Corneliu Augustin Sofronie 1


1 Ph. D, principal scientific researcher, Training and Development Centre, PS, Bucharest, Sos Oltenitei, 36, Romania




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Received 19 February 2022

Accepted 01 March 2022

Published 26 March 2022

Corresponding Author

Corneliu Augustin Sofronie,

DOI 10.29121/IJOEST.v6.i2.2022.300

Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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The contemporary world, say social scientists, is a continual triumph of the irrational. And researchers in the field of management, referring to the organizational man, find that today the individual behaves irrational rather than rational. The consequences of this social time are that no one finds their place and depending on the degree of organization of a society this phenomenon is more or less accentuated. In societies in transition, for example, the phenomenon is even more pronounced, also due to the high level of uncertainty that exists globally, coupled with the absence of jobs, subsistence incomes and confusing hope. Mankind is in the state of AND-And. A bivalent state. It can mean complementarity and cooperation, but also opposition and competition between the two parties. In the latter case we are talking about the state of that AND which does not imply dynamic balance, complementarity but, on the contrary, instability, has pathological potential. Evil and Good are equal, with the obvious opposite. In such a state the image of the Good becomes vague. And Evil has already outlined a structure, it has a name. He is a Mr. Hyde who fights, within the same system, with Dr. Jekyll. Both Good and Evil have their own order, strongly signified. Life or death? Truth or lie? Poor or rich? Honest or corrupt? What is in the mind of man? Our research, conducted over more than 20 years, has as its ultimate goal the creation of an Early Warning System on human behavior.



Keywords: Uncertainty, man-imperfect being, Johari cognitive model, mind-reading machine, early warning system




          As Lord Martin Rees, the British Royal Astronomer, observes in his book “Our Final Century” Rees Martin (2004), science and technology create not only opportunities, but rather new and great threats. That is why, he writes, in this increasingly interconnected world, where individuals have greater power than ever at their fingertips, society must deal more than ever with any kind of calamity, no matter how unlikely. be she.



         And Pierre Rosanvallon in his book The New Social Problem Pierre (1998) by the European Institute] captures the limits of statistics applied to the socio-human field: “Traditional statistics prove incapable of describing the new, more atomized, and individualistic, with fluctuating and unstable features. Traditional knowledge based on the concept of classification


becomes inoperative because it presupposes the existence of stable differences. If there is no stability in the way of life, it is no longer possible to build social categories in the classical way. Hence the opacity we feel, which corresponds to the fact that the means of statistical knowledge are no longer adapted to the understanding of the transformations suffered by a society with weaker and more diffuse energies”. Jacques Lusseyran Jacques (1958) points out: “The average man does not exist: Everyone knows this, and statisticians in the first place. He is a reality only for an abstract intelligence, that is, for the manipulation of the masses, I mean of their unconscious. " It is interesting to analyze, in this sense, the psycho-political speeches given by Lavrenti Beria in front of American students studying in Moscow, about behaviorism and statistics, but also the gross lie caused by the British psychologist Cyril Burt regarding the origin of intelligence.



Today's reality is very complex. And like any complex system, it is full of uncertainties that the citizen faces every day, every step of the way. "Today's world is a trial, it's not just happening," George W. Bush said in a White House speech during the winter holidays in the last year of his term. This phrase is a concrete application of the famous "butterfly effect" principle, formulated by the American mathematician Edward Lorenz Edward (1960), which demonstrates that a minor cause, seemingly insignificant, can have major effects, catastrophic. The former president considered the effects of terrorist movements around the world, sowing chaos, and uncertainty, arguing the need for firm action against local protests that create a state of global instability. Changing the subject of Bush's statement, we can say that today's society, organizations, the family, the individual himself is a process, he is not, he is just happening. Nothing seems to be a necessity anymore; everything is the fruit and the hand of chance.                                                                                                                                    



In recent years. It happens against the background of the chain events that took place sometimes in France, sometimes in Germany, sometimes in England, sometimes in the USA ... Everywhere in the world. Untimely wars, crimes, and suicides, whether or not claimed by terrorist or religious groups. Specialists, prestigious scientific personalities, in the press or in televised debates - stop at one and not at all happy conclusion: you have no way to control what is in the mind of the individual.



