• Hulathduwa S. R. Senior Lecturer, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawerdenepure, Sri Lanka https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4583-2703
  • Borukgama N. Registrar in Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faulty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayawardenepure, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5956-8969




Influenza-Associated Encephalopathy, Paediatric Deaths, Seizure, Cerebral Oedema

Abstract [English]

Influenza virus belongs to a group of single-stranded RNA viruses in the fam- ily Orthomyxoviridae.  They are subdivided into four types as A, B, C and D.  As Influenza B is considered a milder form of infection not known to be caus- ing pandemics compared to Influenza A, it is equally a less researched topic than Influenza A. However, few studies have shown that the mortality associ- ated with pediatric Influenza B infection is equal to or sometimes even greater than the mortality associated with Influenza A. Complications of Influenza A or B virus infection include pneumonia, myositis, myocarditis and encephali- tis/encephalopathy. Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is a rare complication of Influenza infection which is commoner following infec- tion with type A. This case elaborates a death of a three-year-old child due to meningoencephalitis following Influenza Type B infection.


Download data is not yet available.


Achiriloaie, A., Michelson, D., Lei, L., Denham, L., Oberg, K. & Raghavan, R. (2016). Acute Postviral Encephalopathy: Pathologicand Radiologic Correlation In An Atypical Case. Child Neurology Open 1–16. 10.1177/2329048x16658845 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2329048X16658845

Aneja, S. & Sharma, S. (2019). Diagnosis and Management of Acute Encephalitis in Children. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 86(1), 70–75. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2775-0 10.1007/s12098-018-2775-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2775-0

Howard, A., Uyeki, T. M. & Fergie, J. (2018). Influenza-Associated Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy in Siblings. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 7(3), e172–e177. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy033 10.1093/jpids/piy033 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piy033

K. A. K., Busche, C., Ross, E. & Wirrell, (2005). Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy In Caucasian Children: Two Cases And Review Of The Literature. J Child Neurol 527–559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/088307380502000612

Mizuguchi, M., Abe, J., Mikkaichi, K., Noma, S., Yoshida, K., Yamanaka, T. & Kamoshita, S. (1995). Acute necrotising encephalopathy of childhood: a new syndrome presenting with multifocal, symmetric brain lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 58(5), 555–561. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.58.5.555 10.1136/jnnp.58.5.555 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.58.5.555

Morishima, T., Togashi, T., Yokota, S., Okuno, Y., Miyazaki, C., Tashiro, M., Okabe, N. & (2002). Encephalitis and Encephalopathy Associated with an Influenza Epidemic in Japan. Clinical Infectious Diseases 35(5), 512–517. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/341407 10.1086/341407 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/341407

Newland, J. G., Romero, J. R., Varman, M., Drake, C., Holst, A., Safranek, T. & Subbarao, K. (2003). Encephalitis Associated with Influenza B Virus Infection in 2 Children and a Review of the Literature. Clinical Infectious Diseases 36(7), e87–e95. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/368184 10.1086/368184 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/368184

Surtees, R. (2006). Influenza virus associated encephalopathy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 91, 455–456. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2005.092890 10.1136/adc.2005.092890 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2005.092890

Tran, D., Vaudry, W., Moore, D., Ja, B., Sa, H., Dw, S. & Al, E. Hospitalization For Influenza A Versus B. Pediatrics. Hospitalization For Influenza A Versus B. Pediatrics . Retrieved from Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1542/Peds.2015-4643)

Wolff, T. & Veit, M. (2021). Encyclopedia Of Virology. Influenza B, C And D Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae). Encyclopedia Of Virology 561–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.21505-7

Wu, S., Dj, S. & Rs, F. (2006). Spitz And Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation Of Death. In Spitz And Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation Of Death: Guidelines For The Application Of Pathology To Crime Investigation. Charles C. Thomas:



How to Cite

Hulathduwa, S. R., & Borukgama, N. (2021). A PAEDIATRIC DEATH DUE TO MENINGITIS-AN AUTOPSY DIAGNOSIS OF A RARE COMPLICATION OF INFLUENZA B INFECTION. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(4), 590–595. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i4.2021.3905