes by plant substances. Allelopathy in Agriculture and Forestry, (Edited by S.S. Narwal and P. Tauro), Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, India 1994;183-211.
Sukul NC, Sukul A. High Dilution Effects: Physical and Biochemical Basis. Authors Nirmal C. Sukul, Anirban Sukul Copyright 2005 Publisher Springer Netherlands Copyright Holder, Springer Science & Business Media B.V. eBook Edition Number 1Number of Pages XII, 130.
ISBN 978-1-4020-2156-5 DOI 10.1007/1-4020-2156-9, Hardcover ISBN 978-1-4020-2155-8 Softcover ISBN 978-90-481-6601-5.
Fenner LM. Determination of nematode mortality. Plant Disease Reporter 1962;46: 383.
Sukul NC. Soil and plant nematodes. West Bengal State Book Board Publisher 1987; pp. 1-271.
Sengupta K, Govindaiah, Pradip K, Murthuza B. Hand book on pest and disease control of mulberry and silkworm- Disease of mulberry and their control. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand 1990; pp. 1-14.
James WC. An illustrated series of assessment keys for plant diseases, their preparation and usage. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 1971;51(2):39-65.
Allen SJ, Brown JF, Kochman JK. Production of inoculum and field assessment of Atemaria helianthi on sunflower. Plant Disease 1983;67(8):665-668. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-67-665
Datta SC. Enriched School Health for The Effective Healthcare Bio-Activity of Barn Owls. Research & Review of Health Care Open Access Journal 2019d;3(3):269-275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32474/RRHOAJ.2019.03.000164
doi: 10. 32474.RRHOAJ.2019.03.000164.
Datta SC. Enriched School Environment for the Effective Bio-Activity of Barn Owls. International journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food science (IJHAF) 2019e;3(3):119-126, ISSN: 2456-8635. https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.3.3.2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22161/ijhaf.3.3.2
Field B, Jordan F, Osbourn A. First encounters – development of defence – related natural products by plants. New Phytologist 2006; 172:193-207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01863.x
Klessig, Daniel F, Malamy J. The salicylic acid signal in plants. Plant Molecular Biology 1994; 26:1439-1458. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00016484
Das S, Sukul NC, Mitra D, Sarkar H. Distribution of lectin in nematode infested and uninfested roots of Hibiscus esculentus. Nematologica Mediterranea 1989; 17:123-125.
Mauch-Mani B, Metraux JP. Salicylic acid and systemic acquired resistance to pathogen attack. Annals of Botany 1998; 82:535-540. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1998.0726
Nandi B, Kundu K, Banerjee N, Sinhababu SP. Salicylic acid –induced suppression of Meloidogyne incognita infestation of okra and cowpea. Nematology 2003; 5:747-752. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156854103322746922
Ross AF. Systemic acquired resistance induced by localized virus infection in plants. Virology 1961; 14:340-358. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6822(61)90319-1
Osbourn AE, Clarke BR, Lunness P, Scott PR, Daniels MJ. An oat species lacking avenacin is susceptible to infection by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 1994;45: 457-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-5765(05)80042-6
Jasinski M, Stukkens Y, Degand H, Purnelle B, Marchand-Brynaert J, Boutry M. A plant plasma membrane ATP binding cassette-type transporter is involved in antifungal terpenoid secretion. Plant Cell 2001; 13:1095-1107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3871366
Stukkens Y, Bultreys A, Grec S, Trombik T, Vanham D, Boutry M. NpPDRI, a pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, plays a major role in plant pathogen defense. Plant Physiology 2005;139: 341-352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.062372
McClure MA, Misaghi I, Night Edward LJ. Shared antigens of parasitic Nematodes and Host plants. Nature 1973;244: 306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/244306a0
Osbourn AE. Saponins and plant defence– a soap story. Trends in Plant Science 1996; 1:4-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(96)80016-1
Papadopoulou K, Melton RE, Leggett M, Daniels MJ, Osbourn AE. Compromised disease resistance in saponin-deficient plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 1999;96:12923-12928. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.22.12923
Osbourn AE, Qi X, Townsend B, Qin B. Secondary metabolism and plant defence. New Phytologist 2003; 159:101-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00759.x
Sasser JN, Freckman DW. Proceedings of 25th Annual Meeting Society of Nematologists, Orlando, Florida 1986;86:32.
Datta SC, Datta R. Defence resistance of okra against root-knot disease by bio-nematicides. Proceedings of the Zoological Society,Calcuutta University,Calcutta, West Bengal 2000;59(2):75-82.
