CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES AND PERFORMANCE OF WOMEN OWNED-BUSINESSES
Hamza Aliyu Galadanchi 1, Fatima Sani Stores 2
1, 2 Department of Business Administration, Al-Qalam University Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria
In the context of family-owned enterprises, this study examines the conceptual implications of various entrepreneurial competencies on firm performance. We conceptually investigated the relationships that exist between these types of competencies and the achievement of success in business. Our primary focus was on the concept of competencies, which includes the abilities of analytical planning, invention, teamwork, leadership, networking, and enforcement/implementation. Our research, which is based on the literature that is currently accessible, shows that companies that place a high value on entrepreneurial competencies typically perform well due to the competitive advantages they possess over their competitors. The paper provides some conceptual clarification on entrepreneurship in developing nations and makes recommendations for additional empirical research on firms focusing on entrepreneurial competencies that could help policymakers implement more successful programs to support and nurture entrepreneurs for the prosperity of the economy.
Received 01 April 2023
Accepted 02 May 2023
Published 17 May 2023
Hamza Aliyu Galadanchi, firstname.lastname@example.org
Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
With the license CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Competencies, Firm Performance, Women-Owned Business, Developing Economy
For a long time, it has been believed that entrepreneurs are crucial to promoting economic expansion and progress ; ; ; Al-Okaily and Alqudah (2022). Scholars of entrepreneurship have emphasized that job opportunities are created by entrepreneurship ; , reduces young unemployment ; and promotes economic development and innovation ; . It might be claimed that entrepreneurship also plays a crucial role in the development of developing nations since it boosts productivity and economic growth. Beck (2009) ; ; ; ;
Women's entrepreneurship is a topic of study that is developing gradually in the field of entrepreneurship ; ; ; . Although the majority of research on women's entrepreneurship has been undertaken in the context of developed economies, far less is known about female participation in family businesses' entrepreneurial activities in those countries. ; . One example is that female entrepreneurs in low- to middle-income nations have a lower survival rate than male entrepreneurs, according to studies from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). ; Allenv et al. (2007) , they did not look into some of the elements that contributed to the survival and success of those female entrepreneurs. So, more emphasis should be placed on the role of women entrepreneurs, especially in emerging economies, according to recent research on the subject ; .
Over the past ten years, the number of women-owned enterprises has increased dramatically and has even overtaken the number of male-owned businesses ; . assert that female entrepreneurs should be researched as the founders and leaders of family enterprises in light of the fact that they control around 37% of businesses globally . There isn't a lot of study on what female business owners should or shouldn't do to succeed, particularly in emerging markets where resources are few.
We concentrate on the concept of entrepreneurial abilities by utilizing validated measures created by Brinckmann (2006). These measures incorporate the competencies of analytical planning, creativity, enforcement and implementation, teamwork, leadership, and networking. This is accomplished through the utilization of the resource-based view (RBV) of new initiatives as a theoretical framework. We explicitly investigate the value of essential entrepreneurial qualities in an economy that is still in the process of emerging, as well as the extent to which women business owners possess these competencies to increase the likelihood that their companies will be successful.
The study provides a conceptual analysis of the importance of entrepreneurial talents to firm performance for women business owners in emerging economies, a topic not thoroughly explored in past research. agree that women's entrepreneurship research must expand. So, this study provides a foundation for discussion to increase women business owners' participation and success in developing nations' family businesses.
The chapter begins with the following: The resource-based paradigm is presented, with a focus on entrepreneurial skill. After describing our argument and the limitations of the research, we outline the overall conclusion of the paper. It is suggested that more research be conducted on other aspects of the global Entrepreneurship Monitor's (GEM) conceptual model, such as the conditions of the entrepreneurial framework, in order to help policymakers, support the growth and support of women entrepreneurs in order to increase their economic contributions.
2. Entrepreneurial competency and Resource-Based View Theory
According to RBV theory, a company's competitive advantage results from its unique collection of resources . These assets may include organizational procedures, management approaches, or specialized knowledge .
A resource must be valuable, unique, inimitable and irreplaceable to maintain a competitive advantage . To obtain such an advantage, entrepreneurial abilities are an indispensable asset .
