CONCEPT OF SOPHA (INFLAMMATION): A CRITICAL STUDY

  • Ashok Kumar Panda Research Officer, Central Ayurveda Institute for Hepatobiliary Disorders, CCRAS, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India, Bhubaneswar, India
  • Rabinarayan Tripathy Professors, Amrita School of Ayurveda, America Viswavidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus, Kollam; 690525, India
Keywords: Antah Sopha, Bahir Sopha, Inflammation, Sotha, Soyathu, Vrana Sopha

Abstract

Back ground- Inflammation has a decisive role in pathological classification of diseases in modern medicine and well-known phenomenon of infectious diseases and Non communicable disorders (NCD) also. Ayurveda emphasised the doshic involvement in pathophysiology of diseases process   and the phenomenon of Sopha is undetermined in diagnosis and treatment.

Objective- A literature survey from Ayurveda classical texts was undertaken to understand the role of Sopha in disease process.   

Methods- The enumerations of Sopha in Bruhatrayee, Madhav nidana & Bhela Samhita are critically studied to find out its etiology, types, pathogenesis and line of treatment. 

Enumeration- Sopha is very fundamental to understand the disease process in Ayurveda.    The normal snigdha-sheet- agneya character of Srotas get disturbed by the Vidahi & Abhisandhya dravyas, as a result there is a disturbed in the transport mechanism of the affected Srotas. Sopha can be a symptom of any disease and/or an independent disease and may be a complication of other diseases. Sopha can be classified as Antah Sopha & Bahir Sopha.

Discussion- The concept of sopha was discussed in terms of pathology and treatment of modern science.

Conclusion- Sopha is linked with wide spectrum of Infectious as well as Non communicable disorders (NCD). This study also found out a range of therapies for Sopha driven diseases. It can be recommended to include this concept of Sopha in Ayurveda undergraduate and post graduate curriculum.

References

Signore A. About inflammation and infection. EJNMMI Res. 2013;3(1):8. Published 2013 Feb 1. doi:10.1186/2191-219X-3-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-219X-3-8

Kumar V, A. A., Fausto N. & Aster J. C. in Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 8th edn 43–77 (Saunders, 2009).

Manabe, I. Chronic inflammation links cardiovascular, metabolic and renal diseases. Circ. J. 75, 2739–2748 (2011). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-11-1184

Ward SG. New drug targets in inflammation: efforts to expand the anti-inflammatory armoury. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;153 Suppl 1(Suppl 1): S5–S6. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707628 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707628

Aggarwal BB, Prasad S, Reuter S, et al. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from Ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases: "reverse pharmacology" and "bedside to bench" approach. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12(11):1595–1653. doi:10.2174/138945011798109464 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/138945011798109464

Debnath T, Kim DH, Lim BO. Natural products as a source of anti-inflammatory agents associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Molecules. 2013;18(6):7253–7270. Published 2013 Jun 19. doi:10.3390/molecules18067253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18067253

Sharma P V; Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana 18th Chapter (Tri Sothiya); 4th edn. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan Varanasi, India 1994.

Charaka, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesa 'Vidyotini' hindi commentary by Kasinatha Sastri edited by Gangasahaya Pandey; Chikisa sthana 12th Chapter (Svayatu Chikisa) 4th edn. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan Varanasi, India 1994. p.403

Sushruta Samhita of Maharsi Sushruta edited with Ayurved Tattva Sandipaka by Kaviraj Ambika Duttta Shastri Part I 2008; Chikisa sthana 23th Chapter (Sopha Chikitsa) Chaukhambha Sanskrit prakashan Varanasi, Reprinted 2010

Vagbhata. Astanga Hridaya (Sarvangsundara of Arundatta and Ayurveda Rasayan of Hemadri). Hari Sadashiva Shastri Paradakara, editor. 1 st ed. Varanasi: Chawkhambha Surbharti Prakashan; 2011. Nidhana sthana 13th Chapter (Pandu –Sopha Visarpa Nidana).

Vagbhata. Astanga Hridaya (Sarvangsundara of Arundatta and Ayurveda Rasayan of Hemadri). Hari Sadashiva Shastri Paradakara, editor. 1 st ed. Varanasi: Chawkhambha Surbharti Prakashan; 2011. Chikisa sthana 17th Chapter (Sopha Chikitsa)

Bhela Samhita by Bhela Charya. Translated by K.H. Krishnamurthy, Edited by Sharma P.V. Chowkhamba Vishwa Bharati, Varanasi;2000; Chikitsa sthana 17th Chapter (Svayatu Chikitsa)

Upadhyaya Y. Madhav Nidana. Chaukhamba Prakashana: Varanasi; 2014. 36th Chapter (Sotha Nidana)

Keener J., Sneyd J. (2009) Cellular Homeostasis. In: Keener J., Sneyd J. (eds) Mathematical Physiology. Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, vol 8/1. Springer, New York, NY DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-75847-3_1

Balkwill F, Mantovani A. Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet. 2001; 357:539–45. [PubMed: 11229684] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04046-0

Hansson GK. Inflammatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jul; 7 Suppl 1:328-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03416.x

Yang X, Chang Y, Wei W. Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation: Immunity in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016:6813016. doi:10.1155/2016/6813016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6813016

Lance Munn, Cancer and Inflammation, Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2017 March; 9(2):. doi:10.1002/wsbm.1370. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wsbm.1370

Parekar RR, Bolegave SS, Marathe PA, Rege NN. Experimental evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet potential of Dashamoola. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015;6(1):11–18. doi:10.4103/0975-9476.146565 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.146565

A. Bag, S. Kumar Bhattacharyya, N. Kumar Pal, and R. R. Chattopadhyay, “Anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid peroxidative, antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activities of hydroalcoholic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1515–1520, 2013.

Gharate, M., Kasture, V. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antiulcer activity of Punarnavasava: an Ayurvedic formulation of Boerhavia diffusa . Orient Pharm Exp Med 13, 121–126 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-012-0081-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-012-0081-3

Bharat agarwal, Priya Weesasinghe, Prachi garodia, Indra D.Bhat, From traditional Ayurvedic medicine to modern medicine: Identification of therapeutic target for suppression of Inflammation and cancer, Expert opinion on therapeutic target 2206,10(1),87-118 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1517/14728222.10.1.87

Published
2020-08-18
How to Cite
Panda, A., & Tripathy, R. (2020). CONCEPT OF SOPHA (INFLAMMATION): A CRITICAL STUDY. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 8(8), 15-23. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i8.2020.692