MEASUREMENT AND MODELLING OF GRADIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS FOR BIO-CHEMICAL SEPARATION PROCESSES
Separation processes are widely used in chemical and biotechnical processes. Especially biomagnetic separation is an important issue among effective separation processes to separate the magnetic micron and submicron particles. It is necessary to establish and determine a high magnetic field or field gradient in the separation cell. However, it is not easy to determine the magnetic field gradient in the working region for different separation in practice. The reason for these difficulties is that the magnetic cells used in biochemical separation have different geometries and there are no simple and useful systems to easily measure these magnetic fields. Two main objectives are aimed in this study. First, a simple measuring device design can measure gradient magnetic fields with high precision of about 0,01mm and, secondly, obtain simple empirical expressions for the magnetic field. A magnetometer with Hall probes that works with the 3D printer principle was designed and tested to measure the magnetic field. Magnetic field changes were measured according to the surface coordinates on the measurement platform or measuring cell. Numerous experimental measurements of gradient magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets have been taken. The results obtained from the studies and results from the proposed empirical models were compared.
P. Van Hee, M. Hoeben, R. Van der Lans, and L. Van der Wielen, "Strategy for selection of methods for separation of bioparticles from particle mixtures," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 689-709, 2006. [Online]. Available: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/bit.20885?download=true. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.20885
A. L. Elrefai, T. Yoshida, and K. Enpuku, "Magnetic parameters evaluation of magnetic nanoparticles for use in biomedical applications," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 474, pp. 522-527, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2018.11.022
R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, M. R. McCartney, R. B. Frankel, D. A. Bazylinski, M. Pósfai, and P. R. Buseck, "Magnetic microstructure of magnetotactic bacteria by electron holography," Science, vol. 282, no. 5395, pp. 1868-1870, 1998. [Online]. Available: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/282/5395/1868.full.pdf. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.282.5395.1868
U. Lins and M. Farina, "Phosphorus-rich granules in uncultured magnetotactic bacteria," FEMS microbiology letters, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 23-28, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13444.x
D. Melville, F. Paul, and S. Roath, "Direct magnetic separation of red cells from whole blood," Nature, vol. 255, no. 5511, pp. 706-706, 1975. [Online]. Available: https://www.nature.com/articles/255706a0.pdf. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/255706a0
A. Bahaj, J. Watson, and D. Ellwood, "Determination of magnetic susceptibility of loaded micro-organisms in bio-magnetic separation," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 3809-3811, 1989.
A. Bahaj, P. James, and F. Moeschler, "Efficiency enhancements through the use of magnetic field gradient in orientation magnetic separation for the removal of pollutants by magnetotactic bacteria," Separation science and technology, vol. 37, no. 16, pp. 3661-3671, 2002.
C. T. Yavuz, A. Prakash, J. Mayo, and V. L. Colvin, "Magnetic separations: from steel plants to biotechnology," Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 2510-2521, 2009.
M. Zborowski and J. J. Chalmers, Magnetic cell separation. Elsevier, 2011.
C. Hoffmann, M. Franzreb, and W. Holl, "A novel high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) design for biotech applications," IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 963-966, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2002.1018560
V. Karmazin, "Theoretical assessment of technological potential of magnetic and electrical separation," Magnetic and Electrical Separation, vol. 8, 1970. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/1997/23759
V. Schaller et al., "Motion of nanometer sized magnetic particles in a magnetic field gradient," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 104, no. 9, p. 093918, 2008.
J. Zeng, X. Tong, F. Yi, and L. Chen, "Selective capture of magnetic wires to particles in high gradient magnetic separation," Minerals, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 509, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/min9090509
H. Kang, J. Kim, H. Cho, and K.-H. Han, "Evaluation of Positive and Negative Methods for Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Lateral Magnetophoresis," Micromachines, vol. 10, no. 6, p. 386, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10060386
J. Lunacek et al., "Efficiency of high gradient magnetic separation applied to micrometric magnetic particles," Separation Science and Technology, vol. 50, no. 16, pp. 2606-2615, 2015.
Z. Yildiz, T. Abbasov, and A. Sarimeseli, "Effect of the Magnetization Properties of the Granular Beds and the Operating Parameters on the Removal Ferrous Particles From the Waters by Using Magnetic Filter," Particulate Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 109-113, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2012.669027
J. Svoboda, Magnetic techniques for the treatment of materials. Springer Science & Business Media, 2004.
A. Khaligh and H. B. Ghavifekr, "Design of a MEMS-based magnetophoresis micro-separator," in 2016 24th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2016: IEEE, pp. 1495-1498. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IranianCEE.2016.7585758
P. Hajiani and F. Larachi, "Ferrofluid applications in chemical engineering," Int. Rev. Chem. Eng., vol. 1, pp. 221-237, 2009.
M. Munteanu and F. Larachi, "Inhomogeneous magnetic field effects on the hydrodynamic properties of multiphase catalytic reactors," International Review of Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 150-154, 2010.
