• Dr. Georby Cawaling Manuel Admin Officer IV & Acting College Administrator, Altavas College, Altavas, Aklan, Philippines
  • Victoria Onyot Ligan Corporate Research and Development Director, Joji Ilagan International Schools, Davao City Philippines, Professor, Davao del Sur State College, Digos, Davao del Sur, Philippines
  • Dr. Alberto Noble Bandiola Professor, Professional Schools, University of Mindanao, Davao City, Philippines, Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Officer (PENRO), DENR, Davao del Sur, Philippines




Public Administration, Leadership Factors, Personality Traits, Organizational Commitment, Work Engagement, Structural Equation Model, Philippines

Abstract [English]

This study aimed to establish the best fit structural model of work engagement of police commissioned officers in region 11. The exogenous variables in the model are leadership factors, personality traits, and organizational commitment. The endogenous variable is work engagement. 400 police commissioned officers selected through stratified random sampling responded to the survey. Data analysis used the mean, Pearson r, multiple regression, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results showed the respondents' high leadership factors, personality traits, organizational commitment, and work engagement. Additionally, the correlation test revealed a significant relationship between the exogenous and endogenous variables. The regression results exposed the 61.2% combined effect of leadership factors, personality traits, and organizational commitment on work engagement. Only Model 5 met all goodness of fit indices among the five developed models. Further analysis of the model revealed that leadership factors, personality traits, and organizational commitment, with their select manifest variables, are predictors of work engagement. The model shows that for leadership factors, the indicators are intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, management-by-exception, and passive leadership; personality traits are agreeableness and openness; affective and normative for organizational commitment. For work engagement, the manifest variables left in the model are vigor and dedication. The study concludes with the significance of leadership, personality, and commitment toward meaningful work engagement. Police commissioned officers can work on their leadership skills, improve their character, and practice the art of commitment to face the challenge of police work. The paper further discussed the implications for the police agency in the country.


Download data is not yet available.


Amor, A. M., Vázquez, J. P. A., and Faíña, J. A. (2020). Transformational Leadership and Work Engagement: Exploring The Mediating Role of Structural Empowerment. European Management Journal, 38(1), 169-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.06.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.06.007

Ariyani, N., and Hidayati, S. (2018). Influence of Transformational Leadership and Work Engagement on Innovative Behavior. Etikonomi, 17(2), 275-284. https://doi.org/10.15408/etk.v17i2.7427. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/etk.v17i2.7427

Asif, M., Qing, M., Hwang, J., and Shi, H. (2019). Ethical Leadership, Affective Commitment, Work Engagement, and Creativity: Testing A Multiple Mediation Approach. Sustainability, 11(16), 4489. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164489. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164489

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., and Sanz-Vergel, A. I. (2014). Burnout and Work Engagement : The JD-R Approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 389-411. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091235. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091235

Bakker, A. B., and Albrecht, S. (2018). Work Engagement : Current Trends. Career Development International, 23(1), 4-11. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2017-0207. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2017-0207

Caniëls, M. C., Semeijn, J. H., and Renders, I. H. (2018). Mind The Mindset! The Interaction Of Proactive Personality, Transformational Leadership and Growth Mindset for Engagement at Work. Career Development International. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2016-0194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2016-0194

Cherry, K. (2020). What is Laissez-Faire Leadership ? Verywell Mind; Verywellmind.

Cho, H. (2021). Power of Good Old Days: How Leisure Nostalgia Influences Work Engagement, Task Performance, and Subjective Well-Being. Leisure Studies, 40(6), 793-809. https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2021.1931415. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2021.1931415

Civelek, M. E. (2018). Essentials of Structural Equation Modeling. Essentials of Structural Equation Modeling (2018). https://doi.org/10.13014/K2SJ1HR5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13014/K2SJ1HR5

Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., and Cummings, J. A. (2019). 16.1 Personality Traits. Openpress.Usask.Ca ; University of Saskatchewan Open Press.

Diener, E., and Lucas, R. E. (2019a). Personality Traits. General Psychology : Required Reading, 278.

