OVERVIEW OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN THE ELDERLY WITH VARIATIONS OF TOTAL REMAINING TEETH REVIEW FROM MINI-MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION
Keywords:Elderly, Cognitive Function, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Periodontal Mechanoreceptors (Pdms), Hippocampus
When a person reaches the elderly phase, the function of the body's organs decreases, which causes an increased risk of disease and death. Including dental infections such as caries and periodontal disease which are the main factors for tooth loss. Tooth loss does not only affect the impact of mastication but also affects a person's cognitive function. This condition occurs because when a person loses teeth, the function of the Periodontal Mechanoreceptors decreases, disrupting the function of the hippocampus which is important for memory in the brain. Loss of a large number of teeth tends to indicate low cognitive function, but several factors affect cognitive function, namely education level, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, heart disease, depression, sleep disorders, head injury, physical activity, and a history of smoking. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a tool to assess a person's cognitive function. This study aims to see the description of cognitive function in the elderly at the Geunaseh Sayang Nursing Home with variations in the number of tooth losses. This study was conducted with 43 research subjects with interviews and intra-oral examination methods. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the elderly who only have fewer teeth show a higher decline in cognitive function compared to the elderly with more teeth in the oral cavity. This is following the theory which states that the more teeth you lose, the lower your cognitive function will be.
Baumgart M, Snyder HM, Carrillo MC, Fazio S, Kim H, Johns H. (2015) Summary of The Evidence on Modifiable Risk Factors For Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Population-Based Perspective. Alzheimer's Dement.11(6):720. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.016
Carr, Alan B DTB-M. (2015) Partially Edentulous Epidemiology, Physiology, and Terminology in Removable Partial Prosthodontics. 13th Editi. Mosby: Elsevier. 5 p.
Dahl KE, Calogiuri G JB. (2018) Perceived Oral Health and Its Association with Symptoms of Psychological Distress, Oral Status and Socio-Demographic Characteristics Among Elderly in Norway. BMC Oral Health.1(18):93. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-018-0556-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-018-0556-9
Deckers K, Schievink SHJ, Rodriquez MMF, Van Oostenbrugge RJ, Van Boxtel MPJ, Verhey FRJ, et al. (2017) Coronary Heart Disease and Risk For Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One.12(9):11. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184244 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184244
Dosumu OO, Ogunrinde JT, Bamigboye SA. (2014) Knowledge of Consequences of Missing Teeth in Patients Attending Prosthetic Clinic. Ann Ibadan Postgrad Med.12(1):42;43. Retrieved from https://www.ajol.info/index.php/aipm/article/view/107710
Galea M, Woodward M. (2005) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): Commentary. Aust J Physiother.51(3):2. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(05)70034-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(05)70034-9
Gatz J.A., Mortimer L., Fratiglioni B., Johansson S., Berg C.A. R. (2006) Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors for Dementia in Identical Twins. Vol. 2, Alzheimer's and Dementia. p. 111. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2006.01.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2006.01.002
Gudala K, Bansal D, Schifano F, Bhansali A. (2013) Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Dementia : A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Observational Studies. I:8. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/jdi.12087 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jdi.12087
Hai S, Cao L, Yang X, Wang H, Liu P, Hao Q, et al. (2017) Association Between Nutrition Status and Cognitive Impairment Among Chinese Nonagenarians and Centenarians. Int J Gerontol.11(4):217. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijge.2016.12.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijge.2016.12.002
Hansson P, Sunnegårdh - Grönberg K, Bergdahl J, Bergdahl M, Nyberg L, Nilsson LG. (2013) Relationship between natural teeth and memory in a healthy elderly population. Eur J Oral Sci.121(4):333;339. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/eos.12060 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/eos.12060
Hermida AP, Mcdonald WM, Steenland K. (2012) The Association Between Late- Life Depression, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia : Is Inflammation The Missing Link ? Expert Rev Neurother.12(11):1339. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.12.127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.12.127