Zarter CR, Demmig-Adams B, Ebbert V, Adamska I, Adams WW III. Photosynthetic capacity and light harvesting efficiency during the winter-to-spring transition in subalpine conifers. New Phytologist 2006; 172:283-292. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01816.x
Williams SCP. Humans may harbor more than 100 genes from other organisms. Science, Posted in: Biology 2015. doi:10.1126/science. aab0307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science
Zhou P, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature Medline 2020; 579:270–273. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
Wu F, et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature Medline 2020; 579:265–269. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3
Lu R, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet Medline 2020; 395:565–574. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8
Appels R, Nystrom J, Webster H, Keeble-Gagnere G. Discoveries and advances in plant and animal genomics. Funct Integr Genomics 2015; 15:121–129. doi:10.1007/s10142-015-0434-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-015-0434-3
Science Daily. Our complicated relationship with viruses. Science NewsNIH, National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) 2016.
On Biology. The viral content of human genomes is more variable than we thought. Rebecca Pearce, Journal Development Manager at BMC, Blog Network 2019.
Callif BL. The Human Genome Is Full of Viruses. Medium, Medical Myths and Models 2020.
Zhang LK, et al. Structure-based design of antiviral drug candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Cite as: W. Dai et al., Science 2020;10.1126/science. abb4489. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/04/21/science.abb4489.
Speiser J. The COVID-19 Disease and Our Genes. Ken Burns, A special post from guest writer Joshua Speiser, The Gene 7th April, 2020.
Sati SC, Sati N, Ahluwalia V, Walia S, Sati OP. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Artemisianilagirica essential oil growing in northern hilly areas of India. Journal Natural Product Research, Formerly Natural Product Letters 2013;27(1):45-8. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2011.650636. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2011.650636
Pandey AK, Singh P.The Genus Artemisia: A 2012-2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils. Medicines (Basel) 2017;4(3):68. doi: 10.3390/medicines4030068. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4030068
Jiang Z, Guo X, Zhang K, Sekaran G, Cao B, Zhao Q, Zhang S, Kirby GM and Zhang X. The Essential Oils and Eucalyptol from Artemisia vulgaris L. Prevent Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Activating Nrf2–Keap1 and Enhancing APAP Clearance Through Non-Toxic Metabolic Pathway. Front. Pharmacol 2019; 10:782. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00782 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00782
Times of India. Covid-19: WHO cautions against untested traditional remedies. The World Health Organization (WHO), Paris, 4th May 2020.
Said N. Coronavirus COVID-19: Available Free Literature Provided by Various Companies, Journals and Organizations around the World. Ongoing Chemical Research 2020;5(1):7-13. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3722904.
News Drug Target Review’s. Coronavirus update: recent developments in vaccine Research. Drug Target Review’s round-up of the latest developments in 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2) therapeutics and vaccines 27th February 2020.
Joshi T, Joshi T, Sharma P, Mathpal S, Pundir H, Bhatt V, Chandra S. In silico screening of natural compounds against COVID-19 by targeting Mpro and ACE2 using molecular docking. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2020; 24:4529-4536.
Sweeney C. Human Immunomics Initiative will decode immune system, speed new vaccines. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health News, April 14, 2020, Copyright © 2020 The President and Fellows of Harvard College firstname.lastname@example.org, 617.549.2638. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu.
WHO. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines. International travel and health Chapter 2020; 6:1-61, See country list updated yearly on WHO’s ITH web page at: http://www.who.int /ith/en/ http://www.who.int/immunization_standards/vaccine_quality/PQ_vaccine_list_en/en/.
Bougrine R, Hdidou Y, Aissaoui H, Elouafi N, Ismaili N. Emergency stay triggered Tako-Tsubo syndrome: A case report and review of the literature. Glob J Medical Clin Case Rep 2019;6(2):035-038. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17352/2455-5282.000077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-5282.000077
Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, et al. SARSCoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 2020;181(2): 271-280. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052
Soler MJ, Barrios C, Oliva R, Batlle D. Pharmacologic modulation of ACE2 expression. Curr Hypertens 2008; 10:410-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-008-0076-0
John AJ, Julie RI, Beth HM, D’Agostino BR, Harrington PD. Inhibitors of the Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System and Covid-19. The new England Journal o f Medicine. Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society. This editorial was published at NEJM.org. on May 1, 2020.
The Times of India. Homeopathy, ayurveda docs want a chance to treat Covid-19. RANCHI: TOI, TNN, May 11, 2020.
