• O.P. Bansal Chemistry Department, D.S. College, Aligarh-202001, India
  • Anjul Singh Chemistry Department, D.S. College, Aligarh-202001, India




Microplastic, Soil, Sewage Sludge, Bio-Compost, Soil Biota, Plants, Human Health

Abstract [English]

For modern human life, since the beginning of the 21st century, plastic become indispensable. The golden period for the plastic industry was the second half of the 20th century when plastic-based products bucket to the car were manufactured. Due to mismanagement, and indiscriminate use microplastics are emerging as persistent terrestrial pollutants. In the last decade, environmental scientists and other stakeholders have paid serious attention to soil pollution by microplastics. In soils, the microplastic particles act as a vector for the toxic persistent organic pollutants and potentially toxic metals which are easily sorbed by plants and enter the food chain.
Microplastic pollutants not only influence the soil’s physicochemical properties but also impact the feeding habits of soil biota. Microplastic in soils is due to sewage sludge, bio waste compost amendments, plastic mulching, wastewater irrigation, leachate from landfills and atmospheric deposition. The quantity of microplastic particles in the soils varied from nil to13000 items per kg of soil. The quantity of microplastic in the soil is 5-23 times that in the ocean. The microplastic in soil retards seed germination and plant growth. Enzymatic activities of the soil are also influenced by microplastic. Plastic Pellets, Personal Care Products and Cosmetics, Synthetic Textiles, the Abrasion of Tyres, City Dust, and the Abrasion of Road Markings etc. are the environmental sources of microplastic. Intake by humans via food causes respiratory toxicity, cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity and reproductive toxicity among other effects. The present work reports the sources and distribution of microplastic in the soil environment and their impact on soil biota, plants, and human health.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Jaibachi, R., Cuthbert, R. N. and Callaghan, A. (2019). Examining Effects of Ontogenic Microplastic Transference on Culex Mosquito Mortality and Adult Weight. Science of the Total Environment, 651(1), 871-876. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.236

Auta, H.S., Emenike, C.U., Fauziah, S.H. (2017). Distribution and Importance of Microplastics in the Marine Environment : A Review of the Sources, Fate, Effects, and Potential Solutions. Environment International, 102, 165-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.013

Aves, A.R., Revell, L.E., Gaw, S., et al. (2022). First Evidence of Microplastics in Antarctic Snow. The Cryosphere, 16, 2127-2145. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-2127-2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-16-2127-2022

Avio, C.G., Cardelli, L.R., Gorbi, S., et al. (2017). Microplastics Pollution After the Removal of the Costa Concordia Wreck : First Evidences from a Biomonitoring Case Study. Environmental Pollution, 227, 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.066

Awet, T.T., Kohl, Y., Meier, F., et al. (2018). Effects of Polystyrene Nanoparticles on the Microbiota and Functional Diversity of Enzymes in Soil. Environmental Sciences Europe, 30, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-018-0140-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-018-0140-6

Aytan, U., Esensoy, F.B., Senturk, Y., et al. (2022). Plastic Occurrence in Commercial Fish Species of the Black Sea. Turk J of Fisher and Aqua Sci, 22(SI). https://doi.org/10.4194/TRJFAS20504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4194/TRJFAS20504

Bansal, O.P. (2020). Microplastic in the Rivers and Oceans and Their Impact : A Review. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 11 (2), 37291-37298. http://dx.doi.org/10.24327/ijrsr.2020.1102.5083.

Bänsch-Baltruschat, B., Kocher, B., Stock, F. et al. (2020). Tyre and Road Wear Particles (TRWP) - A Review of Generation, Properties, Emissions, Human Health Risk, Ecotoxicity, and Fate in the Environment. Science of the Total Environment, 733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137823. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137823

Barboza, G.A., Lopes, C., Oliveira, P., et al. (2020). Microplastics in Wild Fish from North East Atlantic Ocean and its Potential for Causing Neurotoxic Effects, Lipid Oxidative Damage, and Human Health Risks Associated with Ingestion Exposure. Science of the Total Environment, 717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134625. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134625

Beriot, N., Peek, J., Zomoza, R., et al. (2021). Low Density-Microplastics Detected in Sheep Faeces and Soil : A Case Study from the Intensive Vegetable Farming in Southeast Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 10, 755(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142653. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142653

Bessa, F., Barria, P., Neto, J.M., et al. (2018). Occurrence of Microplastics in Commercial Fish from a Natural Estuarine Environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 128, 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.044. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.044

Bläsing, M. and Amelung, W. (2018). Plastics in Soil : Analytical Methods and Possible Sources. Science of the Total Environment, 612, 422-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.086. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.086

Boots, B., Russell, C.W. and Green, D.S. (2019). Effects of Microplastics in Soil Ecosystems : Above and Below Ground. Environmental Science and Technology, 53 (19), 11496-11506. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03304. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03304

