International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies <p>International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies is an open access peer reviewed journal that provides bi-monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Technologies and Science. It is an international refereed e-journal. IJOEST have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJOEST Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJOEST Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> <p>Editor-in-chief:<br>Dr. Mohammad Arif Kamal (Associate Professor, Architecture Section, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202002, India)</p> <p>Managing Editor:<br>Dr. Tina Porwal (PhD, Maharani Laxmibai Girls P.G. College, Indore, India)</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies 2456-8651 <p>Please read copyrigth agreement care fully:-</p> <p><a title="CopyRight Agreement" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE READING PATTERNS OF KHANDWA DISTRICT STUDENTS <p>The aim of the research was to evaluate students' reading patterns and how they affected their academic success. The research was carried out in the Khandwa District of Nimar's Eastern Region. The data was gathered using a questionnaire. The obtained data was quantitatively studied using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).The findings were presented in the form of graphs and charts. 100 of the 150 questionnaires circulated were filled and returned, accounting for 95.0 percent of the total. The results revealed that while the majority of respondents recognize the value of reading, 81.9 percent of respondents have not read a book or a piece of fiction in the last two semesters, and 62.0 percent of respondents still read to pass an exam.The study found that reading habits have an impact on academic success and that there is a connection between reading habits and academic achievement. The study suggested, among other things, that lecturers avoid handing out handouts to students and instead allow them to use the library for studying, and that the new method of grading students be reconsidered in terms of grading formulae.</p> Sunita Pamnani C.S Shrivastava Hemlata Nagar Copyright (c) 2021 Sunita Pamnani, C.S Shrivastava, Hemlata Nagar 2021-09-07 2021-09-07 5 5 1 7 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.202 VALIDATION OF LEAD (Pb) ANALYSIS METHOD IN FISH MEAL MATRIX BY ELECTROTHERMAL ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Validation of analytical methods is the process of proving that the methods used are scientifically good and suitable for certain purposes. The aim of this study was to validate the analytical method of lead in fish meal matrix by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) using a phosphate modifier. The research begins with optimization of the analytical conditions that include pyrolysis (ashing) and atomizing temperature, and continues with the validation process by evaluating the analytical performance parameters using a certified reference material (CRM). Method validation was carried out by determining the level of accuracy and precision as well as lead content in a CRM Cod Muscle-422 from BCR. Each experiment was conducted at a wavelength of 283.3 nm, a lamp current of 9.0 amperes, a slit width of 1.3 nm and an argon carrier gas. The optimal pyrolysis and atomizing temperature of lead obtained by adding phosphate modifier was 650 <sup>o</sup>C and 2000 <sup>o</sup>C, respectively. The results obtained in this study indicate that the ETAAS lead analysis method using a phosphate modifier is feasible as a test method with an RSD of 3.79%, precision of 0.0043, relative error of 4.0%, accuracy of 104% and recovery of 98% ± 3%. The results of the validation method obtained that the 95% confidence interval for Pb content was 0.088 ± 0.023 µg/g, still within the range of Pb levels in the certificate, namely 0.085 ± 0.015 µg/g of Pb.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Validation, CRM, Cod Muscle, ETAAS, Lead</p> Suwari Sherlly M.F. Ledoh Philiphi de Rozari Copyright (c) 2021 Suwari, Sherlly M.F. Ledoh, Philiphi de Rozari 2021-09-07 2021-09-07 5 5 8 16 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.215 CREATING A MODEL OF THE FUTURE OF THE EIGHTH TECHNOLOGICAL ORDER <p>The subject of the article is a model of the future of the eighth technological order; the object of the article is the eighth technological order; the purpose of the work is to increase the efficiency of the processes of the state's entry into the eighth technological order; to achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved: the geopolitical and socio-economic roles and the results of the state's transition to the eighth technological order are described; a systematic analysis of technological orders is carried out; the image of the future eighth technological order is formed; the tasks of the state's entry policy into the eighth technological order are developed; the indicators of evaluating the effectiveness of the state's entry policy into the eighth technological order are described; the scientific methods of this article are: modeling, historical, system, comparative and logical analysis; heuristic synthesis, political science, system approach, heuristic design, expert methods, efficiency theory; The scientific novelty of the work is determined by the synthesis of the image of the future, the paradigm and policy of the state's transition to the eighth technological order, the formation of a system of indicators of the effectiveness of the state's entry into the eighth technological order.