• Ogolla D.A. School of Business and Economics, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya
  • Kidombo H. Department of Instructional Design Open, Distance and e-learning Campus University of Nairobi, Kenya
  • Senaji T.A. Department of Business Administration, Kenya Methodist University, Kenya



Generational Differences, Retention, Telecommunications Firms, Kenya

Abstract [English]

Employee retention is a major challenge facing many organizations today. The understanding of Generational differences at the workplace has been identified as a key requirement in implementing measures for effective employee retention. Within the telecommunications firms in Kenya, the problem of employee retention is a major challenge to the telecommunications firms. This paper thus examines the effect of generational differences on the retention of engineers in telecommunications firms in Kenya from the generational theory and generational cohorts theory perspective.  This study used the cross-sectional and descriptive survey research design. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. We found that there exist a statistically significant variation in employee retention across the generational cohorts as observed through employee engagement, job satisfaction and organizational commitment (continuance commitment, affective commitment and normative commitment). These findings extend the theory regarding employees’ retention and have implication for employee retention practices which should be differentiated across the generational cohorts.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Asfour, A., & Lettau, L. (2014) Strategies for leadership style for multigenerational workforce. Journal of leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 11, 58-69.

Allen, M. J. & Yen, W.M. (1979) Introduction to Measurement theory, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Akkucuk, U. & Turan C. (2016) Mobile use and online preference of millennials: A study in Yolova. Journal of international Banking and commerce 21, 1-1

Becton, J. B., Walker, J. W., & Jones- Farmer, A. (2015). Generational differences in workplace behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44, 175-189.

Bell, A. (2013) Five generations in the Nursing workforce. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development 29: 205-210 DOI:

Bennet,J., Pitt, M., & Price, S. (2012). Understanding the impact of generational issues in the workplace Facilities 30: 278—288 DOI:

Bolton, R et al. (2013). Understanding Generation Y and their use of social media: A review and research agenda. Journal of Service Management, 24, 245-267 DOI:

Chao, L. (2005). “For Gen Xers, It’s Work to Live; Allowing Employees to Strike Balance Between Job and Life Can Lead to Better Retention Rates” The Wall Street

Capelli, P. (2000). A market-driven approach to retaining talent. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 103-11. Communications Authority of Kenya publication, (2016)

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2010) Factsheet, Employee turnover and retention. HR Practices [Internet] Revised July 2010, Available from:

Colette, T. Stein, L. (2014) Stories of Generational leadership: Women higher education administrator’s voices. Advancing women I leadership 34: 1-10

Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. (2003) Business Research Methods. Tata McGraw Hill Publishers, Nee Dehli

Cooper, D.R, & Schindler, P. (2008). Business research methods (10th ed.). New York, McGraw- Hill/Irwin. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 92, 174-185

Davenport, R. (2006) ‘Eliminate the skills Gap’, Training+ Development Magazine, P.32

Deloitte, (2014). Global human resource and talent management survey

Drost, E.A. (2011) Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research. Education Research and perspectives, 38, 108-123.

Eisner, S.P. (2005) Managing generation Y. Advanced Management Journal, 70, 4-15

Economic survey (2016) Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Government Printer, Nairobi.

Ernest & Young (2013) A survey on talent retention in Kenya, Nation Paper, and Nairobi

Ferri- Reed, J. (2013) Leading a multigenerational workforce. The journal for quality and participation 35, 12-14

Guest, D. (2011) Human Resource Management and Performance: Still searching for some answers, 21, (3-13) DOI:

Greenblatt, E. (2002) Work-life balance: Wisdom or Whining, Organizational dynamics, 31, (177-193) DOI:

Gurumani, V.S. (2010) Invaluable tools for Talent Retention, Human capital, 45-55

Hasna, A.M., & Clark, R. (2009). The future of engineering; how to attract young people,,2009/Hasna.

Hernaus, T., & Vokic, N. (2014). Work design for different generational cohorts. Journal of organizational change Management. DOI:

Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (1991). Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow & Company Inc.

