• Ikpeze, O.O. Department of Parasitology and Entomology, NnamdiAzikiwe University,PMB 5025 Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA
  • Esu, D.O. Department of Parasitology and Entomology, NnamdiAzikiwe University,PMB 5025 Awka, Anambra State, NIGERIA




Non-Compliance To LLIN And IPT, Maternal Malaria, Pre-Term And Under-Weight Neonates

Abstract [English]

Pregnant mothers and children under 5 years are most vulnerable to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Nigeria. Non-compliance to LLIN and IPT, and resultant maternal and cord blood malaria on neonatal age and birth weights were studied in Uyo, Nigeria between September and October 2013. Peripheral and cord blood from 106 consenting pregnant women were examined for malaria parasites; and their usage of LLIN and IPT ascertained. Ages and weights of resulting neonates were recorded at birth.  Results showed that maternal and neonatal malaria infection rates (IR) were 54.7% (Mean± SD=49.23±26.41) and 45.3% (Mean± SD=40.6±20.6), with indications that maternal immunity increases with parity. Generally 29.2% and 39.6% of all neonates were respectively delivered pre-term and underweight. About 53.8% and 51.9% of the women were non-compliant to LLIN and IPT, respectively; and 91.4% of LLIN non-compliant as well as 94.8% of IPT non-compliant were infected with malaria. We inferred that use of LLIN and IPT would have offered the women protection against malaria. Heat generation, fear of toxic reactions, and difficulty in setting-up LLIN as well as ‘not sick’, fear of abortion, and doubtful efficacy of IPT were among the reasons given by pregnant women for non-compliance. Sustained health education on the use of LLIN and IPT will help to reduce malaria infection and its consequences in Uyo.


Download data is not yet available.


Kolawole, O.M., Jimoh, A.A.G., Babatunde, A.S., Balagon, O.R. and Kanu, I.G. (2009). Prevalence of congenital malaria in Ilorin Nigeria African Journal of Research Reviews, 3: 68-76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v3i1.43556

Chukwuocha, U.M., Dozie, I.N., Ashiegbu, K.K., Onwuliri, C.D., Aguwa, D.C. and Nwoke, B.A. (2011). Influence of Phenotypes on the Immunity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria among Women in Parts of the Imo River Basin. Nigeria African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 12:26-31.

Okwelogu, I.S., Ikpeze, O.O., and Aribodor, D.N. (2012). Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pregnant Women an Malaria, Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Ihiala Local Government area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Parasitology, 33:9-14.

Aribodor, D.N., Nwaorgu, O.C., Eneanya, C.I., Okoli, I., Pukkila- Worley, R. and Etaga, H.O. (2009). Association of low birth weight and placental malaria infection in Nigeria. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 8:620-623.

Michael, N.W., Florence, O.N. and Macdonald, D.W. (2013). Prevalence of malaria parasites infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Diseases, 3:126-132

Nnaji, G.A., Ezeagwuna, D.A. and Olu, E.A. (2011). Prevalence and pattern of cord blood malaria parasitaemia in a general practice setting in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 20: 83-89.

George, I.O., Jeremia, I. and Kasso, T. (2013). Prevalence of congenital malaria in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, 3:398-406.

Opara, K.N., Ibanga, E.S., Wali, N.B. and Usip, L.P. (2004). Falciparum malaria and susceptibility to genetic markers of pregnant women in Uyo, Southeast Nigeria. Book of Abstracts of the 28th Annual Conference of the Nigeria Society of Parasitology held at Imo State University Owerri. 2004: pp.76.

Akum, A.E., Kuoh, A.J., Minang, J.T., Achibong, B.M. and Ahmadou, M.J., Troye-Blomberg, M. (2005). The effects of maternal, umbilical cord and placental malaria parasitaemia on the birth weight of newborns from south-west Cameroon. ActaPaediatrics, 94:917-923.

