International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies <p>International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies is an open access peer reviewed journal that provides bi-monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Technologies and Science. It is an international refereed e-journal. IJOEST have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJOEST Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJOEST Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> <p>Editor-in-chief:<br>Dr. Mohammad Arif Kamal (Associate Professor, Architecture Section, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202002, India)</p> <p>Managing Editor:<br>Dr. Tina Porwal (PhD, Maharani Laxmibai Girls P.G. College, Indore, India)</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies 2456-8651 <p>Please read copyrigth agreement care fully:-</p> <p><a title="CopyRight Agreement" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG KUANTAN MALAYSIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES <p>The construction industry is one of the sectors contributing to the Malaysian economy and is regarded as an important component of the Malaysian economy. At the same time, as the number of building projects rises, the amount of waste created by building projects also increases, which also has many negative effects on the environment and public health. To reduce the amount of waste created by construction projects, waste must be properly handled and effective practices in the management of construction waste must be implemented in all construction industries. This research paper aims to answer these problems above in order to: 1) to investigate the relationship between formalization structure and construction waste management in Pahang construction industries; and 2) to investigate the relationship between centralization structure and construction waste management in Pahang construction industries. Data were obtained from 107 respondents among construction companies in Pahang. The PLS-SEM technique was used to test both the measurement and structural models in this analysis. The outcome shows that there is an important connection between the formalization structure and the management of construction waste among the construction companies operating in Pahang. The structure of centralization and waste management for construction was also found to be positively associated in this study.</p> F. Kamarosisam A. Q. Adeleke T.T. Taiwo Copyright (c) 2021 F. Kamarosisam, A. Q. Adeleke, T.T. Taiwo 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 5 4 1 17 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i4.2021.199 OPTIMIZATION OF ADSORPTION OF PB (II) AND CR (VI) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING MODIFIED FELDSPAR COMPOSITE: ISOTHERM AND KINETIC STUDIES <p>&nbsp;In this study modified feldspar composite (MFC) adsorbent based on feldspar and <em>Theobroma cacao </em>pods (TCP) was prepared, characterized and utilized for adsorption of Pb (II) and Cr (VI) in aqueous solution. The results showed that the cation exchange capacity of the modified feldspar composite (30.66 ± 0.21 meq/100 g) was 5 times higher than that of raw feldspar (6.42 ± 0.45 meq/100g). More so, the novel biohybrid material, MFC has a surface area of 53.60 ± 0.3 m<sup>2</sup>/g and particle size of 105.4 ± 0.18. X-ray diffraction peaks revealed that after the modification process, there is only slight shift in the position of some diffraction peaks of feldspar and the composite material suggestive of the retention of the crystalline properties of the feldspar in the novel composite (MFC). Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra showed that some functional groups present in the two starting materials were also available on the surface of the composite (MFC) indicating that the intercalation of TCP biomass into feldspar surface was successful. Response surface methodology (RSM) via a five-levels central composite design (CCD) was applied for optimization of &nbsp;metal adsorption onto the adsorbent in 32 experiment runs considering the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration and contact time. Optimization results showed that the predicted and experimental values of Pb (14.021, 14.148 mg/g) and Cr (3.428, 3.504 mg/g) were close at the optimum condition of (pH 2, 5, 6; 0.5 g; 100 mg/L; 60-120 min and 300<sup>0</sup>K). Results of ANOVA analysis revealed the adequacy of the model with the good correlation between R<sup>2</sup> values (0.9916-0.9998) and adjusted R<sup>2</sup> (0.9919-0.9986) and F value of (≥ 147). Results showed that Pb (II) ions adsorption onto the adsorbents was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model while the Cr (VI) ions uptake onto FS and MFC adsorbents followed Freundlich isotherm model. The results of the kinetic studies showed that rate of Pb (II) removal followed pseudo second order model while the rate of adsorption of Cr (VI) onto the FS and MFC adsorbents best fitted pseudo first order model. Owing to its improved cation exchange capacity and eco-friendliness, the modified feldspar composite have a good potential application in wastewater treatment besides other industrial explorations.