• Voldis Kudliskis The Language Academy, Xabia/Javea, 03730, Alicante, Spain



Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP), NLP Suppositions, Techniques of Change, Engagement With Learning, Post-16 Education, Learning And Teaching

Abstract [English]

Living Educational Theory (LET), which sits within the interpretivist paradigm, provides pragmatic enquiries in real life educational contexts. This form of research provides a platform for examining four suppositions and two Techniques of Change associated with neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) particularly in the context of boys’ engagement with learning. NLP is proposed as a powerful personal development method. However, the credibility of NLP is questioned due to limited research-based evidence. Four NLP suppositions and two NLP Techniques of Change are examined. Thereafter, a description of an exploratory study into how these suppositions and Techniques of Change may enhance engagement with learning is provided. The study utilised a single method (semi-structured interview) approach. It is a single-site, multi-voice study capturing the perceptions of NLP, for boys in post-16 education, situated in a rural community college. ‘Positions of Consensus’ and individual narratives are explored and suggest that four suppositions and two Techniques of Change may enhance boys’ experiences and perceptions about learning. Possibly these NLP strategies may be helpful at an indirect level in enhancing boys’ engagement with learning in post-16 education. Inferences provide tentative evidence that these suppositions and Techniques of Change may aid engagement with learning in this specific context. It is suggested that these NLP suppositions and Techniques of Change could be implemented, via a cost-effective training programme, to enhance engagement with learning and to drive a culture of excellence in schools and FE colleges.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdulla, A. (2017). Coaching Students in Secondary Schools: Closing The Gap Between Performance And Potential. London: Routledge. DOI:

Albalooshi, S., Moeini-Jazani, M., Fennis, B.M. & Warlop, L. (2020). Reinstating the Resourceful Self : Whan and How Self-Affirmations Improve Executive Performance of the Powerless. Personality and Social Pschology Bulletin, 46, (2), 189-203. DOI:

Andreas, S. & Andreas, C. (2000). Selecting a Resource to Anchor. Anchor Point Magazine 14, (7).

Andrade C. (2020). Understanding the Basics of Meta-Analysis and How to Read à Forest Plot : as Simple as it Gets. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 81, (5). DOI:

Atkins, L., & Wallace, S. (2012). Qualitative Research in Education. London: Sage Publications. DOI:

Bandler, R. & Benson, K. (2018). Teaching for Excellence. The Definitive Guide to NLP for Teaching and Learning 1. (NLP for Education) London : New Thinking Publications.

Bandler, R. & Grinder, J. (1975). The Structure of Magic. Palo Alto, California : Science and Behaviour Books, Inc.

Berg, A. M., & Eikeland, O. (Eds.) (2008). Action Research and Organisational Theory (Labour, Education and Society Series, Vol. 9), Oxford : Peter Lang Publications.

Beyerstein, B.L. (2001). Fringe Psychotherapies: The Public at Risk. The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine 5, 70-71.

Boyes, C. (2008). 5-minute NLP : Practice Positive Thinking Every Day. London : Harper Collins.

Bragg, T. (1999). How to use NLP to Avoid the Winner's Curse. Anchor Point Magazine 13, (5), 1-3.

Cargo, M., & Mercer, S. L. (2008). The Value and Challenges of Participatory Research: Strengthening its Practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 325-350. DOI:

Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation (2017). Cognitive Load Theory : Research That Teachers Really Need to Understand. New South Wales Government, Australia : Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation (September)

Coghlan, D. and Brydon-Miller, M. (2014). The SAGE Encyclopaedia of Action Research. London : Sage Publications. DOI:

Cohen, L., Mannion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. DOI:

Cox, E. (2013). Coaching Understood: a Pragmatic Inquiry into the Coaching Process. London: Sage Publications. DOI:

Cox, E., Bachkirova, T., & Clutterbuck, D., eds. (2018). The Complete Handbook of Coaching (3rd ed.). London : Sage Publications.

Dawson, P., & Guare, R. (2012). Coaching Students with Executive Skills Deficits. London : The Guilford Press.

Deiorio, N.M., Carney, P.A., Kahl, L.E., Bonura, E.M. & Juve, A.M. (2016). Coaching: a New Model for Academic and Career Achievement, Medical Education Online, 21:1 DOI:

Devilly, G. J. (2005). Power Therapies and Possible Threats to the Science of Psychology and Psychiatry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39 (6) : 437-445. DOI:

Dilts, R.B. (2018). Changing Belief Systems with NLP. Scotts Valley, California : Dilts Strategy Group.

Drigas, A. Eleni Mitsea, E. & Skianis, C. (2021). Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Positive Psychology & VR. Special Education 30 Scientific Electronic Archives. Issue ID: Sci. Elec. Arch. Vol. 15 (1) p:30-39. DOI:

Du Toit, A., & Reissner, S. (2012). Experiences of Coaching in Team Leading. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 1 (3), 177-190. DOI:

Dweck, C. (2017). Mindset-Updated Edition : Changing the Way You Think to Fulfil Your Potential. New York : Ballantine Books.

Fetters, M. D., & Molina-Azorin, J. F. (2020). Utilizing a Mixed Methods Approach for Conducting Interventional Evaluations. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 14(2), 131-144. DOI:

Freeth, P. (2017). The NLP Master Practitioner Manual. Birmingham : Genius Media.

Golby, M. (1994). Case Study as Educational Research. Educational Research Monograph Series. Exeter : University of Exeter.

Grant, A. (2001). Towards a Psychology of Coaching. University of Sydney : Unpublished thesis.

