EFFICACY OF PHRAGMITE KARKA PLANT IN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM
Keywords:CWTS, Macrophyte,Surface Flow, Domestic Sewage, Constructed Wetlands
Wetlands, either constructed or natural, offer a cheaper and low-cost alternative technology for wastewater treatment. A constructed wetland system that is specifically engineered for water quality improvement as a primary purpose is termed as a ‘Constructed Wetland Treatment System’ (CWTS). In the past, many such systems were constructed to treat low volumes of wastewater loaded with easily degradable organic matter for isolated populations in urban areas. However, widespread demand for improved receiving water quality, and water reclamation and reuse, is currently the driving force for the implementation of CWTS all over the world. Recent concerns over wetland losses have generated a need for the creation of wetlands, which are intended to emulate the functions and values of natural wetlands that have been destroyed. Natural characteristics are applied to CWTS with emergent macrophyte stands that duplicate the physical, chemical and biological processes of natural wetland systems. The number of CWTS in use has very much increased in the past few years. The use of constructed wetlands is gaining rapid interest. Most of these systems cater for tertiary treatment from towns and cities. They are larger in size, usually using surface-flow system to remove low concentration of nutrient (N and P) and suspended solids. However, in some countries, these constructed wetland treatment systems are usually used to provide secondary treatment of domestic sewage for village populations. These constructed wetland systems have been seen as an economically attractive, energy-efficient way of providing high standards of wastewater treatment by the help of Phragmite karka plant.
Typically, wetlands are constructed for one or more of four primary purposes: creation of habitat to compensate for natural wetlands converted for agriculture and urban development, water quality improvement, flood control, and production of food and fiber.
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