Jae-Mae Kim, Robert Stewart, Martin Prince, Sung-Wan Kim, Yang, Su-Jin Shin, Il-Seon Yoon and J-S. Dental (2007) Health, Nutritional Status, and Recent-Onset Dementia in An Korean Community Population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry.22(9):853. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1750 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1750
Kataoka T, Tachibana A, Ono Y, Sasaguri K-I, Miyake S, Cheng S-J, et al. (2008) Chewing Ameliorates Stress-Induced Suppression of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation. Neuroscience.154(4):1352. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.04.057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.04.057
Kawasaki S, Matsumoto T, Narita N, Kamiya K, Tanaka N, Yamamura K. (2009) Chewing-Related Prefrontal Cortex Activation While Wearing Partial Denture Prosthesis: Pilot Study. J Prosthodont Res.53(3):127. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpor.2009.02.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpor.2009.02.005
Lucey BP, Holtzman DM. (2014) Sleep and Alzheimer Disease Pathology-A Bidirectional Relationship. Nat Rev Neurol.10(2):114. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2013.269 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2013.269
Mandolesi L, Polverino A, Montuori S, Foti F, Ferraioli G, Sorrentino P, et al. (2018) Effects of Physical Exercise on Cognitive Functioning and Eellbeing: Biological and Psychological Benefits. Front Psychol. 9:2. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00509 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00509
Matsuzaki T, Sasaki K, Tanizaki Y, Hata J, Fujimi K, Matsui Y, et al. (2010) Insulin Resistance Is Associated with The Pathology of Alzheimer Disease: The Hisayama study. Neurology. 75(9):765. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181eee25f DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181eee25f
Miyamoto I, Yoshida K, Tsuboi Y, Iizuka T. (2005) Rehabilitation With Dental Prosthesis Can Increase Cerebral Regional Blood Volume. Clin Oral Implants Res.16(6):723. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01171.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2005.01171.x
Okamoto N, Morikawa M, Okamoto K, Iwamoto J, Tomioka K, Saeki K, et al. (2011) Relationship of Tooth Loss to Mild Memory Impairment and Cognitive Impairment: Findings From the Fujiwara-Kyo Study. J Epidemiol Community Heal.65:2;3;5;6; Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-6-77 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-6-77
Paganini-Hill A, White SC, Atchison KA. (2011) Dental Health Behaviors, Dentition, and Mortality in the Elderly: The Leisure World Cohort Study. J Aging Res.2011:10. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/156061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/156061
Peters R, Poulter R, Warner J, Beckett N, Burch L, Bulpitt C. (2008) Smoking, Dementia and Cognitive Decline in The Elderly, A Systematic Review. BMC Geriatr.7(1):1-2. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-8-36 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-8-36
Ramachandran R, Mundodan JM, Saju CR, Joshy VM. (2018) Nutritional Status and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Population in A Rural Area of Thrissur District, Kerala.5(3):1222. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20180788 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20180788
Rouch L, Cestac P, Hanon O, Cool C, Helmer C, Bouhanick B, et al. (2015) Antihypertensive Drugs, Prevention of Cognitive Decline and Dementia: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies, Randomized Controlled Trials and Meta-Analyses, with Discussion of Potential Mechanisms. CNS Drugs.29(2):126. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-015-0230-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-015-0230-6
Seraj Z, Al-Najjar D, Akl M, Aladle N, Altijani Y, Zaki A, et al. (2017) The Effect of Number of Teeth and Chewing Ability on Cognitive Function of Elderly in UAE: A Pilot Study. Int J Dent.2017 :2-3. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5732748 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5732748
Sko K, Malicka B, Zie M, Kaczmarek U. (2018) Oral Health Condition and Occurance of Depression in Elderly. Wolters Kluwer Heal Inc.97(41):5. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012490 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012490
Wanda GC, A WS, (2008) Robert HG. Common Oral Conditions in Older Persons. Am Fam Physician.78(7):845;847-9. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1001/p845.html
Wennberg AMV, Wu MN, Rosenberg PB, Spira AP. (2017) Sleep Disturbance, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia: A Review. Semin Neurol.37(4):396. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1604351 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1604351
Young SE, Mainous AG, Carnemolla M. (2006) Hyperinsulinemia and Cognitive Decline in A Middle-Aged Cohort. Diabetes Care.29(12):2691. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-0915 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-0915
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Ifwandi, Dewi Saputri, Liana Rahmayani, Pocut Aya Sofya, Syahrial, Zelcha Savira Haridhi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.
It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.