The mind of the individual knows three great variants of expression. We are talking about the certainty-mind (Ideal, abstract) about the probability-mind (concrete, real-controlled mind of 3 functions according to the theory of evidence: the plausibility function, the basic probability function, and the confidence function) and about the chance-mind (possible mind, the human mind of our times, called by philosophers "the time of the fall of time"). For the first type of mind, truth is 1 or 0. For the third type, the random mind, the truth can be anywhere between 1 and 0. But the random mind is not yet the object of study of science. Cognitive psychology deals exclusively with the mind-certainty. A mind belonging to the abstract man, the statistical man. Cognitive psychology considers that if the individual answers YES to a question in a questionnaire, then this YES is YES. It excludes the possibility that the individual has said YES, and in his mind the real answer is NO. And when catastrophic events happen, he is content to apologize you have no way of knowing what is in the human mind ...




The French sociologist Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism, said that "knowing means predicting." Based on this thesis, the "father" of American psychology, William James, states that psychology will really become a science only when it is able to write anticipated biographies of people from the moment of their birth. The role of psychology, as of any science, is to reveal what is hidden, the unseen. The psychologist has the crucial role of stimulating the individual not to remain unconscious about his possibilities, letting himself be dragged by life ... living in the will of fate, without even knowing what he has lost. To help him understand his environment, the insertion micro group, so as not to live as a stranger to the other, without knowing him, without looking for him, without understanding him ... To help him to penetrate as deeply as possible into his own soul, there where is the fruitful seed of his personality. To understand their worries, longings, motivation, worries. To understand the system of representative values ​​of this Time, which it is obliged to defend and promote. To teach him to cultivate and develop in consciousness the fertile and specific germs through which he becomes himself; to cultivate the light that will guide him on the path to the end of which he will be a Being fulfilled with the Meaning oriented towards good, truth and beauty.



Intuition suggests that modern societal and economic development does not depend so much on achieving perfect, deterministic, and secure goals as on developing creative activities in a world where uncertainty, probability, and risk are real conditions. and options. As Orio Giarini and Walter Stahel write Orio (1996), this would not be a step backwards from irrationality. On the contrary, it takes more rationality (rationality also contains the core of consciousness), more initiative to deal with situations of uncertainty, which, ultimately, is the daily experience of any living being. The simplistic view of pre-programmed robot humans belongs to a deterministic world, the expression of a residual schizophrenia from childhood. The attempt to achieve statistical, abstract "certainty" and "perfect information" can only lead to a dogmatic, pseudo-religious system, on the one hand, or, on the other hand, to the annihilation of all that is intelligence., to destroy any hope for development and creativity. Hence the prevailing atmosphere of pessimism in the world”. The marriage between modern scientific thinking and the social sciences, in a world of increasing complexity, interactive even beyond the limits of planet Earth, offers a rich source of moral and intellectual incentives to reconstruct an image of the future. By learning to deal with uncertainties and mastering risk beyond these new horizons, we could instead make a qualitative leap in the human condition… Even in terms of equity or social justice, the problem is not to produce or sell or to distribute “certainty” which, in any case, is a system of self-deception, both in political terms (see dictatorships of our century) and in economic terms (excessive protection from the state or community has limited the provide security, leading to an increase in their vulnerability and inefficiency, ultimately turning them into agents of greater global insecurity).





