PHARMACOGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION, ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CONFIRMATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF PHENACETINE EXTRACTED FROM THE DRIED POWDERED LEAVES OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT ALLOPHYLUS AFRICANUS USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF PAIN, FLU and HEAD ACHE

  • Lahai Koroma Department of Basic and Environmental Sciences, Eastern Polytechnic, Kenema, Sierra Leone and Department of Chemistry, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone
  • L.M. Kamara Department of Chemistry, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone
Keywords: Mclafferty Rearrangement, Organoleptic, Pharmaceutical, Anti-Inflammatory, Glycosides

Abstract

Pharmacognostic investigation involving organoleptic evaluation, fluorescent analysis, phytochemical screening and mineral analysis was carried out on the dried powdered leaves of Allophylus africanus used for treating pain, headaches, common cold, Fever and as antibiotics in Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. The powdered leaves were light brown in colour with woody odour, bitter taste and gave significant fluorescent derivatives with the reagents 1M NaOH (aq), 1M NaOH(alc.), Ammonia, 50% HCl, and 50% HNO3 when viewed under ordinary visible light and ultraviolet light. The plant organ investigated during phytochemical screening gave positive for carbohydrates and reducing sugar, Amino acids and Proteins, Alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds, saponins glycosides Flavonoids, sterols/terpenes and triterpenes all of which have been reported to be pharmacologically active compounds responsible for the medicinal use of Allophylus africanus plant.

Elemental analysis of the plant organ was performed with a Niton XL3t GOLDD + Hand held X-ray Fluorescence (Thermo Fisher) and the results indicated that the plant organs investigated contained large amounts of K, Ca, Mg, Al and Fe whilst Ti, Zr, Mn, Zn, Sr, Sc, Rb, Cu, V and Mo were present in minute quantities. The presence of the above elements also support the use of the plant organ investigated as food and medicine.

The compounds LK003 isolated from the ethanol extract of the dried powdered leaves of the plant and structure identified using fragmentation patterns from LCMS, Proton NMR spectroscopy and by McLafferty rearrangement as N-(3-methoxyphenyl) acetamide called phenacetamide which has been reported to be a clinically tested drug for pain and fever. Hence, we concluded in this research work that the presence of N-(3-methoxyphenyl) acetamide called phenacetamide, the secondary plant metabolites and minerals present in the dried powdered leaves traditional medicinal plant Allophylus africanus support the use of the plant as a traditional pharmaceutical.

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Published
2020-11-26
How to Cite
Koroma, L., & Kamara, L. (2020). PHARMACOGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION, ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CONFIRMATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF PHENACETINE EXTRACTED FROM THE DRIED POWDERED LEAVES OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT ALLOPHYLUS AFRICANUS USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF PAIN, FLU and HEAD ACHE. International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies, 4(6), 10-29. https://doi.org/10.29121/ijoest.v4.i6.2020.114