Jora, R., & Khan, S. (2014). Motivating multigenerational human resource. International Journal of organizational Behaviour and Management perspectives 3, 1276-1281

Krahn,H. & Galabos,N.(2014) Workforce values and beliefs of Generation X and Generation Y, Journal of Youth studies 17: (92-112) DOI:

Kowske, B., Rasch, R., & Wiley, J. (2010) Millennials (Lack of) attitude problem: an empirical examination of generational effects on work attitudes, Journal of Business and Psychology; 25(2), 265-279 DOI:

Kupperschmidt, B. R. (2000). Multigenerational employees: strategies for effective management. The Health Care Manager 19, 65–76. DOI:

Lyons S, Duxbury L & Higgins C (2005) Are gender differences in basic human values a generational phenomenon? Sex Roles 53 (9/10) pp 763-778. DOI:

Lyons S, Schweitzer L, Ng E, Kuron L. (2012) Comparing apples to Apples: A qualitative investigation of career mobility patterns across four generations. Career Development International 17: 333-367 DOI:

Prokopeak, M. (2013). How to Retain Your Millennial Workers. Workforce, 92(9). Retrieved September 30, 2009 interview-withdan-schwabel-how-to-retain-your-millennial-work

Mannheim, K. (1952). The problem of Generations in Mannheim K-Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. London: RKP.

Murray, K., (2015) Leadership Q & A. Journal of Nursing Management 47-56

Nelsey, L & Brownie, S. (2012) Effective leadership, team working and mentoring-Essential elements in promoting generational cohesion in Nursing workforce and retaining Nurses. Collegian 19: 341-354 DOI:

O’Sulliva & Abel, (2007) Research Methods, 5Th Edition, Routledge

Parry, E., & Urwin P. (2011) Generational differences in work values: A review of theory and evidence. International Journal of Management Review 13 (1), 79–96 DOI:

Reisenwitz, T. H., & Iyer, R. (2009). Differences in Generation X and Generation Y: Implications for the Organization and Marketers. The Marketing Management Journal, 19(2), 91-103.

Roodin,P., & Mendelson, M. (2013) Multiple generations at work: Current and future trends. Journal of intergenerational Relationships 11 :( 213-222) DOI:

Saab, D. (2015) Using technology to retain baby boomers in the workforce. Computer and Information Science 8:180-185

Shaw, S., & Fairhurst, D. (2008). Engaging a New Generation of Graduates. Education and Training, 50(5), 366-378. DOI:

Tavener, M., Byles J., & Loxton,D (2014) Research expert perception of the popular Baby Boomer image. Australasian Journal on Ageing 33: 289-306 DOI:

Twenge, J.M (2010) A review of empirical evidence on generational differences in work attitudes. Journal of Business psychology, 25,201-210

Radford K, et al. (2012). Battle of the decades: Generational differences in the retention of Australian aged care employees. Paper Submitted to the Emerging researchers in ageing Conference 2012.

Ryder, N. (1965). The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. American sociological Review, 30, 843-61. DOI:

Shacklock K.H & Brunetto, Y (2011). The intentions to continue nursing: work variables affecting three nurse generations in Australia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68 (1) 136-42.

Saunders, (2003) Research Methods for Business studies, 3rd Edition, Pearson, Education,Pvt Ltd, Singapore

Smola, K.W., & Sutton, C.D. (2002). Generational differences: revisiting generational work values for the millennium. Journal of organizational Behaviour, 23(1), 363-82.

Smola, K.W., & Sutton, C.D. (2002). Generational differences: revisiting generational-work values for the millennium. Journal of organizational Behaviour, 23 (1), 363-82. DOI:

Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1992). Generations: the history of America’s future, 1584 to 2069. New York: Quill Publishing

Twenge, J. M. (2010). A review of the empirical evidence on generational differences in work attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 201-210. New York, NY. DOI:

Umer, M & Naseem, M.K (2011). Global Journal of Management and Business Research 11 (3) Version 1.0 March 2011

Young A.M & Hensley, MD (2012). Work values preferences of Generation Y: Performance relationship insights in the Australian Public Service. The international journal of Human Resource Management 27, 1997-2015

Zemke, R., Raines, C., & Filipczak, B. (2000). Generations at work: Managing the clash of Veterans, Boomers, X 0




How to Cite