M. Rolland, F. Larachi, and P. Hajiani, "Axial dispersion in nanofluid Poiseuille flows stirred by magnetic nanoagitators," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 53, no. 14, pp. 6204-6210, 2014.
F. Larachi, "Experimental and theoretical exploration of weak-and strong-gradient magnetic fields in chemical multiphase processes," Modeling of process intensification. Weinheim/Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2007.
V. Zablotskii, T. Polyakova, O. Lunov, and A. Dejneka, "How a high-gradient magnetic field could affect cell life," Scientific reports, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37407
L. Mulay and I. L. Mulay, "Magnetic susceptibility: instrumentation and analytical applications including bioscience, catalysis, and amorphous materials," Analytical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 199-214, 1980. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50055a024
C. L. Hill, A. Lamotte, W. Althoff, J.-C. Brunie, and G. M. Whitesides, "High-gradient magnetic filtration of small particles of ferro-, ferri-, and paramagnetic catalysts and catalyst supports," Journal of Catalysis, vol. 43, no. 1-3, pp. 53-60, 1976. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(76)90292-X
S. Ge et al., "Magnetic levitation in chemistry, materials science, and biochemistry," Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 59, no. 41, pp. 17810-17855, 2020.
C. A. Sobecki, J. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Dynamics of a Pair of Paramagnetic Janus Particles under a Uniform Magnetic Field and Simple Shear Flow," Magnetochemistry, vol. 7, no. 1, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry7010016
J. Zhang and C. Wang, "Numerical study of lateral migration of elliptical magnetic microparticles in microchannels in uniform magnetic fields," Magnetochemistry, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 16, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry4010016
A. Eisenträger, D. Vella, and I. M. Griffiths, "Particle Capture efficiency in a multi-wire model for high gradient magnetic separation," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 105, no. 3, p. 033508, 2014.
W. H. Hayt Jr, J. A. Buck, and M. J. Akhtar, Engineering Electromagnetics| (SIE). McGraw-Hill Education, 2020.
G. Lehner, Electromagnetic field theory for engineers and physicists. Springer Science & Business Media, 2010.
X. Zheng, Z. Xue, Y. Wang, G. Zhu, D. Lu, and X. Li, "Modeling of particle capture in high gradient magnetic separation: A review," Powder technology, vol. 352, pp. 159-169, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2019.04.048
E. P. Furlani, Permanent magnet and electromechanical devices: materials, analysis, and applications. Academic press, 2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012269951-1/50005-X
K. M. Krishnan, Fundamentals and applications of magnetic materials. Oxford University Press, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570447.001.0001
S. Baik, D. Ha, R. Ko, and J. Kwon, "Magnetic field analysis of high gradient magnetic separator via finite element analysis," Physica C: Superconductivity, vol. 480, pp. 111-117, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physc.2012.04.036
J. Sammer, M. Hubmann, F. Schauer, J. Schmidt, and J. Gerhold, "Automatic measurement of nonuniform magnetic fields with industrial Hall probes," IEEE transactions on magnetics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 2064-2066, 1990.
S. A. Khashan, Y. Haik, and E. Elnajjar, "CFD simulation for biomagnetic separation involving dilute suspensions," The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1450-1456, 2012.
H. Bilgili, T. Abbasov, and Y. Baran, "Analysis and Experimental Tests of Gradient Magnetic Fields for Separation of Bioparticles," in II. International Battalgazi Multidisciplinary Studies Congress, Malatya, Turkey, M. Talas, Ed., 15-17 March 2019 2019: IKSAD, 2019, pp. 150-156.
Y. Yang et al., "Influence of Nd-NbZn co-substitution on structural, spectral and magnetic properties of M-type calcium-strontium hexaferrites Ca0. 4Sr0. 6-xNdxFe12. 0-x (Nb0. 5Zn0. 5) xO19," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 765, pp. 616-623, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.06.255
A. Trukhanov, S. Grabchikov, A. Solobai, D. Tishkevich, S. Trukhanov, and E. Trukhanova, "AC and DC-shielding properties for the Ni80Fe20/Cu film structures," Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 443, pp. 142-148, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2017.07.053
O. Rotariu and N. J. Strachan, "Modelling magnetic carrier particle targeting in the tumor microvasculature for cancer treatment," Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, vol. 293, no. 1, pp. 639-646, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2005.01.081
L. E. Udrea, N. J. Strachan, V. Bădescu, and O. Rotariu, "An in vitro study of magnetic particle targeting in small blood vessels," Physics in Medicine & Biology, vol. 51, no. 19, p. 4869, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/51/19/010
Y. M. Pyatin, "Permanent magnets," Energiya, Moscow, 1980.
Copyright (c) 2021 Hatice Bilgili, Teymuraz Abbasov, Yusuf Baran
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Please read copyrigth agreement care fully:-