Ekpuka, B.M., Okogun, G.R.A., Obodo, B.N., Itua, E. E., Olagboye, J.A. and Obhakhan, J.O. (2013). The Prevalence of Malaria Parasitic Infections in Cord Blood: Association with Some Socio Demographic Profile. International Journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research, 2:40-45.

Uneke, C.I., Sunday, I.A., Iyare, F.E. Ugwuja, E.I. and Duhlinska, D.D. (2007). Impact of maternal plasmodium falciparum malaria and hematological parameters on pregnancy and its outcome in southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 44: 285-290.

Mbanefo, E.C., Umeh, J.M., Oguoma, V.M. and Eneanya, C.I. (2009). Antenatal malaria parasitaemia and hemoglobin profile of pregnant mothers in Awka, Anambra State, south- east Nigeria. American- Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 4: 235-239.

Tami, A., Mbati, J., Nathan, R., Mponda, H., Lengeler, C. and Schellenberg, J. (2005). Use and Misuse of a Discount Voucher Scheme as a Subsidy for Insecticide Treated Nets for Malaria Control in Southern Tanzania. Health Policy and Planning. 1: 1-9.

Mbanugo, J.I. and Ejims, D.O. (2000). Plasmodium Infections in Children Aged 0-5 Years in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. The Nigeria Journal of Parasitology, 21:55-59.

Okechukwu, A.A., Olateju, E.K. and Olutunde, E.O. (2011). Congenital Malaria among Neonatal Sepsis in Abuja. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, 38:82-89.

Egwunyanga, O.A., Ajahi, J.A., Olunyinka, A. and Popoola, D.D. (1995). Transplacental Passage of Plasmodium falciparum and Seroevaluation of Newborns in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Communicable Diseases, 27:77-83.

Ekanem, A.D., Anah, M.U. and Udo, J.J.(2008). The Prevalence of Congenital Malaria among Neonates with Suspected Sepsis in Calabar Nigeria. Tropical Doctor. 38:73-76.

Obiajunwa, P.O., Owa, J.A. and Adeodu, O.O. (2005).Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Ile-Ife Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 51:219-222.

Oguoma, V.M. and Ikpeze, O.O. (2008). Species composition and abundance of mosquitoes of a Tropical Irrigation Ecosystem. Animal Research International, 5(2): 866-871.

Oguoma, V.M., Nwaorgu, O.C., Mbanefo, E.C., Ikpeze, O.O., Umeh, J.U., Eneanya, C.I and Ekwunife, C.A. (2010). Species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes in three villages of Uratta. Owerri Local Government Area of Imo State Nigeria. Review in Infections, 1(4): 192-196.

Onyido, A.E., Ozumba, N.A., Nwankwo, A.C., Ikpeze, O.O. and Ezike, V.I. (2010). Water-breeding mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) of Public Health Importance in Calabar, Southeast Nigeria. International Journal of Biological Science, 2(2): 61-67.

Onyido, A.E., Ezike, V.I., Ozumba, N.A., Nwosu, E.O., Ikpeze, O.O., Obiukwu, M.O and Amadi, E.S. (2019). Crepuscular man-biting mosquitoes of a Tropical Zoological Garden in Enugu South-eastern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 4(1): 1-9.

Aribodor, D.N., Ikpeze, O.O., Onyido, A.E. and Okoye, C.M. (2011). Survey of Indoor Adult Malaria Vectors and Challenges of using long lasting Insecticide-Treated Nets in Malaria Control in Awka-Etiti, Anambra State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 32(2): 163-167.

Metu, O.A and Ikpeze, O.O. (2009). Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of school teachers on malaria, helminthiasis and associated risk factors in primary schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, South-eastern Nigeria. Animal Research International, 6(2): 987-993.




How to Cite

Ikpeze, & Esu. (2016). EFFECTS OF NON-COMPLIANCE TO LLIN AND IPT IN PREGNANCY ON MATERNAL AND NEONATAL MALARIA, AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHTS OF NEONATES AT UYO. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 4(2), 66–74. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v4.i2.2016.2814