THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ON ORGANISATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY AT THE KING ABDULLAH II DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BUREAU (KADDB)

# THE IMPACT OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ON ORGANISATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY AT THE KING ABDULLAH II DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT BUREAU (KADDB)

Business Department, World Islamic Sciences University, Jordan
MIS Department, World Islamic Sciences University, Jordan

How to cite this article (APA): Alzawahrah, H, & Alkhaffaf, M (2021). The impact of strategic leadership on organisational ambidexterity at the king abdullah ii design and development bureau (kaddb). International Journal of Engineering Science Technologies, 5(3), 20. doi: 10.29121/IJOEST.v5.i3.2021.193

# Abstract

This study aimed at identifying the impact of strategic leadership dimensions, such as defining strategic direction, investing strategic capabilities, and implementing balanced organisational supervision, on the organisational ambidexterity dimension at the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau (KADDB).

The sample consisted of the directors at top and middle management at KADDB, totalling 92 directors. Further, a questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection through Google Forms for the convenience of data collection and edition. 86 valid questionnaires were retrieved before the analytical descriptive approach was used, and, following this, data analysation and hypotheses tests were carried out according to the descriptive statistic measures and statistical analysis program Smart PLS v. 3.

The results indicated high relative importance of the strategic leadership and organisational ambidexterity at KADDB, and, notably, a statistically significant impact of strategic leadership was approved on organisational ambidexterity at KADDB at the significant level (P ≤ 0.05). This significant impact was approved for all the dimensions of strategic leadership except for the dimension ‘promoting human capital’.

In light of the findings, the researchers recommended that KADDB should: improve organisational ambidexterity and its activities (exploration and exploitation) by organising special steering committees for this purpose within the business development department at KADDB; pay more attention to environmental scanning; balance the patterns of results-based monitoring and control; empower employees; and, finally, improve the current recruitment, promotion, and reward systems.

Keywords

Strategic Leadership, Organisational Ambidexterity, King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau (KADDB)

## INTRODUCTION

The world has witnessed many rapid changes over the course of the 21st century, and this has resulted in many rapid developments in the business environment. This has imposed great challenges on business organisations in all fields: as advances in Information and Communication Technology have led to the opening of markets and business organisations to the world, the international legislations issued by the World Trade Organisation (and relevant international organisations) have also contributed to an increase in competition in business markets. All these (amongst other reasons) have forced organisations to search for unconventional management methods to help them withstand in business markets and continue to provide added value to stakeholders.

Business organisations have recently increased their interest in enhancing their organisational ambidexterity by improving their strategic leadership practices due to its great role in improving its performance in the short- and long-term, thus improving organisations’ abilities to explore and exploit opportunities. Indeed, this is a major reason behind why so many organisations are able continue to operate successfully and achieve competitive advantage and precedence (Elfindah, 2020). Such exploration and exploitation activities have become an urgent necessity for organisations, especially in light of the momentum of competition in the business environment; this is because organisational ambidexterity contributes to improving the performance of organisations, as well as the fact that it also increases organisations’ efficiency and resilience and maintains their sustainability (Sun, Zhu, & Sun, 2018).

Moreover, strategic leadership is the best solution to overcome ambiguity, uncertainty, and complexity in the business environment by fusing leadership practices with strategic practices to form a solid knowledge union capable of implementing the vision and strategy of the organisation to achieve its goals (Najmaei, Quazi, & Behnia, 2017). Moreover, strategic leadership practices enhance the competitive advantage of business organisations and the sustainability of their business by uniting the efforts of individuals via the optimal utilisation of available resources to achieve the goals of the organisation. Furthermore, it also casts a great positive impact on the performance of employees and the ability of organisations to achieve their goals and innovate new products. This is done by inspiring and motivating workers, as well as giving them the necessary powers to participate effectively in decision-making (Pitelis & Wagner, 2019).

The KADDB was established in 1999 in Jordan, and is an experienced pioneering institution in the field of defence. It is considered to be at the forefront of institutions that entered the fields of artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, cryptography, and drones, in addition to three-dimensional printing and wireless jamming systems. Indeed, designing, development, testing, evaluation, and finding optimal solutions in defence fields are the core of the KADDB’s work (Farghal, 2019).