Bosker, T., Bouwman, L.J., Brun, N.R., et al. (2019). Microplastics Accumulate on Pores in Seed Capsule and Delay Germination and Root Growth of the Terrestrial Vascular Plant Lepidium Sativum. Chemosphere, 226, 774-781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.163

Boucher, C., Morin, M. and Bendell, L.I. (2016). The Influence of Cosmetic Microbeads on the Sorptivebehavior of Cadmium and Lead Within Intertidal Sediments: A Laboratory Study. Regional Studies in Marine Science 3, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2015.11.009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2015.11.009

Boucher, J. and Friot. D. (2017). Primary Microplastics in the Oceans : A Global Evaluation of Sources. Gland, Switzerland : IUCN.2017, 43. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2017.01.en. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2017.01.en

Braun, M., Mail, M., Heyse, R., et al. (2020). Plastic in Compost : Prevalence and Potential Input into Agricultural and Horticultural Soils. Science of the Total Environment, 760(1-2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143335

Burghardt, T.E., Pashkevich, A., and Mosböck, H. (2020). Microplastics Originating from Road Markings : A Significant Overestimate. International Conference "Fate and impacts of Microplastics: Knowledge and Responsibilities" 23-27.11.2020. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.10974.36169.

Cao, D., Xiao, W., Luo, X., et al. (2017). Effects of Polystyrene Microplastics on the Fitness of Earthworms in an Agricultural Soil. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 61. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/61/1/012148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/61/1/012148

Carr, S.A., Liu, J. and Tesoro, A.G. (2016). Transport and Fate of Microplastic Particles in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Water Research, 91, 174-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.01.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.01.002

Catarino, A.I., Macchia, V., Sanderson W.G., et al. (2018). Low levels of Microplastics (MP) in Wild Mussels Indicate that MP Ingestion by Humans is Minimal Compared to Exposure Via Household Fibres Fallout During a Meal. Environmental Pollution, 237, 675-684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.069. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.069

Chen, Y., Leng, Y., Liu, X., et al. (2020). Microplastic Pollution in Vegetable Farmlands of Suburb Wuhan, Central China. Environmental Pollution, 257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113449

Chiba, S., Saitoc H, Fletcher R, et al. (2018). Human Footprint in the Abyss : 30 Year Records of Deep-Sea Plastic Debris. Mar Policy, 96, 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.022

Choi, Y.R., Kim, Y.N., Yoon, J.H., et al. (2021). Plastic Contamination of Forest, Urban, and Agricultural Soils : A Case Study of Yeoju City in the Republic of Korea. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 21, 1962-1973. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-020-02759-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-020-02759-0

Corradini, F., Casado, F., Leiva, V., et al. (2021). Microplastics Occurrence and Frequency in Soils Under Different Land Uses on a Regional Scale. Science of the Total Environment, 752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141917. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141917

Corradini, F., Meza, P., Eguiluz, R., et al. (2019). Evidence of Microplastic Accumulation in Agricultural Soils from Sewage Sludge Disposal. Science of the Total Environment, 671, 411-420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.368

Cox, K. D., Covernton, G. A., Davies, H. L., et al. (2019). Human Consumption of Microplastics. Environmental Science & Technology, 53, 7068-7074. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01517. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01517

Crossman, J., Hurley, R.R., Futter, M., et al. (2020). Transfer and Transport of Microplastics from Biosolids to Agricultural Soils and the Wider Environment. Science of the Total Environment, 724. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138334. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138334

De Falco, F., Di Pace, E., Cocca, M., et al. (2019). The Contribution of Washing Processes of Synthetic Clothes to Microplastic Pollution. Scientific Reports, 9, 6633. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43023-x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43023-x

De Souza Machado, A.A., Kloas, W., Zarfl, C., et al. (2018). Microplastics as an Emerging Threat to Terrestrial Ecosystems. Global Change Biology, 24, 1405-1416. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14020

De Souza Machado, A.A., Lau, C.W., Kloas W., et al. (2019). Microplastics Can Change Soil Properties and Affect Plant Performance. Environmental Science & Technology, 53, 6044-6052. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01339

Dierkes, G., Lauschke, T., Becher, S., et al. (2019). Quantification of Microplastics in Environmental Samples Via Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Pyrolysisgas Chromatography. Anal. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 411, 6959-6968. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-02066-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-02066-9

Digka, N., Tsangaris, C., Torre, M., et al. (2018). Microplastics in Mussels and Fish from the Northern Ionian Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135, 30-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.063. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.063

Ding, L., Zhang, S., Wang, X., et al. (2020). The Occurrence and Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in the Agricultural Soils of Shaanxi Province, in North-Western China. Science of the Total Environment, 720, 137525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137525

Dong, H.D., Liu, T., Han, Z.Q., et al. (2015). Determining Time Limits of Continuous Film Mulching and Examining Residual Effects on Cotton Yield and Soil Properties. Journal of Environmental Biology, 36, 677-684. http://www.jeb.co.in/.../paper_25.pdf.