Well-known American philosopher Thomas Kuhn Thomas Kuhn Kuhn (2019). noted that scientific revolutions are preceded and heralded by periods of conceptual chaos, in which the practices of normal science (current science, in this case positivist science) gradually turn into what he calls extraordinary science (the science of the immediate future). Sooner or later, the current practices of normal science necessarily led to the discovery of anomalies within science. In many cases, equipment does not work as anticipated by the paradigm on which normal science is based. in the face of the repeated efforts of some remarkable representatives of the profession. With regard to and adapted content to psychology, the practice of normal (legitimate) psychology has highlighted, over time, a number of anomalies, especially with regard to the ability to make predictions about the future evolution of an individual's behaviour, an aspect in which psychology positivist guy failed miserably. In particular, the measuring instruments (mainly psychometric tests and questionnaires), created on the basis of the methodology of normal psychology, worked very far from the standards set by the positivist paradigm. Of course, many professionals working with the current paradigm have noticed the discrepancy between the test results and reality, or rather the concordance only with mathematical truth (principles, rules, theories), but discordant with reality. They tried all sorts of improvements, especially to methodologies (a correlation index, a new type of cluster, a new way of randomizing and scaling performance or standardization, etc.), they created new tests - thousands, tens of thousands of tests., but the results have been and are as unconvincing as ever. Because they tried innovations, variations on the same theme, but the real need is invention. The innovation is made within the same paradigm, the invention presupposes another paradigm, another theoretical and conceptual framework.




The man-system carries in its structure a quantum of chaos, the fruit of a memory that came from beyond the act of Genesis. Genome program researchers have shown that there are fractal properties in the structure of the genetic code. They likened its operation to the search for a radio station on a scale. The location of the indicator on a given station can be compared to an orderly relationship in the code structure. The presence of the scale indicator between two stations is equivalent to the state of chaos, the state of tension in the functioning of the genetic program. It's the noise of order Schrödinger (1980). This amount of fractal properties is a condition of human movement. He is the creator of tension, the tension that makes life itself possible. The amount of chaos is ultimately the guarantor of individual freedom. The higher this amount, the freer the individual manifests himself. The problem is that raised by Martin Buber Buber (1923): the freedom through which the individual manifests can be a small freedom - a freedom of instinct and minor aspirations which is a personal freedom, and a great freedom - the freedom of it becoming, which is the freedom of human nature, for the benefit of the evolution of the human species. We will make a small speculation: One Real means a number N = 1 of informational links resulting from the interaction (in the sense of the number of relationships made) of n (n-1) systems. But n = [1+ (√4N + 1)] / 2 And we observe, making the calculation, that the number in which, by interaction, is constituted in the genesis of One Real, is 1.618033988749894! The golden number! But also, an irrational number! Thus, in the matrix of the real man, the irrational toils in complicity with the rational in becoming the individual! For 1 = 1.618 x 0.618. But 0.618 also means 1 / 1.618! It is therefore an inverse ration of the irrational and can be interpreted as rational. His rationality is exercised in addition to irrationality (complementarity is also present in Jung's thinking, when he speaks of the dominant function and the auxiliary function of the personality). As its irrationality can only be complementary to rationality. If its rationality is manifest, the irrationality is hidden. If irrationality is the explicit order for Man, then rationality is his implicit order. This is a manifestation of the quantum principle that the system must be measured not only by its manifest properties but also by its hidden potential. Rationality and irrationality cooperate or compete to serve the conscience of the individual. Consciousness which, according to the aims pursued, selects, accepts, or rejects the irrational from the rational or the rational from the irrational, multiplies it and preserves it or leaves it as unique and eliminates it.



There is a well-known evaluation model called the Johari Window. Contains four "windows". The first of these is called an open window. It refers to the social individual, it is his world consciousness through which what he communicates in society finds out, the other also knows. The individual makes a confession that has at least one witness in society. For example, to the question: Are you satisfied with the salary, if the individual answers YES, he has made a confession that has as witness the one who initiated the questionnaire and who can testify that YES is the answer, we both know now: “He knows and he, but I know too ''. The second is the hidden window. It is the window of self-consciousness, here the individual protects his Self, existence, individual destiny. He answered YES but is not satisfied with the salary. He thought NO. A fact that only the individual knows. Only he with his thoughts is in this window. The social witness knows only the answer YES. This window represents the space that Nicholas Nassim Talab calls, in the book The Black Swan, the Platonic fold. It is the space between thought and word, a space of uncertainty for the other, for society. The answer to YES is not certain, but always in question. It is the window through which the individual can manipulate the world, in a generic sense: "I know, you don't know." The third window is the blind window. In which the world, society, the other controls the individual. He knows what the individual does not know. It is the window that stimulates the paranoia of the individual: Why does he ask me if I am satisfied with the salary? The fourth window is called the unknown window. It is the window that suspends in a way the relationship between the individual and society. No one else knows the hidden potential of the individual, nor does the individual know it. It is the window that urges self-knowledge, self-exploration. Here is the hidden potential of the individual. It's his gold mine. Very often the individual finds in this space the ace up his sleeve, he finds the winning book in the relations with his fellows, with the society.