You need a solid understanding of the term "competency" to support a competency-based strategy. There are numerous definitions of "competency(ies)" that occur in the literature, which greatly obscures the concept's actual meaning. The distinction between "competency(ies)" and "competence" is arguably the subject of the most frequent dispute. These words are frequently used in the same sentence despite being perceived as separate ideas. For instance, distinguishes between "competence" and "competency(ies)," the latter referring to a behavior that results in performance. points out that there are three different ways that competencies can be described: (I) as observable performance; (ii) as the benchmark for the outcome, of a person's performance; and (iii) as the characteristics that define an individual, such as their knowledge, skills, and abilities. This concept of competency is used in the majority of studies that try to understand managerial competencies.
It is evident that the definitions of competencies have been taken from the management and entrepreneurship and management literature and applied in a variety of ways, ranging from quite broad to extremely specific. Yet, these definitions appear to share four significant aspects of competencies:
1) Competencies consist of an individual's overall attributes that relate to his or her ability to do a certain profession efficiently.
2) Competencies manifest themselves in an individual's conduct and are therefore observable and quantifiable.
3) Competence assist a business in achieving its aims and objectives.
4) Competencies are organizational resources that can be cultivated.
According to researchers, entrepreneurial and managerial competencies may be distinct, with entrepreneurial competencies viewed as more complicated . concur that there is a distinction between entrepreneurial behavior and managerial conduct; however, they believe that each complements the other in business management and that the ability to combine the two is vital for firm success. further emphasize the importance of entrepreneurial competency by stating:
“Entrepreneurship and managerial competence represent two important and complementary strands for small ﬁrm research and practice that appear to have led largely separate existences. An exploration of both of these issues may help to further meaningfully circumscribe the areas of entrepreneurship and small business management and to shed additional light on those managerial behaviours that are associated with entrepreneurship and small ﬁrm performance”.
Based on these explanations, distinguish between innate and acquired components of competency. The former is composed of traits, social roles, attitudes, and self-perceptions, and are sporadically referred to as "internalized elements" , whereas the latter are composed of elements acquired through academic study, employment, or practical training and are often mentioned to as "externalized elements" . Internalized competencies are more difficult to change than externalized competences, which may be gained through suitable training, require practice and education programs ; .
These skills are typically researched in the context of entrepreneurship as traits of the business owner and active manager .
Studies of entrepreneurial abilities and their relationship to new venture performance stand out despite the fact that there are still numerous gaps in the field . several key competencies identified for small firms, including: having a focused approach for quality, clear purpose and vision; remaining close to customers; being able to formulate an effective strategy; promoting a learning culture; using a strategic approach to human resource management.
In a study of 30 SMEs in Northern Ireland, discovered various types of competencies that are needed at different stages of a firm's development. Competencies considered crucial Early stages of development included having a focused mind, fearlessness, tenacity, drive, and commitment. They also included initiative, communication skills, and the ability to generate a good profit margin. They also included global awareness and the capacity to inspire others. Competencies including advertising skills, the ability to evaluate employees, financial management skills, and their organizational fit, the capacity for easy social interaction, the capacity for problem-solving, and the capacity for selling ideas are crucial in all the subsequent stages of development.
Essentially, entrepreneurial skills are those that are especially important for the practice of successful entrepreneurship . Entrepreneurial competences, according to Bird (1995) , are the characteristics of specific knowledge, objectives, self-images, social positions, and talents that might result in the development and expansion of a new business. In conclusion, entrepreneurial competences recognize that in addition to working with others inside the company, entrepreneurs also need to be able to take initiative and successfully interact with others. In the framework of this study, entrepreneurs must be analytical and strategic. Be imaginative when making plans, have the ability to take initiative and follow out choices, be a successful leader and team member, and be able to effectively communicate with others Brinckmann (2006). In order to do this, six entrepreneurial abilities are looked at: innovation competency, networking competency, analytical planning competency, leadership competency, enforcement and implementation competency. teamwork competency.
3. Analytical Competency
The capacity for analytical thought and the capacity to deal with uncertainty are components of analytical planning competency Bird (1995). Entrepreneurs need to be skilled at analysis, problem solving, and implementation, taking risks and making decisions claim Man and Lau (2005). The ability to conceptually coordinate all of the organization's goals and efforts is reflected in one's analytical planning capability. . Entrepreneurs that are skilled at analytical planning are able to recognize trends and scenarios as well as the fundamental problems that underlie complex and difficult circumstances. Entrepreneurs that are skilled at analytical planning are therefore more strategic as they take into account market trends, cutting-edge technology, and diverse business chances. For example, in their study of 210 women entrepreneurs in England and Wales, found analytical thinking in business and management competences and entrepreneurial capabilities in their Female Entrepreneur Competence (FEC) framework. Analytical planning experts are more open to different approaches and typically approach issues from fresh, analytical perspectives. As a result of their analytical thinking being more systematic and logical when tackling important business challenges to fulfill their vision, they also have a propensity to make better decisions, which may enhance company performance.