Dong, Y., Gao, M., Qiu, W., et al. (2021). Effect of Microplastics and Arsenic on Nutrients and Microorganisms in Rice Rhizosphere Soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111899

Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Saad, M., et al. (2016). Synthetic Fibers in Atmospheric Fallout : A Source of Microplastics in the Environment? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 5, 104(1-2), 290-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.01.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.01.006

Edo, C., González-Pleiter, M., Leganés, F., et al. (2019). Fate of Microplastics in Wastewater Treatment Plants and their Environmental Dispersion With Effluent and Sludge. Environmental Pollution, 259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113837. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113837

Eerkes-Medrano, D., Leslie, H. A., and Quinn, B. (2019). Microplastics in Drinking Water : A Review and Assessment. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 7, 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coesh.2018.12.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coesh.2018.12.001

Essel, R., Engel, L., Carus, M., et al. (2015). Sources of Microplastics Relevant to Marine Protection in Germany. Texte 64/2015, German Federal Environment.

Feng, S., Lu, H., Tian, P., et al. (2020). Analysis of Microplastics in a Remote Region of the Tibetan Plateau : Implications for Natural Environmental Response to Human Activities. Science of the Total Environment, 739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140087. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140087

Flaws, J. (2019, October 7). You're Literally Eating Microplastics. How You Can Cut Down Exposure to them, Washington Post.

Foo, Y.H., Ratnam, S., Lim, E.V., et al. (2022). Microplastic Ingestion by Commercial Marine Fish from the Seawater of Northwest Peninsular Malaysia. Peer J. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13181. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13181

Fuller, S.G., and Gautam, A. (2016). A Procedure for Measuring Microplastics Using Pressurized Fluid Extraction. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 5774-5780. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b00816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b00816

Galloway, T.S., Cole, M. and Lewis, C. (2017). Interactions of Microplastics Throughout the Marine Ecosystem. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1(5), 116. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0116

Gies, E.A., LeNoble, J.L., Noel, M., et al. (2018). Retention of Microplastics in à Major Secondary Wastewater Treatment Plant in Vancouver, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 133, 553-561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.006

Golwala, H., Zhang, X., Iskander, S.M., et al. (2021). Solid Waste : an Overlooked Source of Microplastics to the Environment. Science of The Total Environment, 769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144581. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144581

Gray, A.D., Wertz, H., Leads, R.R., et al. (2018). Microplastic In Two South Carolina Estuaries : Occurrence, Distribution, And Composition. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 128, 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.030. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.030

Gui, J., Sun, Y., Wang, J., et al. (2021). Microplastics in Composting of Rural Domestic Waste : Abundance, Characteristics, and Release from the Surface Of Macroplastics. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116553. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116553

Gundogdu, S., Cevik, C. and Atas, N.T. (2020). Stuffed with Microplastics: Microplastic Occurrence in Traditional Stuffed Mussels Sold in the Turkish Market. Food Bio, 37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2020.100715. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2020.100715

Güven, O., Gökdağ, K., Jovanović, B., et al. (2017). Microplastic Litter Composition of the Turkish Territorial Waters of the Mediterranean Sea, and its Occurrence in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Fish. Environmental Pollution, 223, 286-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.01.025. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.01.025

Habib, R., Thiemann, T. and Al Kendi, R. (2020). Microplastics and Wastewater Treatment Plants-A Review. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 12, 1-35. https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2020.121001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2020.121001

Halastead, J.E., Smith, J.A., Carter, E., et al. (2017). Assessment Tools for Microplastics and Natural Fibres Ingested by Fish in an Urbanised Estuary. Environmental Pollution, 234, 552-561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.085. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.085

Hamid, F.S., Hatti, M.S., Anuar, N., et al. (2018). Worldwide Distribution and Abundance of Microplastic : How Dire is the Situation? Waste Management & Research, 36(10) 873-897. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X18785730. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X18785730

Harms, I.K., Diekötter, T., Troegel, S., et al. (2021). Amount, Distribution and Composition of Large Microplastics in Typical Agricultural Soils in Northern Germany. Science of the Total Environment, 758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143615. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143615

Hernandez, E., Nowack, B., Denise, M., et al. (2017). Polyester Textiles as a Source of Microplastics from Households: A Mechanistic Study to Understand Microfiber Release During Washing. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 7036-7046. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01750. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01750

Hodson, M.E., Duffus-Hodson, C.A., Clark, A., et al. (2017). Plastic Bag Derived-Microplastics as a Vector for Metal Exposure in Terrestrial Invertebrates. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 4714-4721. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b00635. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b00635

Horton, A.A., Walton, A., Spurgeon, D.J., et al. (2017). Microplastics in Freshwater and Terrestrial Environments : Evaluating the Current Understanding to Identify the Knowledge Gaps and Future Research Priorities. Science of the Total Environment, 586, 127-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.190

