HIGHLIGHTS ON THE HISTORY OF SMALLPOX EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ERADICATION IN THE SUDAN
Keywords:Smallpox, Eradication, Sudan, Epidemiology
Smallpox is an ancient disease and was present in Africa, Asia and Europe since 400 BC. It is unclear whether smallpox was indigenous to Africa or was introduced early on. Sudan had a great experience in eradication phase of smallpox diseases. This study aimed to highlighted the epidemiology of smallpox in term of number of cases and geographical distribution, Identify the local and global effort generated and determine the lessons learned of the that experience in surveillance field in Sudan. To obtain our information we review articles online and reports from WHO store focusing on flowing key words (smallpox, eradication, Sudan). The health authorities has been intensified smallpox control and vaccination programs during 1950 – 1962 .whereby the incidence of cases reduced to 117 cases with three were imported cases in1960, these in contrast 517 in 1959 and 3,030 in 1953 -1954.in 1969 For the campaign, 30 vaccination units were constituted, approximately 10 for each of 3 provinces (Blue Nile, Darfur and Kordofan), each unit comprising 6 smallpox and 3 BCG vaccinators plus supervisors. The units moved systematically through the province. The smallpox vaccinators went from house to house. the epidemiological data strongly support the belief that transmission in the Sudan was interrupted in 1962 and endemic smallpox did not recur until after the importations of 1967-1968.In September 1972, during a seminar in Addis Ababa, it was proposed that Sudanese and Ethiopian teams should be granted permission to cross the border without hindrance when undertaking search operations. Great job has been done to eradicate smallpox globally and especially in Sudan, and no doubt the lessons learned from the experience of smallpox eradication constitute strong concrete and base for managing health services in Sudan especially in epidemiology field by providing platform for surveillance of epidemic diseases.
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