El Othman, R., El Othman, R., Hallit, R., Obeid, S., and Hallit, S. (2020). Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence and Decision-Making Styles in Lebanese Universities Medical Students. BMC Psychology, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00406-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-020-00406-4

Fogaça, N., Rego, M. C. B., Melo, M. C. C., Armond, L. P., and Coelho Jr, F. A. (2018). Job Performance Analysis: Scientific Studies in the Main Journals of Management and Psychology From 2006 To 2015. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 30(4), 231-247. https://doi.org/10.1002/piq.21248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/piq.21248

Galanaki, E. (2019). Effects of Employee Benefits on Affective and Continuance Commitment During Times of Crisis. International Journal of Manpower. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-08-2018-0270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3480637

Gemeda, H. K., and Lee, J. (2020). Leadership Styles, Work Engagement and Outcomes Among Information and Communications Technology Professionals: A Cross-National Study. Heliyon, 6(4), E03699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03699. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03699

Gwal, R., and Gwal, A. (2019). Personality Dimensions as a Correlate of Work Engagement : A Study of Working Women in Indore City. NMIMS Journal of Economics and Public Policy, 4(4), 37-47.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M. (2021a). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80519-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80519-7

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., Danks, N. P., and Ray, S. (2021b). Evaluation of Reflective Measurement Models. in Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Using R, Springer, Cham.,75-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80519-7_4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80519-7_4

Han, H., Kiatkawsin, K., and Kim, W. (2018). Traveler Loyalty and its Antecedents In The Hotel Industry: Impact of Continuance Commitment. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2017-0237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2017-0237

Hayat Bhatti, M., Ju, Y., Akram, U., Hasnat Bhatti, M., Akram, Z., and Bilal, M. (2019). Impact of Participative Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating Role of Trust And Moderating Role of Continuance Commitment: Evidence From The Pakistan Hotel Industry. Sustainability, 11(4), 1170. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041170

Khan, A. J., Bashir, F., Nasim, I., and Ahmad, R. (2021). Understanding Affective, Normative and Continuance Commitment Through the Lens of Training and Development. Irasd Journal of Management, 3(2), 105-113. https://doi.org/10.52131/jom.2021.0302.0030. DOI: https://doi.org/10.52131/jom.2021.0302.0030

Kong, Y., and Li, M. (2018). Proactive Personality and Innovative Behavior: The Mediating Roles of Job-Related Affect and Work Engagement. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(3), 431-446. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.6618. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.6618

Lambert, E. G., Qureshi, H., Frank, J., Klahm, C., and Smith, B. (2018). Job Stress, Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment and Their Associations With Job Burnout Among Indian Police Officers : A Research Note. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 33(2), 85-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-017-9236-y. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-017-9236-y

Ligan, Victoria O. (2018). Organizational Politics, Leadership Style Preference, and Public Service Motivation : A Structural Model on Organizational Commitment of Government Employees in Davao City. Asian Intellect Research And Education Journal 6, 116-127.

Lisbona, A., Palaci, F., Salanova, M., and Frese, M. (2018). The Effects of Work Engagement and Self-Efficacy on Personal Initiative and Performance. Psicothema, 30(1), 89-96.

Loan, L. (2020). The Influence of Organizational Commitment On Employees' Job Performance : The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction. Management Science Letters, 10(14), 3307-3312. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.6.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.6.007

Meslec, N., Curseu, P. L., Fodor, O. C., and Kenda, R. (2020). Effects of Charismatic Leadership and Rewards on Individual Performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 31(6), 101423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2020.101423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2020.101423

Meyer, J. P., Paunonen, S. V., Gellatly, I. R., Goffin, R. D., and Jackson, D. N. (1989). Organizational Commitment and Job Performance : It's The Nature of The Commitment That Counts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 152. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.152

Nassif, A. G., Hackett, R. D., and Wang, G. (2021). Ethical, Virtuous, and Charismatic Leadership : An Examination of Differential Relationships With Follower and Leader Outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 172(3), 581-603. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04491-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04491-8

Novitasari, D., Haque, M. G., Supriatna, H., Asbari, M., and Purwanto, A. (2021). Understanding The Links Between Charismatic Leadership, Intrinsic Motivation and Tacit Knowledge Sharing Among MSME Employees. International Journal of Social and Management Studies, 2(3), 1-13.