There are three major types of opening systems. Closed (technical) systems, open systems (biological with lower psyche) and open and far from equilibrium systems. The latter are systems endowed with consciousness (archaeo-systems) and target Man (and society). They are governed by different laws ... We will discuss the extremes: closed systems and open systems and far from equilibrium. For here comes the error of computational cognitivism ... And it is enough to present only a few features to understand. One of the errors is that the followers of computational cognitivism reduce the open system and far from equilibrium to a closed system, the two types of systems being really incompatible, referring to two different levels of organization of matter: inorganic (closed system), respectively organic, endowed with consciousness (open and far from equilibrium system). Also, while the closed system only exchanges (relatively) energy with the environment, the open and far from equilibrium system exchanges substances, energy, and information.



The closed system is only structural, the open system and far from equilibrium is structural-phenomenological. Computational cognitivism reduces the human mind to the inference engine of a computer, to a computer brain in the idea that such a brain will be created soon, the chip being a precursor. The computational processing of information is of type 1 or 0. When we process the result of an individual, for example, to a question in the questionnaire, if he gave the answer YES, we consider that this is the true answer Strogatz (1994). Let us now turn to open systems and far from equilibrium to the man with consciousness. Here we must bring the discussion of the thought-word relationship. Let's take the example from the previous paragraph. In an organizational motivation questionnaire, the question: Are you satisfied with your salary? the subject answers YES. The answer is marked with 1, and the officials in the organization know that subject X is part of the category of those satisfied with the salary. There is a space of uncertainty between Word and Thought, it is that Platonic fold that Nicholas Nassim Talab talks about in the famous book "The Black Swan". Nicholas (2019). That space where the unpredictable can be born at any time, that reaction that seems very unlikely to happen to those around you. This Platonic fold in the case of closed systems does not exist; interpreted in a closed system, the answer creates an identity between word and thought. It is a priori assumed that the subject said exactly what he thought. But the saying of the people: "one thinks and the other says," puts before us questions to which cognitive psychology has not found a somewhat acceptable solution. And this fact puts under the sign of uncertainty any result interpreted according to the rules and laws of computational cognitivism: is it correct or not? Because the subject can answer YES (I'm happy with my salary) but think NO (I'm not happy). He replied with YES knowing that this was the desirable answer. But the mood of the subject, his reaction, his attitude will be influenced by what he thought, not by what he said / wrote. If, for example, the unions organize a strike on wage claims, the subject will join the dissatisfied. And the officials will be surprised, wondering why X also went on strike, i.e., a subject who in the questionnaire said he was satisfied with the remuneration he has ... Of course, the followers of computational cognitivism are, at least some, aware of this limit, which it tries to overcome through various statistical methods, restriction rules, indicators, procedures, etc ... which are, however, artificial, and often only deepen the confusion. One such test is the test-retest. And the trap questions. The test-retest highlights another major limitation of computational cognitivism (and statistics): the absence from the equation of interpretation of Time                 

Table 1 Closed Systems-Open Systems

CLOSED SYSTEMS: Technical systems, car. They are the prerogative of the exact sciences

OPEN SYSTEMS AND AWAY OF BALANCE (archaeal systems, consciously equipped systems). They are governed by the humanities

ENTROPY is in point 1-according to the definition and formula of Shannon Shannon  (1948)

ENTROPY is in point 0.5 where good and evil, truth and falsehood are equiprobable. It was discovered, among others, by the Romanian Gh. Zapan Zapan  (1984)

ARISTOTLE LOGIC-the logic of rigid sets

FUZZY LOGIC-the logic of vague, borderless sets

EQUALITY: It is the principle with which it agrees politically

FREEDOM as a political principle

DECISION. He considers Man a rational tool of optimization. The decision is of type 1 or 0. There is no question of the Platonic fold, of the appearance of a difference between thought and word; the two are considered ab initio to be identical

