• Conteh, AM. Animal Science Department, Njala University, Sierra Leone
  • Kallon, NM. Animal Science Department, Njala University, Sierra Leone
  • Jojo, DH. Animal Science Department, Njala University, Sierra Leone
  • Sesay, AR. Animal Science Department, Njala University, Sierra Leone
  • Bundu, WT Animal Science Department, Njala University, Sierra Leone



Antibodies, Constraint, Contributions of Small Ruminants, Management-Practices, Seroprevalence, Sierra Leone

Abstract [English]

Goats and sheep production which significantly contributes to improving nutritional status, economic growth and socio-cultural practices in the rural settings of Sierra Leone are faced with several challenges. The survey on Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) was carried out to investigate the: current status of small ruminant production, and the presence of antibodies against PPRV. Information was obtained through Focus Group Discussion in the respondents’ local dialects from 150 participants. From the results obtained, 58.7% and 41.7% of the respondents were male and female while 77.3% and 22.7% were married and single respectively. 53.3% of the respondents never illiterate while 46.7% have some basic education. The main reasons for keeping goats and sheep were for traditional, economic, religious and food. Continuous disease outbreaks; high mortality; poor animal healthcare and extension services, lack of credit facility, theft, and poor marketing facility. Pestes des petits Ruminant, mange, Respiratory infection, and diarrhea were the main diseases affecting goats and sheep. A total of 356 serum samples from goats (264) and sheep (92) were collected in both districts and analyzed using the competitive ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies against PPRV. The result revealed an overall prevalence of 62.1% antibodies [goats, 73.1%, (193/264) and sheep, 30.4%, (28/92)]. Young goats (65.9%), and sheep (34.7%) showed the highest seropositivity of PPRV followed by adult males and females. There is a need to improve traditional practices of small ruminant production by designing disease control programs to ensure the full participation of the veterinary, animal husbandry and extension services for a good output.


Download data is not yet available.


FAOSTAT, (2008).

Ramsay G. and Leith A. Poverty alleviation and food security in Asia: role of livestock. Food Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Technical Report, FAO, (1999).

Thornton, P. Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philos, Trans R Sco Lond B Biol Sci., Vol. 365(1554), 2010, 2853-2867.

Odoi, A. Gathuma, JM. Gachuiri, CK. Omore, A. Gitau, T. Wanyangu, SW. and Murage, E. (2000). Constraints to sheep and goat production in small holder mixed farms in Kenya’s Central Highlands. Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, 227-229.

Getachew, BF. Characterization of African goat production and productivities: The case of Ethiopia: A Review. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: D Agriculture and Veterinary, vol. 16 (5), 2016, 2249-4626.

Population and Housing Census, (2015). Statistics Sierra Leone.

Balamurugan, V. Krishnamoorthy, P. Raju, DSN. Rajak, KK. Bhanuprakash, V. Pandey, AB. Gajendragad, MF. Prabhudas, K. and Rahman, H. Prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats in India. Virusesdisease, volume 25(1): 2014, 85-90.

Abubakar, M. Mahapatra, M. Muniraju, M. Arshed, MJ. Khan, EH. Banyard, AC. Ali, Q. and Parida, S. Serological detection of antibodies to Peste des Petits Ruminants in large ruminants. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 64(1), 2017, 513-519.

Emeli, T. Tebogo, K. Berg, M. Niwael, MM. Emanuel, SS, Jonas, JW. and Gerald, M. History and current status of peste des petits ruminant virus in Tanzania. Infection Ecology and Epidemiology, The One Health Journal, 2016.

De Nardi, M. Lamin SSM. Batten, C. Oura, C. Di Nardo, A. and Rossi, D. First evidence of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus circulation in Algeria (Sahrawi Territories): Outbreak investigation and virus lineage identification. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol. 59 (3), 2011, 214-22.

Bello, AM. Lawah, JR. Dauda, J. Wakih, YM. Mshellia, ES. Ezema, KU. Balami, SY. Waziri, I. and Mani, AU. Research for Peste des Petits Ruminants virus antibodies in goats, sheep and gazelle from Bauchi and Gombe Staste, North Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Science, 4(3), 2018, 161-171.

Munir, M. Zohari, S. Suluku, R. LeBlanc, N. Kunu, S. Sankoh, FAR. Berg, M. Barrie, ML. and Stahl, K. Genetic characterization of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2012.

Banyard, AC. Parida, S. Batten, C. Oura, C. Kwiatek, O. and Libeau, G. Global distribution of peste des petits ruminant’s virus and prospect for improved diagnosis and control. Journal of General Virology, 19, 2010, 2885-2897.

Kamara, A. Koroma, BM. and Gogra, AB. Seasonal changes in vegetation and land use in Lassa-Fever prone areas (Kenema and Kailahun Districts) in Eastern Sierra Leone. Natural Resources, vol. 6 (7), 2015, 450-456. DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.67043

Jala, MK. Lamidi, OS. and Otaru, SM. Peri-Urban small ruminant production in Northern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol. 3(3), 2008, 138-146.

Fikru, S. and Omer, AA. Traditional small ruminant production in Awbare district of Ethiopian Somali Regional State. Journal of Animal Production Advances, vol. 5(6), 2015, 697-704.

Tunji, IT. Small ruminant production and management techniques. https:/, 2015, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1817.8002

Lefevre, PC. and Diallo, A. Peste des Petits Ruminant. Scientific and technical review; Review Scientific et Technique (OIE) 9, 1990, 951-965.

Gopilo, A. Epidemiology of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Ethiopia and Molecular Studies on Virulence, 2005.

Mehmood, A. Ali, Q. Gadahi, J.A. Malik, SA. Shah, SI. Detection of PPR virus antibodies in sheep and goat productions of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan by competitive ELISA (cELISA). Vet World 2, 2009, 333-336.

Getashew, G. Gedlu, M. Demeke, S. Ashebir, A. Mesfin, S. and Getnet, A. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goat diseases in selected districts of Afar Regional State: Particular focus on PPR and sheep and goat pox disease. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 19 (1), 2015, 83-105

Rahman, MZ. Haider, N. Gurley, ES. Ahmed, S. Osmani, MG. Hossain, MB. Islam, A. Khan, AS. Hossain, ME. Epstein, JH. Zeidner, N. and Rahman, M. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of PPV in Bangladesh. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Vol. 8(4), 2018, 161-171.

Hota, A. Biswal, S. Sahoo, N. Rout, M. Chaudhary, D. Pandey, A. Dhanavelu, M. Seroprevalence of PPR among sheep and goats of different agro-climatic zones of Odisha. International Journal of Livestock Research, vol. 8(4), 2018, 2277-1964.

Singh, RP. Saravanan, P. Sreenivasa, BP. Singh, RK. and Bandyopadhyay, SK. Prevalence and distribution of PPRV infection in small ruminants in India. Revue Scientifique et. Technique (International Office of Epizootics), vol. 23 (3), 2004, 807-819

Munir, M. Siddique, M. Shehzad, A. Zohari, S. and Stahl, K. Seroprevalence of antibodies to PPR at various governmental livestock farms of Punjab, Pakinstan. Asian journal of Epidemiology, vol. 1(2), 2008, 82-90.

Md. Raihan Nabi, Md. Shahadat Hossain, Sukumar Saha, Jahangir Alam, Md. Giasuddin. Molecular epidemiology of Peste des Petits Ruminants in goats. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research Volume 7 (3), 2018,

Sarker, S. & Islam, MH. Prevalence and risk factor assessment of Peste des petits ruminants in goats in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Veterinary World, 4(56), 2011, 986-549.




How to Cite