MICROGRID IN POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Keywords:Microgrid, Power, Distribution
Power is a very important instrument to the development of economy of a nation and it must be stable and available and to meet the demand of the consumers at all times. The quest for power supply has introduced a new technology called microgrid. Micro grids are regarded as small power systems that confine electric energy generating facilities, from both renewable energy sources and conventional synchronous.
Generators, and customer loads with respect to produced electric energy. It can be connected to grid or operate in islanding mode. On the other hand, the grid’s dynamics and its stability rely on the amount of stored energy in the micro grid. In a conventional power system with a large number of synchronous generators as the main sources of energy, the mechanical energy in the generators’ rotors, in the form of kinetic energy, serves as the stored energy and feeds the grids in the event of any drastic load changes or if disturbances occur. Microgrid is an alternative idea to support the grid, it can be applied in a street, estates, community or a locality (towns and villages), organizations and establishments. Load forecasting can be further extended to Organizations, Local Government, State and country to determine the energy consumption.
Asmus, P. 2013. The Microgrid Revolution Retrieved on 03/03/13 from
http://www.peterasumus.com/journal/2009/11/6 the microgrid-revolution.html.
Burke, A.2007. “Batteries and ultra capacitors for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 95, no. 4, pp.: 806–820, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2007.892490
Del Carpio Huaylls, T.E .,Ramos , D.S .,Vasquez-Arner , R.L. 2010.Microgrid Systems: current status and challenges ,Proceeding of transmission and distribution conference and Exposition, ieeexplore.org DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TDC-LA.2010.5762853
Feero, W.E, Dawson D.C, Stevens J. 2002. “Protection Issues of The MicroGrid Concept,” White Paper of the CERTS (Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions).
http://certs.lbl.gov/pdf/protection-mg.pdf.Retrieved from the net on 03/03/13
Faisal A. M, 2008, “MICROGRID MODELLING AND ONLINE MANAGEMENT”, Helsinki University of Technology Control Engineering
Jenkins,N. R., Allan, P. Crossley, D. Kirschen, and Strbac,G.2000.Embedded Generation. The Institution of Electrical Engineers, UK,
Katiraei, F., Iravani.M.R. and Lehn.P.W.2005. “Micro-grid autonomous operation during and subsequent to islanding process,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp.: 248 – 257, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2004.835051
Katiraei F., Iravani R., Hatziargyriou N. and Dimeas A., "Microgrids Management - Controls and Operation Aspects of Microgrids," IEEE power and energy magazine, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2008.918702
King,D.E. 2006. “Electric Power Micro-grids: Opportunities and Challenges for an Emerging Distributed Energy Architecture,” PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, pp. 186.
Lasseter, R., Akhil, A., Marney, C., Stephens, J., Dagle, J., Guttromson, R., Meliopoulous, A.S., Yinger, R. and Eto, J. (2002). Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS microgrid concept.
Lee, J. and Han, B. M.2010. “Operational Characteristic Analysis of DC Micro-Grid Using Detailed Model of Distributed Generation,” in Proc. 2010IEEE Transmission & Distribution Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TD-ASIA.2009.5356839
Leite da Silva, A.M., Sales, W.L, Da Fonseca Manso, LA, and Billinton, R. 2010."Long-term probabilistic evaluation of operating reserve requirements with renewable sources," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.25, no.1, pp.: 106-116, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2036706
Marshall, G. Modeling of a micro grid system. 2004.Bachelor Thesis, University of Newcastle, Australia.
Mercier, P., Cherkaoui, R. and Oudalov, A. 2009. "Optimizing a battery energy storage system for frequency control application in an isolated power system," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.24, no.3, pp.: 1469-1477, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2022997
Molderink, A., Bakker, V., Bosman, M.G.C., Hurink, J.L. and Smit, G.J.M.2010. “Management and control of domestic smart grid technology,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, pp.: 109 – 119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2010.2055904
Moslehi, K. and Kumar, R. 2010. "A reliability perspective of the smart grid," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol.1, no.1, pp.: 57-64, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2010.2046346
Oudalov, C. D, and Ohler. C.2007., "Optimizing a battery energy storage system for primary frequency control," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.22, no.3, pp.: 1259-1266, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2007.901459
Robert, H.L., and Paolo, P. 2004"Microgrid: a conceptual solution," Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2004. PESC 04. 2004 IEEE 35th Annual, vol.6, no., pp.: 4285- 4290 Vol.6, 20-25
Smallwood, C.L.2002. “Distributed generation in autonomous and non-autonomous micro grids,” IEEE Rural Electric Power Conference, pp.: D1 - D1_6, 2002.
Stadler, M. 2008. “Distributed energy resources on-site optimization for commercial buildings with electric and thermal storage technologies,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Stamatia G. F.,2015, “Modeling and Simulation of An Autonomous Hybrid Power System”, Uppsala University, MSc program
Walling, Z.Y.R, Miller, N. P. and Nelson, K. 2005. “Facility Microgrids,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Subcontract Report NREL/SR- 560-38019. http://www.osti.gov/bridge
Wara, S.T. and Abayomi, A. A. 2008.Optimal utilization of generators in Igbinedor University campuses. DOI Proceeding (602) Power and Energy System.
How to Cite
With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.
It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.