• Chanchal Tyagi Research Scholar, Department of Education, C. C. S. University, Meerut (UP), India
  • Pradeep Kumar Misra Director for Center for Policy Research in Higher Education, NIEPA, New Delhi, India




Upanishads, Chhandogya Upanishad, Prasna Upanishad, Taittiriya Upanishad, Ancient India, Teacher, Professional Development Practices

Abstract [English]

It is often believed that ‘teacher professional development’ is propagated, researched and implemented by western researchers in 19th century. Contrary to these beliefs, a study of ancient Indian text Upanishads (c.800 BCE - c.500 BCE) reveal that teacher professional development practices were a part and parcel of ancient Indian education system. Present research traces a number of evidences from three Upanishads namely Chhandogya Upanishad, Prasna Upanishad, and Taittiriya Upanishad to prove that a majority of modern day teacher professional development practices were prevalent in ancient India and rishis and munis (teachers in an ancient India) were apt practitioners and beneficiaries of these practices.


Download data is not yet available.


Adagiri, S. O. (2014). A comparative study of teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) in Nigeria and England: A study of primary schools in Abuja and Postmouth (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Portsmouth. https://researchportal.port.ac.uk/en/studentTheses/a-comparative-study-of-teachers-continuing-professional-developme

Bryant, D.P. et al. (2001). The effects of professional development for middle schools general and special education teachers on implementation of reading strategies in inclusive content area classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 251-264. https://doi.org/10.2307/1511114

Burden, K. (2010). Conceptualizing teachers' professional learning with Web 2.0. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 27(3), 148-161. https://doi.org/10.1108/10650741011054456

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Collier MacMillan Publishers, 50(3). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131728609335764?journalCode=utef20

European Commission. (2010). The profession of teacher education in Europe: Final report. Iceland: European Commission.

Evers, A. T. Kreijns, K. Béatrice, I. J .M. & Heijden, V. D. (2016). The design and validation of an instrument to measure teachers' professional development at work. Studies in Continuing Education, 38(2), 162-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/0158037X.2015.1055465

Farrell, T. S. C. (2004). Reflective practice in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. https://in.sagepub.com/en-in/sas/book/reflective-practice-action

Farrell, T. S. C. (2007). Reflective language teaching: From research to practice. London, England: Continuum Press. https://www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/reflective-language-teaching-from-research-to-practice/ch1-reflective-language-teaching

Fulton, K. Yoon, I. & Lee, C. (2005). Induction into learning communities. Washington, DC: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234623874_Induction_into_Learning_Communities

Geeraerts, K. Tynjala, P. Heikkinen, H.L.T. Markkanen, I. Pennanen, M. & Gijbels, D. (2015). Peer-group mentoring as a tool for teacher development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 38(3), 358-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2014.983068

Geijsel, F. P. Sleegers, P. J. C. Stoel, R. D. & Krüger, M. L. (2009). The effect of teacher psychological and school organizational and leadership factors on teachers' professional learning in Dutch schools. The Elementary School Journal 109(4), 406-427. https://doi.org/10.1086/593940

Gnawali, L. (2001). Investigating classroom practices: A proposal for in-service teacher development for the secondary school teachers in Nepal (Unpublished master'sthesis).The College of St Mark and St John, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.

Gupta, D. S. (2014). Social media for teachers of English: A hub for professional development. Research Journal of English Language and Literature, 2(2), 34-38. http://www.rjelal.com/2.2.14/34-38.pdf

Hall, H. & Davison, B. (2007). Social software as support in hybrid learning environments: The value of the blog as a tool for reflective learning and peer support. Library and Information Science Research, 29(2), 163-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2007.04.007

Harwell, S. H. et al. (2001). Technology integration and the classroom learning environment: Research for action. Learning Environments Research 4, 259-286. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014412120805

Heikkinen, H. Jokinen, H. & Tynjala, P. (2012). Teacher education and development as lifelong and lifewide learning. In H. Heikkinen, H. Jokinen, & P. Tynjala (Eds.), Peer-group mentoring for teacher development, 3-40. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780203115923-9/teacher-education-development-lifelong-lifewide-learning-hannu-heikkinen-hannu-jokinen-p%C3%A4ivi-tynj%C3%A4l%C3%A4