Huang, Y., Liu, Q., Jia, W., et al. (2020). Agricultural Plastic Mulching a Source of Microplastics in the Terrestrial Environment. Environmental Pollution, 260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114096. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114096

Huerta Lwanga, E., Mendoza Vega, J., Quej, V.K., et al. (2017). Field Evidence for Transfer of Plastic Debris Along a Terrestrial Food Chain. Scientific Reports volume, 7 (1), 14071. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14588-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14588-2

Huerta-Lwanga, E., Beriot, N., Corradini, F. et al. (2022). Review of Microplastic Sources, Transport Pathways and Correlations with Other Soil Stressors : A Journey from Agricultural Sites into the Environment. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture, 9, 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-021-00278-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-021-00278-9

Huerta-Lwanga, E., Mendoza-Vega, J., Ribeiro, O., et al. (2021). Is the Polylactic Acid Fiber in Green Compost a Risk for Lumbricus 674 Terrestris and Triticum Aestivum ? Polymers, 13, 703. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050703. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050703

Iñiguez, M.E., Conesa, J.A. and Fullana, A. (2017). Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt. Scientific Reports, 7, 8620. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09128-x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09128-x

Jian, M., Zhang, Y., Yang, W., et al. (2020). Occurrence and Distribution of Microplastics in China's Largest Freshwater Lake System. Chemosphere, 261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128186

Jiang, X., Chen, H., Liao, Y., et al. (2019). Ecotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Polystyrene Microplastics on Higher Plant Vicia Faba. Environmental Pollution, 250,831- 838. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.055

Jiang, X.J., Liu, W., Wang, E., et al. (2017). Residual Plastic Mulch Fragments Effects on Soil Physical Properties and Water Flow Behavior in the Minqin Oasis, Northwestern China. Soil and Tillage Research, 166, 100-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.10.011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.10.011

Ju, H., Zhu, D. and Qiao, M. (2019). Effects of Polyethylene Microplastics on the Gut Microbial Community, Reproduction and Avoidance Behaviors of the Soil Springtail, Folsomia Candida. Environmental Pollution, 247, 890-897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.097. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.097

Karami, A., Golieskardi, A., Keong Choo, C., et al. (2017). The Presence of Microplastics in Commercial Salts from Different Countries. Scientific Reports, 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46173

Kazour, M., Terki, S., Rabhi, K., et al. (2019). Sources of Microplastics Pollution in the Marine Environment : Importance of Wastewater Treatment Plant and Coastal Landfill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 146, 608-618. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.06.066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.06.066

Khan, F.R., Halle, L.L. and Palmqvist, A. (2019). Acute and Long-Term Toxicity of Micronized Car Tire Wear Particles to Hyalella Azteca. Aquatic Toxicology, 213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.05.018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.05.018

Khan, H.M.S. and Setu, S. (2022). Microplastic Ingestion by Fishes from Jamuna River, Bangladesh. The Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 20,157-167. https://doi.org/10.32526/ennrj/20/202100164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32526/ennrj/20/202100164

Kim, S-K., Kim, J-S., Lee, H., et al. (2021). Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Soils with Different Agricultural Practices : Importance of Sources with Internal Origin and Environmental Fate. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123997

Kole, P.J., Löhr, A.J., Van Belleghem, F.G.A, J, et al. (2017). Wear and Tear of Tyres : A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101265

Kong, X., Jin, D., Jin, S., et al. (2018). Responses of Bacterial Community to Dibutyl Phthalate Pollution in a Soil-Vegetable Ecosystem. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 353, 142-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.04.015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.04.015

Kor, K., and Mehdinia, A. (2020). Neustonic Microplastic Pollution in the Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110665

Lahive, E., Walton, A., Horton, A.A., et al. (2019). Microplastic Particles Reduce Reproduction in the Terrestrial Worm Enchytraeus Crypticus in a Soil Exposure. Environmental Pollution, 255(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113174

Lares, M., Ncibi, M.C., Sillanpaa, M., et al. (2018). Occurrence, Identification and Removal of Microplastic Particles and Fibers in Conventional Activated Sludge Process and Advanced MBR technology. Water Research, 133, 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.01.049. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.01.049

Leal Filho, W., Dedeoglu, C., Dinis, M.A.P, et al. (2022). Riverine Plastic Pollution in Asia : Results from a Bibliometric Assessment. Land, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/land11071117

Li, C., Sun, M., Xu, X., et al. (2021a). Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Mulch Film Use for Pollution Control in China : Microcosmic Evidence from Smallholder Farmers. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.105222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.105222

Li, H., Lu, X., Wang, S., et al. (2021b). Vertical Migration of Microplastics Along Soil Profile Under Different Crop Root Systems. Environmental Pollution, 278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116833. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116833

