• Sanaa Shehayeb Associative Professor, Faculty of Education, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon



Lebanese National Exams, Porter’s Rubric, Bloom’s Taxonomy, Verbs

Abstract [English]

This study aims at analyzing a recent copy of the Lebanese mathematics national exams in terms of precision of action verbs as well as classification of free-response items according to Porter’s rubric related to language associated with performance outcomes and two-dimensional Bloom Revised Taxonomy. Results showed that the verbs were classified at different levels. The levels were all tackled in the exam which shows variety of questions except for the highest Porter level. The higher thinking level questions as specified by Porter and Bloom constituted around 30% of the exam. Similar studies targeting all national mathematics exams are recommended.


Download data is not yet available.


Abedi, J., and Lord, C. (2001). The Language Factor in Mathematics Tests. Applied Measurement in Education, 14(3), 219-234.

Akkus, M. (2016). The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 2(1), 49-54.

Cerdeira, J. M., Nunes, L. C., Reis, A. B., and Seabra, C. (2018). Predictors of Student Success in Higher Education : Secondary School Internal Scores Versus National Exams. Higher Education Quarterly, 72(4), 304-313.

Ernest, P. (1999). Forms of Knowledge in Mathematics and Mathematics Education : Philosophical and Rhetorical Perspectives. Forms of Mathematical Knowledge, 67-83.

Fardin, D., and Radmehr, F. (2013). A Study on K5 Students' Mathematical Problem Solving Based on Revised Bloom Taxonomy and Psychological Factors Contribute to It. European Journal of Child Development, Education and Psychopathology, 1(3), 97-123.

Güler, M. (2021). An Investigation of the Questions Mathematics Teachers Use on Exams. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 5(1), 141-153.

Hughes, E. M., Powell, S. R., and Stevens, E. A. (2016). Supporting Clear and Concise Mathematics Language : Instead of that, Say this. Teaching Exceptional Children, 49(1), 7-17.

Jaber, D. G. (2019). Validity, Accountability and Fairness of Official Exams in Lebanon : Reflections of Grades 9 and 12 Public School Students (Doctoral Dissertation, Notre Dame University-Louaize).

Naccache, H. S. (2012). Factors Related to Student Performance in Statistics Courses in Lebanon. The University of Southern Mississippi.

Patterson, B. F., Packman, S., and Kobrin, J. L. (2011). Advanced Placement Exam-Taking and Performance : Relationships With First-Year Subject Area College Grades. Research Reports No. 2011-4. College Board.

Rizvi, F. (2007). A Synthesis of Taxonomies/Frameworks Used to Analyse Mathematics Curricula in Pakistan. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 27(3), 90-95.

Setyaningsih, E. R., and Listiowarni, I. (2021). Categorization of Exam Questions Based on Bloom Taxonomy Using Naïve Bayes and Laplace Smoothing. In 3rd East Indonesia Conference on Computer and Information Technology (Eiconcit), 2021. IEEE Publications, 330-333.

Shehayeb, S. (2017). Alignment of Lebanese National Examinations and TIMSS Advanced Mathematics Study. Journal of Educational Research, 110-128. x

Suurtamm, C., Thompson, D. R., Kim, R. Y., Moreno, L. D., Sayac, N., Schukajlow, S., and Vos, P. (2016). Assessment in Mathematics Education : Large-Scale Assessment and Classroom Assessment. Springer Nature.

Swan, M., and Burkhardt, H. (2012). Designing Assessment of Performance in Mathematics Educational Designer, 2(5).

Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., and Becker, J. (2003). Towards a Didactic Model for Assessment Designin Mathematics Education. In A. J. Bishop, M. A. Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick and F. K. S. Leung (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Mathematics Education. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 686-716.

Vlaardingerbroek, B., Jaber, L. Z., Rizk, N. G., and Bayoud, J. M. (2009). The Lebanese Brevet Chemistry and Physics Examinations: An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(6), 1227-1247.

Webb, N. L. (1997). Criteria for Alignment of Expectations and Assessments in Mathematics and Science Education. Research Monograph, 6.




How to Cite

Shehayeb, S. (2023). PRECISION OF MATHEMATICAL VERBS IN GRADE 12 LEBANESE NATIONAL EXAMS. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 11(2), 95–105.