DECISIONS ARE OF A EURISTIC TYPE and are influenced by our ever-changing internal states (qualia phenomena), given that memory and perception are constantly reorganizing. Our choices are dictated by our needs. The truth can be found anywhere between 0 and 1. The space between thought and word, word and deed is uncertain

HUMAN BEHAVIOR: C = f (P, M) –Kurt Lewin. Behavior is a function of Personality and Environment, Lewin  (1959)

HUMAN BEHAVIOR. C = N (q, T, M) –Sofronie, Zubcov. Behavior is a nonlinear function of the state of the psychic system (qualia phenomena), time parameters and environmental disturbances. Sofronie and Zubcov (2015)

THE MEASUREMENT is of the quantitative type. It is done by calculation, it is based on statistics. Quality is dissociated from quantity. Argumentative, linear, logical, sequential

THE MEASUREMENT is of quantitative-qualitative type, is made by shapes and is based on morphological theories: the theory of catastrophes, fractals, chaos THINKING Intuitive, systemic, jumping, visionary thinking

APPROACH from certainty to uncertainty. STOCHASTIC UNCERTAINTY

APPROACH from uncertainty to certainty. EPISTEMIC UNCERTAINTY

THE PURPOSE OF CLOSED SYSTEMS – to be an instrument for man

THE PURPOSE OF OPEN SYSTEMS AND AWAY OF BALANCE-conservation of life on earth and the progress of the human being









There is no Time in a closed system. In open systems and far from equilibrium Time is the organizing factor of the psychic universe of the individual. Neurology has shown that memory and perception are continually reorganized. In t2 the individual is no longer the same as he was in t1. So, a retest can't confirm a test .... In closed systems, statistics and probability theory based on classical statistics work very well. Binary logic works, third-party logic excluded: 1 or 0. In open systems and far from equilibrium, statistics are inoperative. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman himself, at the World Congress of Psychology in Beijing (2004), said in his opening remarks: In open and far from equilibrium systems, the laws of higher mathematics are contained in chaos theories: catastrophe theory, fractal theory, strange attractor theory, and quantum theory. And fuzzy logic. The logics of the included third are and 1 and 0. In closed systems the rule works: "The exception confirms the rule". The law of large numbers. In open systems and far from equilibrium, another rule works: "The exception puts the rule to the test." The law of small numbers. In the absence of time, in closed systems we speak of a linear dynamic. In open systems and far from equilibrium - about nonlinear dynamics in very special conditions, when we talk about Man. In closed systems the maximum entropy is reached in 1. In open systems and far from equilibrium in 0.5. Where the contradictions generated by the duality of the human being are equiprobable. For example, when Man said YES but thought NO, truth and falsehood are equally probable. It is a state of uncertainty, which computational cognitivism completely ignores. A very important topic of study for cognitivism — and there is this concern among the followers of connectionist (network-type) cognitivism — is precisely the Platonic fold. That space of uncertainty between thought and word ...





External reality, limiting ourselves only to the characteristics of social life, represents a space-time unit, accepting the premise of those physicists who consider time to be the fourth dimension of space. This means that We, manifesting ourselves within this spatio-temporal unit, are from the perspective of the possibility of being measured, in the situation described by Werner Heisenberg regarding quantum reality: uncertain. We can be measured in terms of the position we have "hic et Nunc" in space, but we can no longer be measured in terms of momentum, our speed in time. For this reason, evaluation systems and psychometric tests work in a worryingly inaccurate way. All these measurements fix the individual as a point in space, but they cannot measure future behaviour, thus being incapable of forecasting. This problem arises whenever an abominable crime or suicide is committed, and the perpetrators say in astonishment: "We don't know what happened, the psychological examination turned out very well." Some military psychologists, after being blamed for their inability to predict repeated suicide situations, have made a relatively simplistic statement, perhaps slightly naive, but very true. The "Apt" opinion, they said, is valid only for the subject's behaviour at the time of testing. After leaving the test room, the subject may be ... a different individual than the one described in the notice / report. But the sincerity of laboratory psychologists ridicules the pompous claims about the value and usefulness of tests, invoked by university departments. "The best tests in the world" - as they present them, are not, in fact, the best, but the best known. With any test, known or less known, you get about the same results. Heisenberg's principle is functional in any field and for any type of measurement. It is valid even if the measurements are ideal (so-called von Neumann measurements) or non-ideal (Landau measurements). And the conclusion is that in outer space-time Man is an unpredictable being, completely ambiguous and incomprehensible in statistics, formulas, and typologies.