Merck JCJ. One of Big Pharma’s biggest players, reveals its COVID-19 vaccine and therapy plans. Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center, Science, Science Mag.org. 26May, 2020.
Wigginton NS, Cunningham RM, Katz RH, Lidstrom ME, Moler KA, Wirtz D, Zuber MT. Moving academic research forward during COVID-19. POLICY FORUM, Science, Science Mag.org. 28 May 2020: eabc5599. DOI: 10.1126/science.abc5599 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc5599
Stone R. Yemen was facing the world’s worst humanitarian crisis. Then the coronavirus hit. Science, Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center, Science Mag.org. May. 28, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd0572
Parks JM, Smith JC. How to Discover Antiviral Drugs Quickly. The New England Journal of Medicine, nejm.org. Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society. May 20, 2020.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMcibr2007042. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcibr2007042
Kupferschmidt K. Can plasma from COVID-19 survivors help save others? Science’s COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center. ScienceMag.org., Science May 27, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd0355
Gilmore K. Artemisia annua to be tested against COVID-19. ArtemiLife Inc., a US based company, CEO Adam Maust in Artemisia annua fields 2020.
Staff Reporter. Corona Vaccine will be prepared from the extract of fruits of Aakashmoni plants- Opinion of the researcher of Burdwan. Agnirath News, Burdwan, 15th April 2020;21(8):1-3. Reg.No.-WBBEN/2000/2086.
The Science Advisory Board Net. Fighting SARS-CoV-2 at the bench? Express Cells has your back. Letter Science Advisory Board.Net on Fri, 24 Apr 2020;18:30:49.
Dutta PK. Covid Toes among kids: New symptom of novel coronavirus infection. News India Today, New Delhi 24th April 2020.
Rajput H. Homeopathic Prophylaxis: Just Homeopathic Vaccination or More. J Homeop Ayurv Med 2012; 1:105. doi:10.4172/2167-1206.1000e105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1206.1000e105
Abdelrahman Mohamed Yehia TY, El-Ashry S, El-Batoty K, El-Hady S. Efficiency of Triple Antibiotic Mixture and Propolis as Intracanal Medication in Revascularization process in immature apex: A clinical study. Glob J Medical Clin Case Rep 2019;6(2):019-025.
NIH. Clinical Alerts and Advisories /Disclaimer. U.S. National Library of Medicine, ClinicalTrials.gov. This page last reviewed in September 2017. https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus and https://www.coronavirus.gov.
Werner K, Werner K, Risko N, Burkholder T, Munge K, Wallis L, et al. Cost–effectiveness of emergency care interventions in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ2020; 98:341–352. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.19.241158. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.19.241158
Kaiser J. To streamline coronavirus vaccine and drug efforts, NIH and firms join. Science, ScienceMag.org. 17th April 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc3180
The Science Advisory Board Net. Bulk Antibody Production to Support COVID-19 Research & More. Are You Involved in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Research? Let's Work Together. Letter Science Advisory Board.Net on Mon, 04 May 2020b.
News. Homeopathy in managing viral infections like COVID-19. BioSpectrum 10 April 2020.
Sukul NC, Sukul A. High Dilution Effects: Physical and Biochemical Basis. Authors Nirmal C. Sukul, Anirban Sukul Copyright 2005 Publisher Springer Netherlands Copyright Holder, Springer Science & Business Media B.V. eBook 2005; ISBN 978-1-4020-2156-5. doi: 10.1007/1-4020-2156-9, Hardcover ISBN 978-1-4020-2155-8 Softcover ISBN 978-90-481-6601-5 Edition Number 1Number of Pages XII, 130.
Mahata CR. Avogadro Limit Washed out by Nano-Associates of Water which Continue as Information Carriers in Serial Dilutions and End up with Generalized Concept of Medicines. International Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine 2017;9(4):00305.
doi: 10.15406/ijcam.2017.09.00305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/ijcam.2017.09.00305
THE WEEK MAGAZINE, JOURNALISM WITH A HUMAN TOUCH. Scientists in Israel, Netherlands claim progress in COVID-19 antibody trials ‘Such a neutralising antibody has potential to alter the course of infection’. Web Desk, May 06, 2020.
E TIMES OF INDIA NEWS. Italy claims to develop first COVID-19 vaccine: Here is the current status of all the potential coronavirus vaccines. TIMESOFINDIA.COM, Health & Fitness, Last updated on - May 6, 2020.
Roy S. Locust attack: A joint fight by India and Pakistan, over the years. The Indian Express, New Delhi, Updated: May 29, 2020.