• Silver J. Hokororo Department of Business Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
  • Ernest Kitindi Department of Accounting, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • Francis Michael Department of General Management, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania



Academic Staff, Job Embeddedness, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Model Dimensionality, Cross Validation, Tanzania’s Universities

Abstract [English]

Universities in Tanzania as many others in Africa and the globe are faced with the challenge of retaining their academic staff. This study examined the dimensionality and generalization of Job Embeddedness Theory, a promising perspective for understanding employee retention, in the context of academic staff in Tanzania’s universities. A survey of 314 members of academic staff from 2 Public Universities and 3 Private Universities was conducted, and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Split Sample Cross Validation were used in determining the appropriate dimensionality and generalizability of Job Embeddedness Model in the context of study, respectively. Results indicated that that job embeddedness in the context of academic staff in Tanzania’s universities is a seven factors model. The results also indicate that seven variables out of 30 in the model were not stable, hence compromising generalizability of the model in the context of the study. It was recommended that, since Job Embeddedness Theory is a developing perspective, the volatile variables should be considered for revision or deletion in the future studies, before a seven-factor Job Embeddedness model is accepted for generalizability to larger population of academic members of staff in Tanzania’s Universities.


Download data is not yet available.


Allen, D. (2006). “Do Organizational Socialization Tactics Influence Newcomers Embeddedness and Turnover?” Journal of Management, 32(2), 237-256. DOI:

Bernard, B. (2012). “Factors that Determine Academic Staff Retention and Commitment in Private Tertiary Institutions in Botswana: Empirical Review”. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies, 1(9), 278-299.

Besich, J. (2005). Job Embeddedness versus Traditional Models of Voluntary Turnover: A Test of Voluntary Turnover Prediction. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of North Texas.

Crossley, C., Bennett, R., Jex. S. and Burnfield, J. (2007). “Development of Global Measure of Job Embeddedness and Integration into a Traditional Model of Voluntary Turnover, Management Department Faculty Publication”, Paper 34, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Ferreira, N. and Coetzee, M. (2013). “The Influence of Job Embeddedness on Black Employees’ Organizational Commitment”. Southern African Business Review, 17(3), 239-255.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, (3rd ed.). London, California, Sage Publications Ltd. 627-682.

Hair, F., Black, W., Babin, B. and Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, Pearson Prentice Hall, 90-147.

Karatepe, O. (2013). “Inking Perceived Ethical Climate to Performance Outcome: The Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness”. Economic Research, 26 (4) 77-90, DOI:

Karatepe, O. and Ngeche, R. (2012). “Does Job Embeddedness Mediate the Effect of Work Engagement on Job Outcomes? A study of Hotel Employees in Cameroon”. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 21, (4), 440-461. DOI:

Krejcie, R. and Morgan, D. (1970). “Determining Sample Size for Research Activities”, Education and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610. DOI:

Lee, T., Mitchell, T., Sablynski, C., Burton, J. and Holtom, B. (2004). “Effect of Job Embeddedness on Organizational Citizenship, Job Performance, Volitional Absences, and Voluntary Turnover”. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 711-722.

Mallol, C. Holtom, B. and Lee, T. (2007). “Job Embeddedness in Culturally Diverse Environment”. Journal of Business Psychology, 22(1), 35-44. DOI:

Mitchell, T., Holtom, B., Lee, T., Sablynski, C. and Erez, M. (2001). “Why People Stay: Using Job Embeddedness to Predict Voluntary Turnover”. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 1102-1121.

Mkumbo, K. (2014). “Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Work Stress in Academia in Tanzania”. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(1), 1-11.

Nafei, W. 2015. “The Effects of Job Embeddedness on Organizational Cynicism and Employee Performance: A Study on Sadat City University”. International Journal of Business Administration, 6 (1) 8-25. DOI:

Nicholas, A., Mensah, A. and Owusu, N. (2016). “Stay or Leave? Using Job Embeddedness to Explain Turnover Intention among Hotel Staff in Ghana”. Journal of Management Research, 8 (3), 123-139.

Nyahongo, J. (2015). Improving Socio-Economic Environment to Promote Academic Staff Retention in Tanzanian Universities: Case Study of the University of Dodoma, in Managing Change at Universities-A selection of Case Studies from Africa and Southern Asia, Volume II, Edited by Peter Meyer and Marc Wilde.

Osborne, J. and Fitzpatrick, D. (2012). Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What it is and Why it Makes Your Analysis Better? Practical Assessment. Research and Evaluation, 17(15), 1-8.

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Strep Gide to Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows (version 15), Allen and Unwin, 95.

Pienaar, C. and Bester, C. (2008). “Retention of Academics in the Early Career Phase”. SA Journal of Human Resource management, 6(2), 32–41. DOI:

Ping, W. and Xi, Y. A (2013). “Review of Job Embeddedness: Conceptual, Measurement, and Relative Study Conclusions”. International Academic Workshop on Social Science, 353-357.

Ramesh, A. and Gelfand, M. (2010). “Will they Stay or Will they Go? The Role of Job Embeddedness in Predicting Turnover in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 807-823. DOI:

Robinson, R., Kralg, A., Solnet, D., Goh, E., and Callan, V. (2014). “Thinking Job Embeddedness, not Turnover: Towards a better understanding of Frontline Hotel Worker Retention”. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 101-109. DOI:

Shafique, M., Qadeer, F., Ahman, M. and Rehman, R. (2011). Impact of Job Embeddedness on Leave Intention: An Understanding from Higher Education System”. African Journal of Business Management, 5(30), 11794-11801.

Sreejesh, S., Mohapatra, S. and Anusree, M. (2014). Business Research Methods: An Applied Orientation. Heidelberg, New York, London, 217.

Takawira, N., Coetzee, M. and Schreuder, D. (2014). “Job Embeddedness, Work Engagement and Turnover Intention of Staff in Higher Education Institutions: An Exploratory Study”. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(1), 1-10. DOI:

Toker, B. and Çelik, S. (2017). Job Embeddedness among Hospitality Industry Employees: An Empirical Study in Alanya”. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 17 (3), 73-86. DOI:

Tettey, W. (2010). Challenges of Developing and Retaining the next Generation of Academicians: Deficit in Academic Staff Capacity at African Universities, Study Commissioned by the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa.

Van Dyke, J., Coetzee, M., and Takawira, N. (2013). “Satisfaction with Retention Factors as Predictors of the Job Embeddedness of Medical and Information Technology Services Staff”. Southern African Business Review, 17(1), 57-75.

Watson, J. (2011). Can Job Embeddedness Help Predict Novice Teacher Retention? Unpublished PhD Thesis, California State University.

Yong, A. and Pearce, S. A. (2013). “Beginners’ Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis”, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2) 79-94.

Zhang, M., Fried, D. and Griffeth, R. (2012). “A Review of Job Embeddedness: Conceptual, Measurement Issues, and Directions for Future Research”. Human Resource Management Review, 22, 220-231. DOI:




How to Cite

Hokororo, S. J., Kitindi, E., & Michael, F. (2018). ACADEMIC STAFF JOB EMBEDDEDNESS: MODEL DIMENSIONALITY AND VALIDATION IN TANZANIA’S UNIVERSITIES. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 6(9), 278–290.