Experts in the field of Digital IT claim that the fourth industrial revolution will bring, in the coming years, until 2025, "amazing developments in Artificial Intelligence, robotics and autonomous transport", which will radically transform the way we live and work. A report on the future of jobs, published in 2020 by the World Economic Forum, shows that in the next five years, more than 7.1 million jobs will be taken over by robots, the most affected countries being the USA, Japan, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Australia, and the United Kingdom. In addition, over 35% of the skills and competencies currently sought after among employees will change. It is possible that students entering the education system at this time will prepare for trades that will no longer exist and will acquire skills that will no longer be relevant until they complete their studies. Mankind has already gone through three revolutions in the last two hundred years (agricultural, industrial, information). What is different about this fourth revolution? The speed with which it happens. It is, in fact, the digital revolution, which is happening at a very fast pace, making us react at an accelerated pace to its effects. Artificial intelligence seems to be the key word for the last three years and we already have many elements around us that confirm that it is the priority trend in digital transformation: there are more and more powerful autonomous vehicles and drones, we have virtual assistants to communicate with voice commands (Siri, Cortana, Alexa) we have smart software that learns from various experiences through machine learning, we live in smart buildings and cities. All this development of artificial intelligence is a proof, in fact, of the development of natural intelligence, of human intelligence. But can AI help us to find out what is in the mind of Man?



A group of Scottish researchers in the field of IT, launched for the first time at the "Geneva Invention Show", the "Thinking Machine". In the "Salon" demonstration, a subject was connected by a system of electrodes to a computer, he was thinking about something, and on the computer screen, the thought translated into words was supposed to appear. A spectacular invention, a step towards the brain-computer interface of course, but without making any relevant progress in Man's desire to find out what and how the other Man thinks, but only suggesting the idea that one day it might happen and this. In fact, the "mind-reading machine" of Scottish researchers does not read the thought, but the process of forming a word, its basis of formation from the level of sound. The "Platonic fold" we have been discussing, that is, the space between thought and word, remains unresolved. An uncertain space that often throws in the embarrassing questionnaire as a means of measuring the answers of the individual, in which the subject answers with "Yes" and in fact thinks "No". This is the kind of cognitive dissonance that should be the object of research of cognitivism (and we do not refer only to psychology, but to all the sciences that are under the dome of cognitive sciences: mathematics, computer science, physics, biology, medicine, linguistics). It is the kind of dissonance in which contradictory statements (at the level of thought-word) occur simultaneously. The famous “clean dirty” oxymoron said by Pristanda in “A Lost Letter” written by the Romanian playwright I.L. Caragiale, is recorded at the level of assumed language; it can be the result of "dirty" thinking and "clean" thinking. To think of something that is dirty, but to say that it is clean. It is an AND-type cognitive dissonance. Today, in the age of the fallen man, the individual commits several times in the same day, oxymorons of the type And-And saying, in different contexts and situations, something that is opposite to his thought. For the time being, computational cognitivism deals only with cognitive dissonance Sau-Sau; refers to two contradictory statements in succession, asserted in two different time units ... It is, according to Leon Festinger, in a situation of cognitive dissonance that individual who said yesterday about something that is dirty, and today states that It's clean. A type of research that tends to be overwhelmed by the demands of real life. The real "Thought Machine" has not yet been discovered. He's still waiting for his inventor ...



