THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INSULIN RESISTANCE AND FA-TIGUE SYMPTOM IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME
Keywords:Fatigue, Fibromyalgia, Insulin Resistance
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between insulin resistance and fatigue in fi-bromyalgia. A total of 72 patients (4 males, 68 females) with fibromyalgia (FM) was investigated. Patients were divided into two groups by insulin resistance (IR), group 1; IR- (n=49), and group 2; IR+ (n=23). IR was determined using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) formula. All subjects were evaluated with serum 25 (OH) D vitamin levels. The severity of the disease was measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ); the level of fatigue was evaluated with Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS); and the pain level was evaluated with Visual Analog Scale (VAS). There were significant differences between the FIQ and FSS mean scores of two groups (IR+ and IR-), (p=0.031, p=0.005). There were no significant differences between two groups in respect to VAS and serum 25 (OH) D vitamin levels (p=0.789, p=0.875). There was no significant correlation be-tween vitamin D and FSS (IR+, r=-0.263, p=0.225; IR-, r=0.112, p=0.443), and also vitamin D and FIQ (IR+, r=-0.103, p=0.641; IR-, r=0.050, p=0.733) in both groups. There was no relationship be-tween insulin resistance and fatigue symptom in fibromyalgia patients, but it was observed that the severity of fatigue was higher in the group with insulin resistance.
Marques AP, Santo ASDE, Berssaneti AA, Matsutani LA, Yuan SLK. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update. Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed. 2017:4; 356–363. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbre.2017.01.005
Walitt B, Fitzcharles MA, Hassett AL, Katz RS, Häuser W, Wolfe F. The longitudinal outcome of fibromyalgia: a study of 1555 patients. J Rheumatol. 2011:38; 2238–2246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.110026
Humphrey L, Arbuckle R, Mease P, Williams DA, Samsoe BD, Gilbert C. Fatigue in fibromyalgia: a conceptual model informed by patient interviews. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010:11(9); 216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-11-216
Okifuji A, Bradshaw DH, Olson C. Evaluating obesity in fibromyalgia: neuroendocrine biomarkers, symptoms, and functions. Clin Rheumatol. 2009:28(4); 475–478. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-009-1094-2
Yanmaz MN, Mert M, Korkmaz M. The prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus. Rheumatol Int. 2012:32(4); 871–874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-010-1618-8
Loevinger BL, Muller D, Alonso C, Coe CL. Metabolic syndrome in women with chronic pain. Metabolism. 2007:56(1);87–93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2006.09.001
Amati F, Dubé JJ, Coen PM, Stefanovic-Racic M, Toledo FG, Goodpaster BH. Physical inactivity and obesity underlie the insulin resistance of aging. Diabetes care. 2009:32(8):1547-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-0267
Dineley KT, Jahrling JB, Denner L. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2014:72(12);92-103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2014.09.001
Oliveira SR, Simão AN, Kallaur AP, de Almeida ER, Morimoto HK, Lopes J et al. Disability in patients with multiple sclerosis: influence of insulin resistance, adiposity, and oxidative stress. Nutrition. 2014: 30(3); 268-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.08.001
Athauda D, Foltynie T. Insulin resistance and Parkinson's disease: A new target for disease modification? Prog Neurobiol. 2016:10-11(145-146); 98-120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2016.10.001
Góes SM, Stefanello JM, Homann D, Lodovico A, Hubley-Kozey CL, Rodacki AL. Torque and muscle activation impairment along with insulin resistance are associated with falls in women with fibromyalgia. J Strength Cond Res. 2016:30(11); 3155-3164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001395
Fava A, Plastino M, Cristiano D, Spanò A, Cristofaro S, Opipari C et al. Insulin resistance possible risk factor for cognitive impairment in fibromialgic patients. Metab Brain Dis. Metab Brain Dis. 2013:28;619. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-013-9421-3
Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Katz RS, Mease P et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care & Research. 2010:62(5); 600–610. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.20140
Beckmann Y, Türe S, Duman SU. Vitamin D deficiency and its association with fatigue and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. EPMA Journal. 2020:11; 65–72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13167-019-00191-0
Ediz L, Hiz O, Toprak M, Tekeoğlu I, Ercan S. The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire. Clin Rheumatol. 2011:30(3); 339-46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-010-1546-8
Gencay Can A, Can SS. Validation of the Turkish version of the fatigue severity scale in patients with fibromyalgia. Rheumatol Int. 2012:32(1); 27-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-010-1558-3
Schweiger V, Del Balzo G, Raniero D, De Leo D, Martini A, Sarzi-Puttini P et al. Current trends in disability claims due to fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017:35; 105(3); 119-126.