Oc, B. (2018). Contextual Leadership: A Systematic Review of How Contextual Factors Shape Leadership and Its Outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 218-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.12.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.12.004

Pappas, S. (2017). Personality Traits and Personality Types : What Is Personality? Live Science ; Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/41313-personality-traits.html.

Perera, H. N., Granziera, H., and Mcilveen, P. (2018). Profiles of Teacher Personality and Relations With Teacher Self-Efficacy, Work Engagement, and Job Satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 171-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.034. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.08.034

San-Martín, S., Jiménez, N., Rodríguez-Torrico, P., and Piñeiro-Ibarra, I. (2020). The Determinants of Teachers' Continuance Commitment To E-Learning in Higher Education. Education and Information Technologies, 25(4), 3205-3225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10117-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10117-3

Sariwulan, T., Agung, I., Sudrajat, U., and Atmadiredja, G. (2019). The Influence of Job Expectation, Job Satisfaction, and Government Policy Towards the Work Stress, Job Enthusiasm and Continuance Commitment of the Honorarium Teacher. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 38(2), 305-319. https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v38i2.24380. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v38i2.24380

Schaufeli, W. B. (2015). Engaging Leadership In the Job Demands-Resources Model. Career Development International, 20(5), 446-463. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-02-2015-0025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-02-2015-0025

Schaufeli, W. B., and Bakker, A. B. (2010). Defining and Measuring Work Engagement : Bringing Clarity To The Concept. Work Engagement : A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research, 12, 10-24. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203853047-6.

Suharto, Suyanto, and Hendri, N. (2019). The Impact of Organizational Commitment on Job Performance. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 7(2), 189-206. https://doi.org/10.35808/ijeba/227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35808/ijeba/227

Tarka, P. (2018). An Overview of Structural Equation Modeling : Its Beginnings, Historical Development, Usefulness and Controversies In the Social Sciences. Quality and Quantity, 52(1), 313-354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0469-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0469-8

Teng, M., Hassan, Z., and Kasa, M. (2019). The Relationship Between Personality and Turnover Intention Among Academicians of Private Higher Education Institutions In Malaysia : Boredom At Workplace as Mediator. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 19(3), 262-269.

Tisu, L., Lupșa, D., Vîrgă, D., and Rusu, A. (2020). Personality Characteristics, Job Performance and Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Work Engagement. Personality and Individual Differences, 153, 109644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109644. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109644

Towler, A. (2020). Workplace and Organizational Commitment: What It Is and Why It Matters as a Management Tool. CQ Net.

USI Web Services. (2018). Five Roles of A Leader - University of Southern Indiana. Usi.Edu.

Winarno, A., and Hermana, D. (2019). Commitment, Work Engagement, and Research Performance of Lecturers, In Indonesia Private Universities. MOJEM : Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 7(4), 45-63. https://doi.org/10.22452/mojem.vol7no4.3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22452/mojem.vol7no4.3

Wood, J., Oh, J., Park, J., and Kim, W. (2020). The Relationship Between Work Engagement and Work-Life Balance in Organizations : A Review of the Empirical Research. Human Resource Development Review, 19(3), 240-262. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484320917560. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484320917560

Young, H. R., Glerum, D. R., Wang, W., and Joseph, D. L. (2018). Who Are the Most Engaged At Work? A Meta‐Analysis of Personality and Employee Engagement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(10), 1330-1346. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2303




How to Cite

Manuel, G. C., Ligan, V. O., & Bandiola, A. N. (2022). A CAUSAL MODEL ON WORK ENGAGEMENT OF POLICE COMMISSIONED OFFICERS IN REGION 11 CONCERNING LEADERSHIP, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 10(10), 130–142. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i10.2022.4835