Li, H-X., Ma, L-S., Lin. L., et al. (2018c). Microplastics in Oysters Saccostrea Cucullata Along the Pearl River Estuary, China. Environmental Pollution, 236, 619-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.083. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.083

Li, J., Green, C., Reynolds, A., et al. (2018b). Microplastics in Mussels Sampled from Coastal Waters and Supermarkets in the United Kingdom. Environmental Pollution, 241, 35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.038

Li, J., Song, Y.and Cai, Y. (2020). Focus Topics on Microplastics in Soil : Analytical Methods, Occurrence, Transport, and Ecological Risks. Environmental Pollution, 257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113570. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113570

Li, L., Zhou, Q., Yin, N., et al. (2019b). Uptake and Accumulation of Microplastics in an Edible Plant. Chinese Science Bulletin, 64(9), 928-934. https://doi.org/10.1360/N972018-00845. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1360/N972018-00845

Li, Q., Wu, J., Zao, X., et al. (2019a). Separation and Identification of Microplastics from Soil and Sewage Sludge. Environmental Pollution, 254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113076. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113076

Li, W., Wang, S., Wufuer, R., et al. (2022). Microplastic Contamination in Urban, Farmland and Desert Environments Along a Highway in Southern Xinjiang, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19158890. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19158890

Li, X., Chen, L., Mei, Q., et al. (2018a). Microplastics in Sewage Sludge from the Wastewater Treatment Plants in China. Water Research, 42, 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.034. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.034

Lian, J., Wu, J., Xiong, X., et al. (2020). Impact of Polystyrene Nanoplastics (Psnps) on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121620. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121620

Liang, B., Zhong, Y., Huang, Y., et al. (2021). Underestimated Health Risks : Polystyrene Micro- and Nanoplastics Jointly Induce Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction by Ros-Mediated Epithelial Cell Apoptosis. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 18 (1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-021-00414-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-021-00414-1

Liu, H., Yang, X., Liu, G., et al. (2017). Response of Soil Dissolved Organic Matter to Microplastic Addition in Chinese Loess Soil. Chemosphere 185, 907-917. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.07.064. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.07.064

Liu, M., Lu, S., Lu Song, Y., et al. (2018). Microplastic and mesoplastic pollution in farmland soils in suburbs of Shanghai China. Environ Pollut, 242 (A), 855-862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.051. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.051

Liu, S., Wang, J., Zhu, J., et al. (2021). The Joint Toxicity of Polyethylene Microplastic and Phenanthrene to Wheat Seedlings. Chemosphere, 282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130967. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130967

Ljung, E., Olesen, K. B., Andersson, P. G., et al. (2018). Mikroplaster I Kretsloppet. Svenskt Vatten Utveckling Rapport, Nr, 13.

Lozano, Y.M., Lehnert, T., Linck, L.T. et al. (2021). Microplastic Shape, Polymer Type, and Concentration Affect Soil Properties and Plant Biomass. Front Plant Science, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.616645. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.616645

Luo, Y.M., Zhou, Q., Zhang, H.B., et al. (2018). Pay Attention to Research on Microplastic Pollution in Soil for Prevention of Ecological and Food Chain Risks. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 33, 1021-1039. https://doi.org/10.16418/j.issn.1000-3045.2018.10.003.

Lusher, A., Hollman, P., and Mendoza-Hill, J. (2017). Microplastics in Fisheries and Aquaculture - Status of Knowledge on their Occurrence and Implications for Aquatic Organisms and Food Safety. Rome, Italy : FAO. Technical Paper 615.

Lv, X., Dong, Q., Zuo, Z., et al. (2019). Microplastics in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant : Fate, Dynamic Distribution, Removal Efficiencies, and Control Strategies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 225, 579-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.321

Magni, S., Binelli, A., Pittura, L., et al. (2019). The Fate of Microplastics in an Italian Wastewater Treatment Plant. Science of The Total Environment, 652, 602-610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.269

Magnusson, K., Eliasson, K., Fråne, A., et al. (2016). A Swedish Sources and Pathways for Microplastics to the Marine Environment : A Review of Existing Data. Number C 183 March 2016 Report.

Mahon, A.M., Connell, B.O., Healy, M.G., et al. (2017). Microplastics in Sewage Sludge : Effects of Treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(2), 810-818. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04048. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04048

Martin, J., Lusher, A., Thompson, R.C., et al. (2017). The Deposition and Accumulation of Microplastics in Marine Sediments and Bottom Water from the Irish Continental Shelf. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11079-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11079-2

McEachern, K., Alegria, H., Kalaghre, A.L., et al. (2019). Microplastics in Tampa Bay, Florida : Abundance and Variability in Estuarine Waters and Sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 148, 97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.07.068. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.07.068

McNeish, R.E., Kim, L.H., Barrett, H.A., et al. (2018). Microplastic in Riverine Fish is Connected to Species Traits. Scientific Reports, 8, 11639. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29980-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29980-9