Bartley EJ, Robinson ME, Staud R. Pain and fatigue variability patterns distinguish subgroups of fibromyalgia patients. J Pain. 2018:19(4):372–381. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2017.11.014
Bonora E, Kiechl S, Willeit J, Oberhollenzer F, Egger G, Targher G et al. Prevalence of insulin resistance in metabolic disorders: the Bruneck study. Diabetes 1998:47; 1643–1649. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.47.10.1643
Bosco D, Costa R, Plastino M, Branca D, Cotronei P, Sperlì T et al. Glucose metabolism in the idiopathic blepharoptosis: utility of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and of the insulin resistance index. J Neurol. 2009:284; 24-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2009.03.017
Çakıt MO, Çakıt BD, Genç H, Pervane Vural S, Erdem HR, Saraçoğlu M et al. The association of skinfold anthropometric measures, body composition and disease severity in obese and non-obese fibromyalgia patients: A cross-sectional study. Arch Rheumatol. 2017:5; 33 (1); 59-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5606/ArchRheumatol.2018.6180
Koçyiğit BF, Okyay RA. The relationship between body mass index and pain, disease activity, depression and anxiety in women with fibromyalgia. Peer J. 2018:6; 4917. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4917
Ursini F, Naty S, Grembiale RD. Fibromyalgia and obesity: the hidden link. Rheumatol Int. 2011:31(11); 1403-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-011-1885-z
Pappolla MA, Manchikanti L, Andersen CR, Greig NH, Ahmed F, Fang X et al. Is insulin resistance the cause of fibromyalgia? A preliminary report. PLoS ONE. 2019;14(5): e0216079. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216079
Fukushima Y, Kurose S, Shinno H, Cao Thu H, Takao N, Tsutsumi H et al. Importance of lean muscle maintenance to improve insulin resistance by body weight reduction in female patients with obesity. Diabetes Metab J. 2016:40(2); 147-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.147
Roberts CK, Hevener AL, Barnard RJ. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: underlying causes and modification by exercise training. Compr Physiol. 2013:3(1); 1-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c110062
Özcan DS, Öken O, Aras M, Köseoğlu BF. Vitamin D Levels in Women with Fibromyalgia and Relationship between Pain, Depression, and Sleep. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2014:60; 329-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5152/tftrd.2014.45143
Mesci E, Mesci N, İçağasıoğlu A. Association of vitamin D deficiency with fatigue, daytime sleepiness, and physical activity level. Turk J Phys Med Rehab. 2016:62(3); 222-228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5606/tftrd.2016.12258
Kasapoğlu Aksoy M, Altan L, Ökmen MB. The relationship between balance and vitamin 25(OH) D in fibromyalgia patients. Mod Rheumatol. 2017:27(5); 868-874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14397595.2016.1259603
Bjersing JL, Larsson A, Palstam A, Ernberg M, Bileviciute-Ljungar I, Löfgren M et al. Benefits of resistance exercise in lean women with fibromyalgia: involvement of IGF-1 and leptin. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017;18(1):106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1477-5
Busch AJ, Webber SC, Brachaniec M, Bidonde J, Bello-Haas VD, Danyliw AD et al. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011:15(5); 358-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-011-0214-2
How to Cite
With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.
It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board.
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.