In 1950, Alan Turing, a mathematician of genius and a pioneer in computer science, launched an idea that would become famous: a test to see if a machine could think or not. The test, based on a social program called the game of imitation, involves an interviewer talking to both a human and a computer, being physically separated from both and using only an electronic connection. He can ask anything, to try to distinguish the man from the machine, and if after a certain period he fails to say which is which, it can be said that the machine has passed the test. In 1971, a psychiatrist from Sandford created the computer Parry, designed to answer questions in the manner of a paranoid-fixing schizophrenic who believes that the mafia is on his trail. Colby designed a test for which Parry was interviewed alongside real patients with paranoia, and the results were evaluated by a panel. No member of the commission realized that Parry was not a real patient. Did Party pass the test? Not really. In order for the test to be truly a Turing one, the panel (in the role of the interviewer here) had to be warned that one of the patients was, in fact, a computer and that her task was to identify him. However, with more appropriate questions, Parry would have revealed himself. Turing believed that advances in programming up to the end of the twentieth century would give an interviewer a 70% chance of being correctly identified after only 5 minutes of interviewing. In fact, progress has been much slower. So far, no computer program has even come close to passing the Turing test. And even if he passes it ... it won't be proof that a car can think. The American philosopher John Searle imagined a mental experiment, imagining himself speaking English, who does not know a grain of Chinese, in a room crammed with Chinese inscriptions. He has several Chinese symbols on hand and a rulebook that explains in English how to combine the symbols to answer the inscribed questions. In time he becomes so good at this task that for those outside the room, he can no longer be distinguished from a native Chinese speaker. In other words, his answers will sound the same as those of a Chinese speaker, both inside and outside the room. However, he only manipulates symbols. He doesn't understand anything (functional illiteracy s.n.!). Giving answers that correspond to certain inputs, according to a set of rules (such as the rules in English, in Searle's book) is exactly what a computer does. Like the one who lives in a room with Chinese inscriptions, Searle suggests, a computer program, no matter how sophisticated, is not and cannot be more than a symbol manipulator. It is a fundamental syntactic intelligence — it follows rules for manipulating symbols — but it has no understanding of meaning or semantics. Just as the person in the room with Chinese inscriptions does not understand anything, there is no understanding in the computer either, in other words there is no mind. Passing the Turing test is, after all, a matter of giving appropriate answers to certain requests, so the mental experiment of the Chinese-inscribed camera invalidates the Turing test's claims to be decisive in the thinking of a car. And if the Turing test fails, so does the idea of ​​strong artificial intelligence. But these are not the only compromises. Two important approaches in the field of philosophy of mind are also compromised: behaviourism and functionalism. And as a consequence, having its roots in the two: computational cognitivism ...




Behavioural forecasting is the cornerstone for any specialist in economics, social sciences, humanities, life sciences… In the field of economics such a system has been created, with the aim of preventing situations of risk and major uncertainty in the market. The system is also based on the studies conducted by the Romanian Nicholaus Georgescu-Roengen established in the USA ("The Entropy Law and the Economic Process") but also on the work "Critical Point" by Malcolm Gladwell. In medicine, there is growing evidence that integrative medicine (based on quantum medicine) leads to a complete diagnosis with a preventive role and the ability to establish a causal treatment, tailored to each patient. The use in the diagnosis of both quantitative (analysis) and qualitative methods (magnetic resonance imaging-MRI / MRI) has greatly increased the potential of early warning diagnosis in case of serious conditions. This means an understanding in a complementary unit of the relationship between quality and quantity. Quality is a kind of quantity that shrinks inward, into the intimacy of the object. Quantity without quality generates chaos. The role of quality is to organize intimacy in such a way that the object does not lose its identity in quantitative chaos. We live in the social period of the fallen man. A world in which the individual, wasting time as an organizing dimension, has in fact lost his compass. The contemporary individual is a disoriented person. It is possible for a man considered perfectly normal to reach the threshold of madness for a moment - committing antisocial acts of exceptional gravity - and then return to the world of normalcy, as if nothing had happened. Such situations of nonlinear dynamics of normality are becoming more common. And they seem to have escaped real and effective scientific control.



A paradigm shift is needed: the transition from the principle "Man becomes what he is to the principal Man is what he becomes". Our research focuses on the creation of an Early Warning System for human behaviour: What is in the mind of man.



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