Hoy, W. Hannum, J. Moran, T. M. (1998). Organizational climate and student achievement: A parsimonious and longitudinal view. Journal of School Leaders hip, 6 (2), 336-372. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268469800800401

Kwakman, K. (2003). Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities. Teaching and Teacher Education 19 (2), 149-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00101-4

Lieberman, A. & Miller, L. (2008). Teachers in professional communities: Improving teaching and learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. https://digitalcommons.usm.maine.edu/facbooks/147/

Lieberman, A. & Pointer-Mace, D. (2010). Making practice public: Teacher learning in the 21st century. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 77-88. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347319

Lokeswarananda, S. (2017). Chhandogya Upanishad translated with notes based on Sankara's commentary. Kolkata, India: Ramkrishna Mission Institute of Culture. https://www.amazon.in/Chandogya-Upanisad-Translated-Sankaras-commentary/dp/8185843910

Murphy-Latta, T. (2008). A comparative study of professional development utilizing the Missouri commissioner's award of excellence and indicators of student achievement. Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: Proquest, Umi Dissertation Publishing. https://www.flipkart.com/comparative-study-professional-development-utilizing-missouri-commissioner-s-award-excellence-indicators-student-achievement/p/itmd5dg8k6eehmha

Paterson, C. & Chapman, J. (2013). Enhancing skills of critical reflection to evidence learning in professional practice. Physical Therapy in Sport, 14(3), 133-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.03.004

Ponder, G. Maher, M. & Adams, M. (2010 ). Teacher education curriculum, professoional development.In G. Kridel (Ed.) Encyclopedia of curriculum studies, (855-860).

Posner, G. J. (1993). Field experience: A guide to reflective teaching. New York, NY: Longman. https://www.amazon.in/Field-Experience-Guide-Reflective-Teaching/dp/0137016875

Saxena, C. (2007). A historical overview of teacher education in India from Rig-vedic age till 1947.https://www.academia.edu/940530/A_Historical_Overview_of_Teacher_Education_in_India_from_Rig_Vedic_Age_till_1947

Sezer, R. (2008). Integration of critical thinking skills into elementary school teacher education courses in Mathematics. Education, 128(3), 349-362. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA177721139&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00131172&p=AONE&sw=w&userGroupName=anon%7Ea7bf1ce1

Sharvananda, S. (1921). Taittiriya Upanishad with Sanskrit text, paraphrase with word-for-word literal translation, English rendering and comments. Mylapore, Madras: The Ramkrishna Math. https://estudantedavedanta.net/Taittiriya%20Upanishad%20-%20Swami%20Sarvanand%20%5BSanskrit-English%5D.pdf

Sharvananda, S. (1922).Prasna Upanishad with Sanskrit text, paraphrase with word-for-word literal translation, English rendering and comments. Mylapore, Madras: The Ramkrishna Math. Retrieved from https://estudantedavedanta.net/Prashna%20Upanishad%20-%20Swami%20Sarvanand%20%5bSanskrit-English%5d.pdf

Smith, K. (2003). So, what about the professional development of teacher educators? European Journal of Teacher Education. 26(2), 201-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/0261976032000088738

Tedick, D. J. (Ed.). (2005). Second language teacher education: International perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. https://www.routledge.com/Second-Language-Teacher-Education-International-Perspectives/Tedick/p/book/9780805848809

Tiwari, S. (2020).Upnishads. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. http://vedicheritage.gov.in/upanishads/

Violatti, C. (2014). Upanishads. Ancient history Encyclopedia. https://www.ancient.eu/Upanishads/

Wei, R. C. Darling-Hammond, L. Andree, A. Richardson, N. & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the U.S. and abroad (Technical Report). Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council. https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/publications/professional-learning-learning-profession-status-report-teacher-development-us-and-abroad.pdf




How to Cite

Tyagi, C., & Misra, P. K. (2022). TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES IN ANCIENT INDIA: EVIDENCE FROM UPANISHADS (C.800 BCE - C.500 BCE). International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 10(5), 139–153. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i5.2022.4620