</p> Valery V. Glushchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Valery V. Glushchenko 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 5 5 17 40 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.217 APPLICATIONS OF TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM ON THE OPTIMAL SIGHTSEEING ORDERS OF MACAO WORLD HERITAGE SITES WITH REAL TIME OR DISTANCE VALUES BETWEEN EVERY PAIR OF SITES <p>The optimal route of sightseeing orders for visiting every Macao World Heritage Site at exactly once was calculated with Simulated Annealing and Metropolis Algorithm (SAMA) after considering real required time or traveling distance between pairs of sites by either driving a car, taking a bus, or on foot. We found out that, with the optimal tour path, it took roughly 78 minutes for driving a car, 115 minutes on foot, while 117 minutes for taking a bus. On the other hand, the optimal total distance for driving a car would be 13.918 km while for pedestrians to walk, 7.844 km. These results probably mean that there is large space for the improvement on public transportation in this city. Comparison of computation time demanded between the brute- force enumeration of all possible paths and SAMA was also presented, together with animation of the processes for the algorithm to find out the optimal route. It is expected that computation time is astronomically increasing for the brute-force enumeration with more number of sites, while it only takes SAMA much less order of magnitude in time to calculate the optimal solution for larger number of sites. Several optimal options of routes were also provided in each transportation method. However, it is possible that in some types of transportation there could be only one optimal route having no circular or mirrored duplicates.</p> Kin Neng Tong Iat In Fong In Iat Li Chi Him Anthony Cheng Soi Chak Choi Hau Xiang Ye WEI SHAN LEE Copyright (c) 2021 Kin Neng Tong, Iat In Fong, In Iat Li, Chi Him Anthony Cheng, Soi Chak Choi, Hau Xiang Ye, WEI SHAN LEE 2021-09-24 2021-09-24 5 5 41 53 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.220 DETERMINATION OF RADIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SOME ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS USING WINXCOM SOFTWARE IN THE ENERGY RANGE 1KeV TO 100KeV <p>The effective atomic number, electron density and mass attenuation coefficient of some selected active pharmaceutical ingredients such as Diclofenac Sodium, Femotidine, Alprazolam, Amiodar, Amiodarone, Ciprofloxacin, and Nimesulide have been calculated over the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV for total and partial photon interactions by using WinXCom. The obtained data shows that the change in mass attenuation coefficient and electron density varies with energy and chemical composition of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s) in drugs. The results in the variation of photon interaction with energy and effective atomic number of the API’s in drug are shown in the logarithmic graphs.</p> Arome Aruwa Philibus Musa Gyuk Columbus Tobechukwu Eze Suleiman Isah Achor Mathias Ogwo Ashibi Martha Ali Adejo Copyright (c) 2021 Arome Aruwa, Philibus Musa Gyuk, Columbus Tobechukwu Eze, Suleiman Isah, Achor Mathias Ogwo, Ashibi Martha Ali Adejo 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 5 5 54 62 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.208 NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT IN TEXTILES AND APPAREL INDUSTRY <p>Product development is key to survival of any industry with change of time. This article discusses about the process of new product development in textile and apparel industry. Major points considered during this process are demand of customers, availability of new raw materials, sustainability, economic validity and responsibiiity towards nature. Engineering of products is a complicated issue here due to natural variability of textile materials, limitations of fibre available and use of old conventional machineries in many cases.</p> Arindam Basu Copyright (c) 2021 Arindam Basu 2021-10-20 2021-10-20 5 5 63 68 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.227 THE GOVERNANCE AND THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE OF VILLAGE-OWNED ENTERPRISE USAHA PRAJA AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE COMMUNITY’S WELFARE IN DOPLANG VILLAGE BAWEN DISTRICT SEMARANG REGENCY <p>This explanatory research aims to analyze the managerial influence of village-owned enterprise, Usaha Praja, toward the performance and the implication for the villagers’ welfare in Doplang, Bawen district, Semarang regency.&nbsp; The researcher took 100 respondents purposively as the sample from the village community.&nbsp; The results showed that the management significantly influenced the village-owned enterprise’s performance. The village-owned enterprise's performance influenced the village community’s welfare. Then, the village-owned enterprise’s management significantly influenced the community’s welfare. The contribution of the village-owned enterprise’s management and performance was 61.7%. The performance could mediate the correlation between the management and the community's welfare. The village-owned enterprise must encourage the community to support the village-owned enterprise's management with innovative and local-signature products.</p> Pandi Afandi Mada Adi Wibowo Tri Septiana Copyright (c) 2021 Pandi Afandi, Mada Adi Wibowo, Tri Septiana 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 5 5 69 76 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.232 COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN GEOTHERMAL AND SOLAR HVAC SYSTEMS <p>Many applications depend mainly on heat energy, such as solar and geothermal heat pumps. ‎There is a high increase in the use of applications that depend on renewable energy. The ‎main objective of this project is to study the heating systems and geothermal heat pumps. ‎This study also investigated solar heat pumps and the geothermal efficiency to optimize its ‎strategic plan. A performance factor (COP) was used to assess the efficiency of both ‎geothermal and solar systems. To apply the methodology, a case study was used. The ‎results in the thermal energy system are that solar energy is better and more cost-effective in ‎terms of capital. The revenues for the solar system after 25 years were higher than the ‎revenues for the geothermal system. Furthermore, solar power has a shorter payback time ‎making it superior for a similar life span, so it was clear that the expenditure on solar power ‎was safer than the expenditure on geothermal power.‎‎</p> Fnyess Alajmi Amer Alajmi Ahmed Alrashidi Naser Alrashidi Copyright (c) 2021 Fnyess Alajmi, Amer Alajmi, Ahmed Alrashidi, Naser Alrashidi 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 5 5 77 98 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i5.2021.234