The defence and security industries are more complex and sensitive than other industries, and this is due to their use of the most recently available technologies, as well as its high requirements for accuracy, quality, and safety standards. Further to this, huge budgets are allocated to achieve precedence in owning defence systems, the military’s worldwide spending amounting to $1,917 billion in 2019, the Middle East’s and South Africa’s share being$170.5 billion (sipri.org). Separately, the state of political instability in the Middle East and South Africa (which led to the outbreak of some wars and conflicts that undermined internal security in some countries) forced all such countries to enhance their defence and security capabilities. Hence, the opportunity to improve, develop, and expand the activities of the KADDB in the region has become urgent, especially in light of the KADDB’s strengths and opportunities, represented by political stability in Jordan, strategic location, the balance of foreign policy with neighbouring countries (and internationally), strategic partnerships with developed countries in the field of defence industries, and the limited defence industries in the Arab region.

With all of the above in mind, this study aims to identify the impact of strategic leadership on organisational ambidexterity in the KADDB.

## LITERATURE REVIEW

Leadership is one of the most important activities that the administrations of organisations practice: effective leadership aids organisations in achieving a competitive advantage by uniting the efforts of individuals via the optimal use of the available resources to achieve the organisation’s goals (Pitelis et al., 2019), (Samba, Knippenberg, & Miller, 2018). In the same vein, the absence of good leadership often leads to the absence/weakness of the spirit of enthusiasm amongst workers to carry out their duties creatively and efficiently, additionally reducing their ability to respond to changes in the business environment (Al-Zahrani, 2018).

Today’s leaders face a rapidly changing and disruptive business environment—and, indeed, this makes change one of the most important problems that must be dealt with, no matter how efficiently. This is done by enhancing the participation of individuals in solving these problems in such a way that the leader’s direction is understood, faith is in him, and the necessary support is provided to achieve it. Indeed, in light of this, strategic leadership is one of the most important leadership models that have proven effective in improving the efficiency of organisations to cope with a highly turbulent and changing environment (Najm, Al-Nuaimi, A, & -A, 2012). Many researchers have been interested in leadership in general and strategic leadership in particular as one of the most important elements for the successful implementation of strategies, and such researchers have indicated the absence of strategic leadership as being one of the most important obstacles to implementing strategies effectively (MITCHELL, LYNCH, & CASIMIR, 2007), (Pearce & Robinson, 2007), (Hrebiniak, 2008). To this end, the strategy should be put into implementation via tactical plans that push the organisation towards the desired strategic direction (Beer & Eisenstat, 2000), (Kaplan & Norton, 2004), (Hrebiniak, 2008).

#### THE CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND ITS IMPORTANCE

The concept of strategic leadership is considered to be one of the relatively modern management concepts in administrative literature, as the origin of this concept goes back to military concepts, quickly moving to contemporary management concepts due to the rapid changes in the business environment (Wright, Kroll, & Parnell, 2018). There is a variation in the concept of strategic leadership whereby some link the concept of strategic leadership with the ability to clarify the strategic vision of the organisation (or part of it), as well as the ability to motivate others and push them to believe in and understand it. Further to this, it is also expressed as the ability to anticipate and maintain flexibility, as well as to enable others to make strategic change whenever circumstances require (Hill & Jones, 2016).

As a whole, strategic leadership practices are crucial for organisations, since they enhance the competitive advantage of business organisations and the sustainability of their business by uniting the efforts of individuals via the optimal utilisation of the available resources to achieve the goals of the organisation. Further to this, it additionally casts a great positive impact on the performance of employees and the ability of organisations to achieve their goals and innovate new products (Sibghatullah & Raza, 2020), (Pitelis et al., 2019). Additionally, it plays a big role in managing crises in organisations; that is, how to understand the strategic leader's perspective towards the environmental turmoil and ambiguity, as well as how to act rationally towards it (Obeidat & Thani, 2020), (Sayed & Theeb, 2019).

#### THE DIMENSIONS OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP

Researchers differ when it comes to determining the dimensions of strategic leadership according to their different intellectual orientations. Table 1 shows the strategic leadership dimensions used by a number of researchers.