Grant, A.M., & Cavanagh, M.J. (2011). Coaching and positive psychology: Credentialling Professional Status and Professional Bodies. In Sheldon, K.M., Kasdan, T.B. & Michael, F. (eds.) Designing Positive Psychology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. (p. 295-312). Oxford: University Press. DOI:

Gray, P. (2000a). Education Coaching : Module 2 - The Power of Beliefs. Diploma in Performance Coaching (Education). Newcastle : Newcastle College.

Gray, P. (2000b). Education Coaching : Module 3 - Techniques for change. Diploma in Performance Coaching (Education). Newcastle : Newcastle College.

Grinder, J. & Bandler, R. (1976). The Structure of Magic II. Palo Alto, California : Science and Behaviour Books, Inc.

Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. (2012). Applied Thematic Analysis. London : Sage. DOI:

Hammersley, M., & Traianou, A. (2012). Ethics in Qualitative Research: Controversies and Contexts. London: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI:

Holmes, A.G.D. (2020). Researcher Positionality - A Consideration of Its Influence and Place in Qualitative Research - A New Researcher Guide. Shanlax International Journal of Education 8 (4), p.1-10 DOI:

Ilyas, M. (2017). Finding Relationships Between Acquisition of Basic Skills and Neuro-linguistic Programming Techniques. Journal of Literature, Language and Linguistics. 34, 22-26.

International Coaching Federation (2022). All Things Coaching. [accessed 25th January 2022]

Jafar, A.J.N. (2018). What is Positionality And Should it be Expressed in Quantitative Studies? Emergency Medicine Journal 35, 5 (September) DOI:

Jennings, T. & Philips, G. (2000). My Little Book of NLP Neuro Linguistic Programming. London : ICET Ltd.

Kamarudin, M. binti, Kamarudin, A. Y. binti, Darmi, R. binti, & Saad, & N. S. binti M. (2020). A Review of Coaching and Mentoring Theories and Models. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 9 (2), 289-298. DOI:

Kudliskis, V. (2019). Coaching in an Educational Setting Utilizing "Techniques of Change": Enhancing Engagement with Learning in a Post-16 Educational Setting. Educational Process : International Journal, 8 (1), 7-31. DOI:

Kudliskis, V., & Burden, B. (2009). Applying 'What Works' in Psychology to Enhancing Examination Success in Schools : The Potential Contribution of NLP. Thinking Skills and Creativity, (4), 170-177. DOI:

Koshy, E., Koshy, V., & Waterman, H. (2011). Action Research in Healthcare. London: Sage Publications. DOI:

Lorenzi, F. & White, I. (2019). Liminality in Education: Generating A Creative Space of Encounter and Dialogue Between Teachers and Students within Educational Structures. Pastoral Care in Education, (37), 3, 190-207. DOI:

Milne-Tyte, A. (2016). The business coaching industry is booming. Marketplace. (25th February). Retrieved 26th January 2022.

Nash, P., Naylor, A., Manandhar, D., Stubbs, J. & Penten, P. (2021). Students' Experiences and Perceptions of Studying for A-Levels: Implications for Enhancing Student Resilience, Pastoral Care in Education, (39), 2, 152-169, DOI:

Nieuwerburgh van, C. (2012). Coaching in Education : Getting Better Results for Students, Educators and Parents. Professional Coaching Series. London : Karnac Books.

O'Connor, J. (2001). NLP Workbook : A Practical Guide to Achieving the Results You Want. London : Element.

O'Connor, J. & Seymour, J (2011). Introducing NLP : Psychological Skills for understanding and Influencing People (Neuro-linguistic Programming. Newburyport MA : Canari Press.

Pliskin, Z. (2001). On Collecting States. Anchor Point Magazine, 15, (3), 1-5.

Pradeep, C. (2011). The Difference Between Coaching and Mentoring. Forbes 20th December. Retrieved 25th January 2022).

Purdy, N. & Spears, B. (2020). Co-participatory Approaches to Research with Children and Young People, Pastoral Care in Education, (38), 3, 187-190, DOI:

Robins, R. V. (2017). Impact Through Coaching: Does the Use of Models Limit Connectedness in Coaching? Journal of Work-Applied Management, 9(2), 120-128. DOI:

Rosen, R.D. (1997). Pyschobabble : Fast Talk and Quick Cure in the Era of Feeling. Athenaeum Books : New York.

Saunders, M. N. K., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2023). Research Methods for Business Students (8th ed.). London : Pearson.

Torbert, W.R. (1981). Why Educational Research Has Been So Un-educational: The Case for a New Model of Social Science Based on Collaborative Inquiry. In Reason, P. & Rowan, J., Eds., Human Inquiry. New York : Wiley. 141-152.

Toro, J. B. & Werneck, N. (2007). Mobilização Social : um Modo de Construir A Democracia E A Participação. Belo Horizonte : MG Autêntica.

Wall, T. (2016). Author Response: Provocative Education: from the Dalai Lama's Cat® to Dismal Land®. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 35, (6), 649-653. DOI:

Wall, T. & Perrin, D. (2015). Slavoj Žižek: A Žižekian Gaze at Education. London: Springer. DOI:

Whitehead, J. (1985). An Analysis of An Individual's Educational Development: The Basis for Personally Oriented Action Research. In M. Shipman (Ed.), Educational Research : Principles, Policies and Practices. Lewes : Falmer.

Zeb, F., Hameed, A., & Zeb, S. (2021). Is Neurolinguistic Programming a Myth? A Review of NLP studies. Pakistan Journal of Educational Research, 4, (1), 368-380. DOI:

Zhou, J. (2012). Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions. Chinese Education and Society. 45(4), 68-80. DOI:




How to Cite