Meng, F., Yang, X., Riksen, M., et al. (2021). Response of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Growth to Soil Contaminated with Microplastics. Science of The Total Environment, 755(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142516. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142516

Meng, Y., Kelly, F.J. and Wright, S.L. (2020). Advances and Challenges of Microplastic Pollution in Freshwater Ecosystems : A Uk Perspective. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113445

Mintenig, S.M., Int-Veen, I., Löder M.G.J., et al. (2017). Identification of Microplastic in Effluents of Waste Water Treatment Plants Using Focal Plane Array-Based Micro-Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging. Water Research, 108, 365-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.015

Mistri, M., Sfriso, A.A., Casoni, E., et al. (2022). Microplastic Accumulation in Commercial Fish from the Adriatic Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113279

Moller, J. Loder, M.G.J. and Laforsch, C. (2020). Finding Microplastics in Soils - A Review of Analytical Methods. Environmental Science & Technology, 54 (4), 2078-2090. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04618. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04618

Murphy, F., Ewins, C., Carbonnier, F., et al. (2016). Wastewater Treatment Works (Wwtw) as a Source of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 11, 5800-5808. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05416

Ng, E.L., Huerta Lwanga, E., Eldridge, S.M., et al. (2018). An Overview of Microplastic and Nanoplastic Pollution in Agroecosystems. Science of he Total Environment, 627, 1377-1388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.341

Nizzetto, L., Futter, and M. and Langaas, S. (2016). Are Agricultural Soils Dumps for Microplastics of Urban Origin ? Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 10777-10779. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b04140

Perfetti-Bolaño, A., Araneda, A., Muñoz, K., et al. (2022). Occurrence and Distribution of Microplastics in Soils and Intertidal Sediments at Fildes Bay, Maritime Antarctica. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.774055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.774055

Piehl, S., Leibner, A., Löder, M.G.J. et al. (2018). Identification and Quantification of Macro- and Microplastics on an Agricultural Farmland. Scientific Reports, 8, 17950. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36172-y. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36172-y

Prata, J. C., da Costa, J. P., Lopes, I., et al. (2020). Environmental Exposure to Mps: An Overview on Possible Human Health Effects. Science of the Total Environment, 702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134455. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134455

Qi, R., Jones, D. L., Li, Z., et al. (2020). Behavior of Microplastics and Plastic Film Residues in the Soil Environment : A Critical Review. Science of the Total Environment, 703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134722. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134722

Rafique, A., Irfan, M., Mumtaz, M., et al. (2020). A. Spatial Distribution of Microplastics in Soil With Context to Human Activities : A Case Study from the Urban Center. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192, 671. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08641-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08641-3

Reis, P.I. N.D. (2019). Microplastic Contamination in Argentina Insights About a Source (wastewater treatment plant) and a Sink (Beach) : 2 cases studies. Ph.D. Thesis, University of de Lisboa Argentina.

Ren, S-Y., Kong, S-F. and Ni, H-G. (2021). Contribution of Mulch Film to Microplastics in Agricultural Soil and Surface Water in China. Environmental Pollution, 291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118227

Revel, M., Châtel, A., and Mouneyrac, C. (2018). Micro(nano)Plastics : A Threat to Human Health ? Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 1, 17-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coesh.2017.10.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coesh.2017.10.003

Rezaei M., Riksen M. J., Sirjani E., et al. (2019). Wind Erosion as a Driver for Transport of Light Density Microplastics. Science of the Total Environment, 669, 273-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.382. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.382

Rillig, M. C., Lehmann, A., de Souza Machado, A. A., et al. (2019). Microplastic Effects on Plants. New Phytol, 223, 1066-1070. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15794. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15794

Rillig, M.C. (2012). Microplastic in Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Soil ? Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 6453-6454. https://doi.org/10.1021/es302011r. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/es302011r

Rodrigues, M.O., Abrantes, N., Gonçalves, F.J.M., et al. (2018). Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Microplastics in Water and Sediments of a Freshwater System (Antuã River, Portugal). Science of the Total Environment, 633,1549-1559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.233. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.233

Rodriguez-Seijo, A., Lourenço, J., Rocha-Santos, T.A.P., et al. (2017). Histopathological and Molecular Effects of Microplastics in Eisenia Andrei Bouché. Environmental Pollution, 220, 495-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.092. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.09.092

Ruggero, F., Porter, A.E., Voulvoulis, N., et al. (2021). A Highly Efficient Multi-Step Methodology for the Quantification of 856 Micro-(Bio) Plastics in Sludge. Waste Management & Research, 39, 956-965. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X20974094. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X20974094

Saha, M., Naik, A., Desai, A., et al. (2021). Microplastics in Seafood as an Emerging Threat to Marine Environment : A Case Study in Goa, West Coast of India. Chemosphere, 270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129359

Sajjad, M., Huang, Q., Khan, S., et al. (2022). Microplastics in the Soil Environment : A Critical Review. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102408

Scheurer, M. and Bigalke, M. (2018). Microplastics in Swiss Floodplain Soils. Environmental Science & Technology, 52, 3591-3598. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b06003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b06003

Schirinzi, G. F., Pérez-Pomeda, I., Sanchís, J., et al. (2017). Cytotoxic Effects of Commonly Used Nanomaterials und Microplastics on Cerebral and Epithelial Human Cells. Environmental Research, 159, 579-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.043. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.043

Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (SAPEA) (2019). A Scientific Perspective on Microplastics in Nature and Society, Berlin. https://doi.org/10.26356/microplastics.