4. Innovation Competency
Creative thinking, uniqueness, creativity, and unusual and interdisciplinary thinking are all traits of innovation competency. Yet, innovation aptitude also requires creativity, which is critical for identifying performance gaps and generating solutions ; West and Farr (1990); West (2002). Women entrepreneurs have shown great innovation culture in previous research Hisrich & Brush (1984); . found creativity and competency in the entrepreneurial skills cluster while studying female entrepreneur competency. Innovative business people are more likely to spot issues, come up with fresh concepts, and put those concepts into practice and make money from them. They are imaginative and frequently able to envision the best ways to take advantage of possibilities or generate demand. They are therefore more likely to offer novel goods and/or services that can benefit their clients. As a result, business performance improves.
5. Teamwork Competency
When starting a new company, collaboration is essential. The capacity of the entrepreneurial team to effectively communicate, resolve conflicts, and distribute tasks fairly within the team is known as teamwork Brinckmann (2006). Competencies in teamwork are crucial for gaining employees' cooperation, particularly when implementing new policies or initiatives. The ability to accomplish jobs on schedule, produce quality products, and serve customers in the most effective and efficient way possible all contribute to the company's increased productivity. Entrepreneurs that are great at working in a team have a higher chance of success.
Entrepreneurs with teamwork competency, able to establish a collaborative environment while working with others in an interdependent manner. Due to the entrepreneurs' encouragement of teamwork, the formation of a shared core, and getting the team to work in the same direction, the performance of the company is likely to increase with teamwork competency. According to research on female entrepreneurs, effective business people prioritize the growth of their teams, give their employees additional responsibility, and celebrate their accomplishments and tenacity . Female entrepreneurs demonstrated the collaborative competency as an aspect of their human relations and interpersonal abilities, which was also shown to be more prevalent and highly respected in female networks than in those of their male counterparts .
6. Leadership Competency
The ability to motivate the entire organization to match employee actions with the organization's vision, mission, and objectives is referred to as leadership competency. It involves fostering a culture of performance-driven leadership that emphasizes delegation, consultation, and group decision-making Yukl (2013). Leadership ability makes it possible for everyone to work together in the face of difficulty to achieve a positive result . found that women's leadership styles were closely tied to the fact that women's leadership competency was more evident and highly valued than that of males. Entrepreneurs with leadership competency can guide their followers toward certain objectives . They are more likely to be devoted because they are driven to utilize their abilities to create a culture that supports the growth of the company . Also, they have the ability to influence others to take positive action. We contend that business owners who possess leadership skills may be able to guide their company to success.
7. Network competency
Network competence is the capacity to establish social connections that help carry out tasks like planning, coordinating, and controlling . Another facet of network competency is the ability to develop and use networks with collaborators, including funders, marketing partners, technology and other investors Brinckmann (2006). Social contacts that result in resource exchange and benefit creation are made possible by these networks.
Past research has shown that the ability of female entrepreneurs to build strong interpersonal ties may be one area where they may outperform males in business ; . Moreover, networking has been found to be an effective technique for female company owners to employ in their strategic planning (Morris, Miyasaki, Watters, & Coombes, 2006; Lerner, Brush, & Hisrich, 1997). According to another studies, folks with excellent networking skills are more likely to succeed than those with poor networking skills (Baron & Markman, 2003).
Entrepreneurs routinely connect with people in and outside of their business and engage in negotiations with them. In order to accomplish their goals and improve the success of their businesses, entrepreneurs must be competent. According to research by , relationships are highly valued by Malaysian business people. Competence is one of the key qualities that business owners must possess, as evidenced by their strong networking abilities. Entrepreneurs must be able to exploit their relationships with others in order to advance their endeavors. This is more important than just establishing relationships with individuals . So, networking adept with business owners are more likely to boost company performance.
8. Enforcement/implementation Competency
Although innovative business concepts alone cannot ensure a company's success, their execution is essential to assuring the company's growth. Hence, another essential component of entrepreneurial competences is enforcement or implementation ability Brinckmann (2006).