</p> Kabir A. Sanusi Yakubu Yahaya Murtala M. Ambrusa Yakubu Yahaya Abdulazeez M. Hammed Copyright (c) 2021 Kabir A. Sanusi, Yakubu Yahaya, Murtala M. Ambrusa, Yakubu Yahaya, Abdulazeez M. Hammed 2021-07-14 2021-07-14 5 4 18 53 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i4.2021.200 COMPARISON OF THREE OPTION PRICING MODELS FOR INDIAN OPTIONS MARKET <div data-id="paragraph-4e42b160d3a040a48e8a9a476333e09b"> <div data-id="paragraph-4e42b160d3a040a48e8a9a476333e09b"> <div data-id="paragraph-4e42b160d3a040a48e8a9a476333e09b">Black-Scholes option pricing model is used to decide theoretical price of different Options contracts in many stock markets in the world. In can find many generalizations of BS model by modifying some assumptions of classical BS model. In this paper we compared two such modified Black-Scholes models with classical Black-Scholes model only for Indian option contracts. We have selected stock options form 5 different sectors of Indian stock market. Then we have found call and put option prices for 22 stocks listed on National Stock Exchange by all three option pricing models. Finally, we have compared option prices for all three models and decided the best model for Indian Options.</div> <div data-id="paragraph-8ed1068a0e5941b18f10780c9aa7ab6c">Motivation/Background:</div> <div data-id="paragraph-304936e9b0d048bcb2927936a6507ebc">In 1973, two economists, Fischer Black, Myron and Robert Merton derived a closed form formula for finding value of financial options. For this discovery, they got a Nobel prize in Economic science in 1997. Afterwards, many researchers have found some limitations of Black-Scholes model. To overcome these limitations, there are many generalizations of Black-Scholes model available in literature. Also, there are very limited study available for comparison of generalized Black-Scholes models in context of Indian stock market. For these reasons we have done this study of comparison of two generalized BS models with classical BS model for Indian Stock market.</div> <div data-id="paragraph-d0f2a7643fbf4bc5a8b431aa94f5f430">Method:</div> <div data-id="paragraph-52f698ff1c554e82851b89622436fb7b">First, we have selected top 5 sectors of Indian stock market. Then from these sectors, we have picked total 22 stocks for which we want to compare three option pricing models. Then we have collected essential data like, current stock price, strike price, expiration time, rate of interest, etc. for computing the theoretical price of options by using three different option pricing formulas. After finding price of options by using all three models, finally we compared these theoretical option price with market price of respected stock options and decided that which theoretical price has less RMSE error among all three model prices.</div> <div data-id="paragraph-6d533a315a4a4f4f96cd024f5d300023">Result:</div> <div data-id="paragraph-7b8de34de0224f198dce416ea6a43083">After going through the method described above, we found that the generalized Black-Scholes model with modified distribution has minimum RMSE errors than other two models, one is classical Black-Scholes model and other is Generalized Black-Scholes model with modified interest rate.</div> </div> </div> Arun Chauhan Ravi Gor Copyright (c) 2021 Arun Chauhan, Ravi Gor 2021-07-20 2021-07-20 5 4 54 64 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i4.2021.203 THE MISSION AND ESSENCE OF THE THEORY OF TECHNOLOGICAL ORDERS <p>Abstract: the subject of the article is the mission and essence of the theory of technological orders; the object of the article is the process of technological development of the economy and society; the purpose of the work is to increase the efficiency of the processes of formation of the sixth technological structure in the economy and society.; description of the methods of modernization of enterprises ' products during the transition to the sixth technological mode; description of the scientific and practical significance of the general theory of technological modes; scientific methods in this article are the methodology and philosophy of science, logic, system analysis, synthesis, system approach, functional-decomposition representation of complex technological systems, forecasting, expert methods; scientific novelty of the work is associated with the development of the methodology of the general theory of technological modes and the description of the scientific and practical significance of this general theory.</p> Valery V. Glushchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Valery V. Glushchenko 2021-07-24 2021-07-24 5 4 65 82 10.29121/ijoest.v5.i4.2021.205