Senathirajah, K., Attwood, S., Bhagwat, G., et al. (2021). Estimation of the Mass of Microplastics Ingested - A Pivotal First Step Towards Human Health Risk Assessment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 404 (Pt B). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124004

Sharma, S. and Chatterjee, S. (2017). Microplastic Pollution, A Threat to Marine Ecosystem and Human Health : A Short Review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 21530-21547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9910-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9910-8

Sholokhova, A., Ceponkus, J., Sablinskas, V., et al. (2022). Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in Treated Organic Wastes of Kaunas and Alytus Regional Waste Management Centres, Lithuania. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29, 20665-20674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17378-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17378-6

Sobhani, Z., Fang, C., Naidu, R., et al. (2021). Microplastics as a Vector of Toxic Chemicals in Soil : Enhanced Uptake of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid by Earthworms Through Sorption and Reproductive Toxicity. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2021.101476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2021.101476

Song, Y., Cao, C., Qiu, R., et al. (2019). Uptake and Adverse Effects of Polyethylene Terephthalate Microplastics Fibers on Terrestrial Snails (Achatina Fulica) After Soil Exposure. Environmental Pollution, 250, 447-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.066. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.066

Sparks, C., and Immelman, S. (2020). Microplastics in Offshore Fish from the Agulhas Bank, South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111216

Sun, K., Song, Y., He, F., et al. (2021). A Review of Human and Animals Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons : Health Risk and Adverse Effects, Photo-Induced Toxicity and Regulating Effect of Microplastics. Science of the Total Environment, 773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145403

Sun, Q., Li, J., Wang, C., et al. (2022). Research Progress on Distribution, Sources, Identification, Toxicity, and Biodegradation of Microplastics in the Ocean, Freshwater, and Soil Environment. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 16, 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-021-1429-z. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-021-1429-z

Sun, X., Li, Q., Shi, Y., et al. (2019). Characteristics and Retention of Microplastics in the Digestive Tracts of Fish from the Yellow Sea. Environmental Pollution, 249, 878-885. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.110

Townsend, K.R., Lu, H.C., Sharley, D.J. et al. (2019). Associations Between Microplastic Pollution and Land Use in Urban Wetland Sediments. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, 22551-22561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04885-w. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04885-w

Urbina, M.A., Correa, F., Aburto, F., et al. (2020). Adsorption of Polyethylene Microbeads and Physiological Effects on Hydroponic Maize. Science of the Total Environment, 741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140216

Van den Berg, P., Huerta-Lwanga, E., Corradini, F., et al. (2020). Sewage Sludge Application as a Vehicle for Microplastics in Eastern Spanish Agricultural Soils. Environmental Pollution, 261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114198

Van Schothorst, B., Beriot, N., Huerta-Lwanga, E., et al. (2021). Sources of Light Density Microplastic Related to two Agricultural Practices : The Use of Compost and Plastic Mulch. Environments, 8, 36. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8040036. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8040036

Vollertsen, J. and Hansen, A. A. (Eds.) (2017). Microplastic in Danish Wastewater: Sources, Occurrences and Fate. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Project Vol. 1906.

Wan, Y., Wu, C., Xue, Q., et al. (2019). Effects of Plastic Contamination on Water Evaporation and Desiccation Cracking in Soil. Sci of Science of the Total Environment, 654, 576-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.123

Wang, F., Zhang, X., Zhang, S., et al. (2020a). Interactions of Microplastics and Cadmium on Plant Growth and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in an Agricultural Soil. Chemosphere, 254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126791. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126791

Wang, J., Liu, X., Li, Y., et al. (2019). Microplastics as Contaminants in the Soil Environment: A Mini-Review. Science of The Total Environment, 691, 848-859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.209

Wang, X., Huang, W., Wei, S., et al. (2020b). Microplastics Impair Digestive Performance but Show Little Effects on Antioxidant Activity in Mussels Under Low pH conditions. Environmental Pollution. 258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113691. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113691

Weithmann N., Möller J. N., Löder M. G., et al (2018). Organic Fertilizer as a Vehicle for the Entry of Microplastic into the Environment. 4. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aap8060. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aap8060

Wisniowska, E., Moraczewska-Majkut, K., and Nocon, W. (2018). Efficiency of Microplastics Removal in Selected Wastewater Treatment Plants : Preliminary Studies. Desalination and Water Treat, 134, 316-323. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.23418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.23418

Wootton, N., Ferreira, M., Reis-Santos, P., et al. (2021). A Comparison of Microplastic in Fish from Australia and Fiji. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.690991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.690991

Xia R. (2019, Oct 2). The biggest likely source of microplastics in California coastal waters ? Our car tires, The Loss Angeles Times.