Competency in enforcement is the capacity to take prompt, consistent action to maximize opportunities. This competence is reflected in the "proactiveness" facet of the entrepreneurial orientation concept. Successful entrepreneurs are those who take the initiative and make things happen Brinckmann (2006). Previous research on the abilities of women entrepreneurs also shown that their cluster of managerial and commercial skills comprised enforcement and execution skills . These firm owners take proactive measures to ensure they have the skills and background necessary to implement value-creating initiatives. They are focused on implementing plans to manage resources so they may achieve their objective. Business expansion is likely to be aided by entrepreneurs having a proven track record of execution and enforcement.
Figure 1 Research Framework
Women entrepreneurs are more likely to believe in the availability of entrepreneurial prospects if they feel they have the essential skills or talents, according to a key conclusion from the 2012 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor research on these individuals . Women are a major contributor to economic prosperity in many emerging nations . The developing world's economy is undergoing profound transition and has transformed significantly over the past 20 years, becoming one based on knowledge-driven firms. The transition of women into entrepreneurs is crucial, especially in terms of increasing the pool of human capital and delivering skilled labor that can function as entrepreneurs to support future growth of economic development.
We discover that entrepreneurship competencies are the factors that significantly affect business performance even though at different level and in different context. We find that there is a stronger substantial relationship between competencies and company performance. Hence, our study offers important contribution by offering a conceptual review of entrepreneurship competencies and their relationship with the performance of women owned businesses with particular reference to developing economics. Our research backs up with the demand for additional study of female entrepreneurs in many nations and environments. The implications of gender on entrepreneurship are genuinely complicated concerns with numerous dimensions and characteristics, and are far from being a straightforward, convergent phenomenon. In order to understand why men and women operate businesses differently, additional research must be conducted, especially in diverse situations and nations and context.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (2010). Introduction to the 2nd Edition Of The Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research. In Z. J. Acs & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: An Interdisciplinary Survey and Introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Springer, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1191-9_1
Ahl, H. J., & Marlow, S. (2012). Exploring the Dynamics of Gender, Feminism and Entrepreneurship: Advancing Debate to Escape a Dead End? Organization, 19(5), 543-562. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508412448695
Ahmad, N. H., Ramayah, T., Wilson, C., & Kummerow, L. (2010). Is Entrepreneurial Competency and Business Success Relationship Contingent Upon Business Environment? A Study of Malaysian SMEs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(3), 182-204. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552551011042780
Al-Qudah, A. A., Al-Okaily, M., & Alqudah, H. (2022). The Relationship Between Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development From Economic Growth Perspective: 15 'Rcep' Countries. Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 12(1), 44-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/20430795.2021.1880219
Bamiatzi, V., Jones, S., Mitchelmore, S., & Nikolopoulos, K. (2015). The Role of Competencies in Shaping the Leadership Style of Female Entrepreneurs: The Case of North West of England, Yorkshire, and North Wales. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(3), 627-644. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12173
Baptista, R., & Preto, M. (2007). The Dynamics of Causality Between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment. International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 7(3), 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTPM.2007.015107
Baron, R. A., & Markman, G. D. (2003). Beyond Social Capital: The Role of Entrepreneurs' Social Competence in their Financial Success. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 41-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00069-0
Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1997). The Myth of the Generic Manager: New Personal Competencies for New Management Roles. California Management Review, 40(1), 92-116. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165924
Baughn, C., Chua, B. L., & Neupert, K. (2006). The Normative Context for Women's Participation in Entrepreneurship: A Multi-Country Study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 687-708. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00142.x
Busenitz, L. W., & Barney, J. B. (1997). Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(1), 9-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(96)00003-1
Cala's, M., Smircich, L., & Bourne, K. (2009). Extending the Boundaries: Reframing "Entrepreneurship as Social Change" Through Feminist Perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 34 (3), 552-569. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2009.40633597
Carree, M. A., & Thurik, A. R. (2010). The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth. In Z. J. Acs & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: An Interdisciplinary Survey and Introduction (2nd ed.). New York: Springer, 557-594. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1191-9_20
