• Yahya Ergezen Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Akdeniz University, Turkey
  • Halil Ibrahim Tasdemir Department of Pediatric Nursing, Bucak Health School, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey
  • Ayse Urcan Department of Child Development, Bucak Health School, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey
  • Emir Can Dundar Department of Child Development, Bucak Health School, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey
  • Gamze Karaagac Department of Child Development, Bucak Health School, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey
  • Senanur Canbaz Department of Child Development, Bucak Health School, Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey



Preschool Children, Media Use, Parental Monitoring, Screen Time, Digital Media

Abstract [English]

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the media use and exposure of preschool children and its association with parental monitoring. A total of 420 children and their parents from independent kindergartens in Bucak district, Turkey, participated in the study during the 2023-2024 academic year. Data were collected using a General Information Form and a Media Usage Level Child and Parent Interview Form. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results showed that children watched TV for an average of 110.5 minutes per day, used computers for 92.3 minutes per day, and had a total media exposure time of 186.6 minutes per day. The majority of children had their TV program content monitored by their mothers. Maternal employment status, age, and educational level were found to be associated with children's media use patterns. Working mothers were associated with longer TV watching and phone usage times compared to non-working mothers. Older mothers were more likely to have children with longer TV watching and phone usage times. University graduate mothers were associated with lower TV watching times but higher computer and phone usage times compared to other educational groups. University graduate mothers were also more likely to monitor the content of media usage. These findings suggest the importance of parental monitoring in influencing children's media use habits. Effective guidance is needed to help parents establish healthy media habits and minimize potential negative impacts on children's development. Further research with larger samples is recommended to explore these findings in more depth.


Download data is not yet available.


Akbıyık, C., & Karadüz, A. (2014). A Comparison of Reception of 5th Grade Students on Television Commercials With Respect to their Critical Thinking Levels. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 11(25).

Akca, A., & Ayaz Alkaya, S. (2019). Effects of Screen Exposure in Early Childhood. International, 23, 49-55.

Akkuş, S., Yılmazer, Y., Şahinöz, A., & Sucaklı, İ. (2015). Investigation of Television Viewing Habits of Children Aged 3-60 Months. Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sciences Journal.

Akça, F., & Çilekçiler, N. K. (2019). The Cartoon Characters that Preschool Children are Most Influenced by and the Digital Dangers that can be Caused by Their Identification with These Characters. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 6(2), 403-433. DOI:

Aslan, A., & Karakus Yilmaz, T. (2021). Changes in Safer Internet Use of Children in Turkey between 2010-2015 and Impact of Contextual Issues. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(1), 1-18. DOI:

Bal, O. (2010). The Effects of Technology on Socio Economic Structure. Journal of Academic Overview, (20).

Cesur, S., & Paker, O. (2007). Television and Children: Children's Preferences for TV Programs. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 6(19), 106-125.

Chonchaiya, W., Sirachairat, C., Vijakkhana, N., Wilaisakditipakorn, T., & Pruksananonda, C. (2015). Elevated Background TV Exposure Over Time Increases Behavioural Scores of 18-Month-Old Toddlers. Acta Paediatrica, 104(10), 1039-1046. DOI:

Kuyucu, M. (2017). Generation Y and Technology: Generation Y's Habits of Using Communication Technologies. Gümüşhane University Faculty of Communication Electronic Journal, 5(2), 845-872. DOI:

Kühhirt, M., & Klein, M. (2020). Parental Education, Television Exposure, and Children's Early Cognitive, Language and Behavioral Development. Social science research, 86. DOI:

Lin, Y.-M., Kuo, S.-Y., Chang, Y.-K., Lin, P.-C., Lin, Y.-K., Lee, P.-H., Chen, S.-R. (2021). Effects of Parental Education on Screen Time, Sleep Disturbances, and Psychosocial Adaptation Among Asian Preschoolers: A Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 56, e27-e34. DOI:

McArthur, B. A., Browne, D., Tough, S., & Madigan, S. (2020). Trajectories of Screen use During Early Childhood: Predictors and Associated Behavior and Learning Outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 113. DOI:

Munzer, T. G., Miller, A. L., Peterson, K. E., Brophy-Herb, H. E., Horodynski, M. A., Contreras, D., Radesky, J. (2018). Media Exposure in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children is Associated with Multiple Measures of Self-Regulatory Behavior. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 39(4), 303-309. DOI:

Mustafaoğlu, R., Zirek, E., Yasacı, Z., & Özdinçler, A. R. (2018). Negative Effects of Digital technology use on Children's Development and Health. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5(2), 1-21. DOI:

Poitras, V. J., Gray, C. E., Janssen, X., Aubert, S., Carson, V., Faulkner, G., Tremblay, M. S. (2017). Systematic Review of the Relationships Between Sedentary Behaviour and Health Indicators in the Early Years (0-4 Years). BMC Public Health, 17, 65-89. DOI:

Radesky, J. S., Schumacher, J., & Zuckerman, B. (2015). Mobile and Interactive Media use by Young Children: the Good, the Bad, and the Unknown. Pediatrics, 135(1), 1-3. DOI:

Supanitayanon, S., Trairatvorakul, P., & Chonchaiya, W. (2020). Screen Media Exposure in the First 2 Years of life and Preschool Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study. Pediatric Research, 88(6), 894-902. DOI:

Verlinden, M., Tiemeier, H., Hudziak, J. J., Jaddoe, V. W., Raat, H., Guxens, M., Jansen, P. W. (2012). Television Viewing and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Children: the Generation R Study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(10), 919-925. DOI:

Vodopivec, J. L. (2011). Some Aspects of Teaching Media Literacy to Preschool Children in Slovenia from a Perception Standpoint of Teachers and Parents. Acta Didactica Napocensia, 4, 69-78.

Wu, C. S. T., Fowler, C., Lam, W. Y. Y., Wong, H. T., Wong, C. H. M., & Yuen Loke, A. (2014). Parenting Approaches and Digital Technology Use of Preschool Age Children in a Chinese Community. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 40, 1-8. DOI:




How to Cite

Ergezen, Y., Tasdemir, H. İbrahim, Urcan, A., Dundar, E. C., Karaagac, G., & Canbaz, S. (2024). MEDIA USE AND EXPOSURE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 12(5), 10–19.