Xu, B., Liu, F., Cryder, Z., et al. (2020a). Microplastics in the Soil Environment : Occurrence, Risks, Interactions and Fate-A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 50 (21), 2175-2222. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2019.1694822. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2019.1694822

Xu, Q., Gao, Y., Xu, L., et al. (2020b). Investigation of the Microplastics Profile in Sludge from China's Largest Water Reclamation Plant Using a Feasible Isolation Device. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122067. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122067

Yang, J., Li, R., Zhou, Q., et al. (2021). Abundance and Morphology of Microplastics in an Agricultural Soil Following Long-Term Repeated Application of Pig Manure. Environmental Pollution, 272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116028. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116028

Yaranal, N.A., Subbiah, S. and Mohanty, K. (2021). Identification, Extraction of Microplastics from Edible Salts and its Removal from Contaminated Seawater. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2020.101253. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2020.101253

Yu, H., Fan, P., Hou, J., et al. (2020). Inhibitory Effect of Microplastics on Soil Extracellular Enzymatic Activities by Changing Soil Properties and Direct Adsorption : An Investigation at the Aggregate-Fraction Level. Environmental Pollution, 267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115544. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115544

Yu, J.R., Adingo, S., Liu, X.L., et al. (2022). Micro-plastics in soil ecosystem - A review of sources, fate, and ecological impact. Plant, Soil and Environment, 68, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.17221/242/2021-PSE. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/242/2021-PSE

Zhang, C., Wang, J., Pan, Z., et al. (2021). A Dosage-Effect Assessment of Acute Toxicology Tests of Microplastic Exposure in Filter-Feeding Fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 113, 154-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.04.010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.04.010

Zhang, G.S. and Liu, Y.F. (2018). The distribution of microplastics in soil aggregate fractions in southwestern China, Science of the Total Environment. 642, 12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.004

Zhang, J., Wang, L., Halden, R. U., et al. (2019). Polyethylene Terephthalate and Polycarbonate Microplastics in Sewage Sludge Collected from the United States. Environ Sci and Technol Lett, 6(11), 650-655. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00601. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00601

Zhang, L., Sintim, H.Y., Bary, A.I., et al. (2018a). Interaction of Lumbricus Terrestris with Macroscopic Polyethylene and Biodegradable Plastic Mulch. Science of the Total Environment, 635, 1600-1608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.054. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.054

Zhang, S., Liu, X., Hao, X., et al. (2020). Distribution of Low-Density Microplastics in the Mollisol Farmlands of Northeast China. Science of the Total Environment, 708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135091. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135091

Zhang, S., Yang, X., Gertsen, H., et al. (2018b). A Simple Method for the Extraction and Identification of Light Density Microplastics from Soil. Science of the Total Environment, 616-617, 1056-1065. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.213. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.213

Zhou, B., Wang, J., Zhang, H., et al. (2020). Microplastics in Agricultural Soils on the Coastal Plain of Hangzhou Bay, East China : Multiple Sources Other than Plastic Mulching Film. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121814. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121814

Zhou, Q., Zhang, H., Fu, C., et al. (2018). The Distribution and Morphology of Microplastics in Coastal Soils Adjacent to the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. Geoderma, 322, 201-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.02.015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.02.015

Zhou, Q., Zhang, H., Zhou, Y., et al. (2016). Separation of Microplastics from a Coastal Soil and their Surface Microscopic Features. Kexue Tongbao/Chinese Science Bulletin, 61, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1360/N972015-01098. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1360/N972015-01098

Zhou, Y., Liu, X., and Wang, J. (2019). Characterization of Microplastics and the Association of Heavy Metals with Microplastics in Suburban Soil of Central China. Science of the Total Environment, 694. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133798. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133798

Zhu, D., Chen, Q.L., An, X.L., et al. (2018) Exposure of Soil Collembolans to Microplastics Perturbs their Gut Microbiota and Alters their Isotopic Composition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 116, 302-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.10.027. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.10.027

Ziajahromi, S., Neale, P.A., Rintoui, L., et al. (2017). Wastewater Treatment Plants as a Pathway for Microplastics : Development Of A New Approach to Sample Wastewater-Based Microplastics. Water Research, 112, 93-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.01.042 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.01.042




How to Cite

Bansal, O., & Singh, A. (2022). A REVIEW ON MICROPLASTIC IN THE SOILS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SOIL MICROBES, CROPS AND HUMANS. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 10(9), 245–273. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i9.2022.4812