Dana, L. P., Nziku, D. M., Palalić, R., & Ramadani, V. (2022). Women Entrepreneurs in North Africa: Historical Frameworks, Ecosystems and New Perspectives for the Region. World Scientific Publishing Co. https://doi.org/10.1142/12266
De Bruin, A., Brush, C. G., & Welter, F. (2007). Advancing a Framework for Coherent Research on Women's Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 323-339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00176.x
Erikson, T. (2002). Entrepreneurial Capital: The Emerging Venture's Most Important Asset and Competitive Advantage. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3), 275-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00062-8
Fuller-Love, N., Lim, L., & Akehurst, G. (2006). Guest Editorial: Female and Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(4), 429-439. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-006-0007-y
Garavan, T. N., & McGuire, D. (2001). Competencies and Workplace Learning: Some Reﬂections on the Rhetoric and the Reality. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(4), 144-164. https://doi.org/10.1108/13665620110391097
Gu, W., & Wang, J. (2022). Research on Index Construction of Sustainable Entrepreneurship and its Impact on Economic Growth. Journal of Business Research, 142, 266-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.12.060
Gundry, L. K., Miriam, B.-Y., & Posig, M. (2002). Contemporary Perspectives on Women's Entrepreneurship: A Review and Strategic Recommendations. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 10(01), 67-86. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495802000141
Hughes, K. D., Jennings, J. E., Brush, C., Carter, S., & Welter, F. (2012). Extending Women's Entrepreneurship Research in New Directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(3), 429-442. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00504.x
Keilbach, M. C., Tamvada, J. P., & Audretsch, D. B. (2009). Sustaining Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Lessons in Policy And Industry Innovations from Germany and India. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-78695-7
Kelley, D. J., Brush, C. G., Greene, P. G., & Litovsky, Y. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Report: Women's Entrepreneurship Worldwide. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA).
Lerner, M., Brush, C., & Hisrich, R. (1997). Israeli Women Entrepreneurs: An Examination of Factors Affecting Performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(4), 315-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(96)00061-4
Litwin, A. S., & Phan, P. H. (2013). Quality Over Quantity: Re-Examining the Link Between Entrepreneurship and Job Creation. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 66(4), 833-873. https://doi.org/10.1177/001979391306600405
Man, T. W. Y., & Lau, T. (2005). The Context of Entrepreneurship in Hong Kong: An Investigation Through the Patterns of Entrepreneurial Competencies in Contrasting Industrial Environments. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 12(4), 464-481. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000510628162
Mitchelmore, S., & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial Competencies: A Literature Review and Development Agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 16(2), 92-111. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552551011026995
Mitchelmore, S., Rowley, J., & Shiu, E. (2014). Competencies associated with growth of womenled SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 21(4), 588-601. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-01-2012-0001
Morris, M. H., Miyasaki, N. N., Watters, C. E., & Coombes, S. M. (2006). The Dilemma of Growth: Understanding Venture Size Choices of Women Entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(2), 221-244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2006.00165.x
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2009). Strengthening Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in East Germany: Lessons from Local Approaches. Accessed on January 7, 2017.
Pines, A. M., Lerner, M., & Schwartz, D. (2010). Gender Differences in Entrepreneurship: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion in Times of Global Crisis. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 29(2), 186-198. https://doi.org/10.1108/02610151011024493
Ritter, T., Wilkinson, I., & Johnston, W. (2002). Measuring Network Competence: Some International Evidence. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 17(2/3), 119-138. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620210419763
Rowe, C. (1995). Clarifying the use of Competence and Competency Models in Recruitment, Assessment and Staff Development. Industrial and Commercial Training, 27, 12-17. https://doi.org/10.1108/00197859510100257
Sadler-Smith, E., Hampson, Y., Chaston, I., & Badger, B. (2003). Managerial Behavior, Entrepreneurial Style, and Small Firm Performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 41, 47-67. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-627X.00066
Scott, S., & Bruce, R. (1994). Determinants of Innovative Behavior: A Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607. https://doi.org/10.2307/256701
Sexton, D. L., & Bowman-Upton, N. (1990). Female and Male Entrepreneurs: Psychological Characteristics and their Role in Gender-Related Discrimination. Journal of Business Venturing, 5(1), 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(90)90024-N
Thompson, J., Stuart, R., & Lindsay, P. (1997). The Competence of Top Team Members: A Framework for Successful Performance. Team Performance Management, 3(2), 57-75. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683949610113593
Verheul, I., Uhlaner, L., & Thurik, R. (2005). Business Accomplishments, Gender and Entrepreneurial Self-Image. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(4), 483-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2004.03.002
This work is licensed under a: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
© Granthaalayah 2014-2023. All Rights Reserved.