In line with the current study, the most important strategic leadership dimensions were chosen as follows:

• Defining S trategic D irection - This is the scientific development of long-term plans to effectively manage opportunities and challenges in the (external) business environment in view of the strengths and weaknesses of the organisation (the internal environment). This is what is known as a SWOT analysis, and the activities of this dimension involve defining the vision, mission, and achievable goals, as well as developing strategies and policies for the organisation (Wheelen, Hunger, Hoffman, & Bamford, 2017). Determining the strategic direction involves developing a long-term future strategic vision for the organisation that contains an incentive for individuals to implement, thus allowing leaders to motivate and empower the work team to create efficient and effective organisational models so that everyone works as one team to develop organisational growth (Kitonga, 2017). The mission of the organisation is the reason for its existence—it shows what the organisation provides to society from the products and what is the added value from its existence—, and so the thorough formulation of the organisation’s mission clarifies the basic and distinct purpose of the organisation from other organisations. Indeed, (Sidhu, 2004) has shown that organisations whose mission explicitly describes target customers and the technology used grow larger than organisations whose mission does not make it clear.

• Promoting Human Capital - Human resources are one of the most important resources that an organisation relies on to respond to environmental changes in a creative manner—and the importance of human resources lies in their ability to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organisations, providing a competitive advantage as a result (Najm et al., 2012), (Obeidat, Abualoush, Irtaimeh, Khaddam, & Bataineh, 2018). This is what makes human resources the most important component of knowledge capital in the organisation: the existence of the organisation depends on its human resources—and by human capital, we mean all the capabilities, knowledge, skills, creativity, behaviour, commitment, wisdom, and experience of the work team, including the values, attitudes, and customs of the organisation’s workers (Abualoush, Masa'deh, Bataineh, & Alrowwad, 2018).

• Investing Strategic Capabilities - Resources are the assets and the building blocks of organisations, and the resources are divided into tangible resources, such as equipment, buildings, funds, and human resources, and intangible resources such as technology, culture, and the reputation of the organisation. Meanwhile, capacity refers to an organisation’s ability to utilise its resources, and consists of work procedures and routines that manage the process of interaction of different resources to transform inputs into outputs. Marketing capabilities, operations, human resource management, etc., are some of the types of capability, and, upon continuous modification, development, and reformulation of these capabilities, they become more responsive to environmental changes and become dynamic capabilities. When the organisation has multiple dynamic capabilities at all levels, it reaches what is called core or strategic ability/competence, or full ability. Notably, if the organisation’s strategic capabilities exceed the capabilities of its competitors, it has ‘distinctive competencies’, which have four characteristics, according to the VRIO model: value, scarcity, organisation, and difficulty of imitation (Wheelen et al., 2017).

• Enhancing Organisational Culture with Ethical Practices - An organisation’s culture consists of beliefs, expectations, and values ​​that employees learn, share, and pass on from generation to generation. This usually reflects the founder’s values ​​and mission, and, in turn, the organisational culture plays an important role in spreading a sense of the organisation’s identity among workers, as well as in generating commitment amongst workers for something more important than their personal interests. It also adds stability to the organisation as a social system, since the organisational culture constitutes a framework that workers use to understand the activities of the organisation. Indeed, it serves as a guide for acceptable behaviour in the organisation, and, in turn, it controls the behaviour of the employees—which is reflected in the performance of the organisation (Ravasi & M, 2016). The ethical practices of the leader are one of the biggest influences on the organisational culture and the performance of employees through his many qualities, such as humility, concern for the public interest, justice amongst workers, and responsibility and respect for everyone. Further to this, the leader should be a model in values ​​and provide meaning to workers with his personal characteristics (Pitelis et al., 2019).

• Implementing Balanced Organisational Supervision - The control system aims to ensure that the organisation achieves its planned goals by comparing actual performance with planned performance, providing feedback to leaders to evaluate results and take corrective actions as needed along the way. The control process is carried out by identifying the activities to be measured, setting performance standards, measuring the actual performance, and then comparing it with the approved standards before taking the necessary corrective actions in the event of a deviation in the actual performance. To this end, the appropriate corrective action is determined by answering some questions such as (according to (Wheelen et al., 2017): was deviation purely a coincidence? Were the actions executed incorrectly? Are the procedures appropriate to achieve the desired standards? Who is the best person to take corrective action? Indeed, strategic control is a major component of strategic leadership, especially in the implementation phase, and it involves the monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of strategy implementation (Norzailan, Yusof, & Othman, 2015).

### ORGANISATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY

‘Ambidexterity’ refers to the skill of using both hands in writing (Oxford Dictionary), and is a metaphor for the ability to do two different tasks that require contradictory skills at the same time. (Duncan, 1976) was the first to use the term ‘organisational ambidexterity’ to refer to the ability of organisations to design dual organisational structures, in turn facilitating the process of initiating the application of innovation stages. Furthermore, many researchers also emphasised that organisational ambidexterity has become an urgent necessity for organisations, especially in light of the momentum of competition in the business environment. In this way, organisational ambidexterity contributes to improving the performance of organisations, and, indeed, organisational ambidexterity increases the efficiency and flexibility of organisations and maintains their sustainability (Sun et al., 2018). Moreover, organisational ambidexterity is an indication of the ability of organisations to continue to operate successfully in light of rapid changes in technology and markets—and this is done by engaging in exploration and exploitation activities that enable the organisation to compete in technology and mature markets by controlling the activities of the organisation to ensure its efficiency (O’Reilly & Tushman, 2008).

The main challenge before practicing organisational ambidexterity is the coordination of any exploration and exploitation operations at the same time and place (Jansen, George, Den, Frans, & Volberda, 2010). Here, (Bodwell & Chermack, 2010) identified a number of characteristics that organisations must possess in order to be described as ambidextrous organisations: the skill of perception (the ability to identify opportunities), and possession of specific mechanisms to study the internal and external environment, as well to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Furthermore, (Preda, 2014) identified a number of conditions that must be met in organisations in order for them to be ambidextrous organisations: the consensus of senior management on the organisation’s strategy; realising the importance of organisational ambidexterity to achieve it; formulating a strategy in a manner that facilitates the investment of organisational skill activities; understanding workers at all levels, as well as reasons for exploitation and exploration activities; and the assurance of continuous cooperation between the various organisational units.

#### THE CONCEPT OF ORGANISATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE

Organisational dexterity refers to the striving to exploit existing resources and explore new possibilities at the same time, and is done via the reconciling of operations that focus on the organisation’s exploitation of its competitive position, with exploration that focuses on new opportunities in the future (Snehvrat, Kumar, Kumar, & Dutta, 2018). The researchers were unanimous when it came to their definition concerning organisational ambidexterity when it came to the organisations’ pursuits of simultaneous exploration and exploitation activities, as well as the ability to achieve a balance between them, instead of choosing one of the two activities, or the domination of one of them over the other. Indeed, organisational ambidexterity increases the profits of organisations and ensures that they remain in a good competitive position in the long term (Jansen et al., 2010).

Many researchers have pointed out the importance of organisational ambidexterity, as it plays a major role in the successful continuation of organisations’ work: it enhances the capabilities of organisations in creating new products and services on the one hand whilst continuing to make improvements to its current operations on the other. Furthermore, the interest in exploration and exploitation activities positively affects the growth of sales volumes, and organisational ambidexterity enables organisations to face challenges in the business environment. Indeed, in this vein, many studies have shown that this is closely related to the improvement organisation performance (Gibson & Birkinshaw, 2004). Organisational ambidexterity additionally increases the interest of workers and improves creativity, innovation, and innovative culture activities within business organisations (Al-Ammary, Al-Najjar, & J, 2020). Moreover, organisational ambidexterity plays a major role in organisations’ ability to deal with environmental disruption by increasing the efficiency of leaders in anticipating opportunities and threats, as well as when it comes to adopting dynamic methods in seizing opportunities, avoiding threats, and meeting new customer desires (Mohammad & Hijawi, 2019).

#### THE DIMENSIONS OF ORGANISATIONAL AMBIDEXTERITY

Many researchers have used the two dimensions of exploitation and exploration as dimensions of organisational ambidexterity, such as (Palm & Lilja, 2017) and (O’Reilly et al., 2008). The researchers used these same dimensions, as follows:

Exploitation - Exploitation is the acquisition of opportunities to directly create value in the form of a new good/service and a means of satisfying customers’ needs by analysing and understanding the need, thus creating higher value in the short term. Furthermore, exploitation enables an organisation to compete by understanding market requirements and establishing good customer relationships (Judge & Blocker, 2008). (Palm et al., 2017) are of the view that exploitation enables the organisation to develop its operations, in turn adding value to the work of the organisation and meeting customer requirements—and thus expanding existing products and services into existing markets. Exploitation processes focus heavily on efficiency, improvement, and services, thus contributing to the realisation of the organisation’s vision and business strategies (O'Reilly & Tushman, 2011). (Judge et al., 2008) identified a set of capabilities that an organisation must possess in order to be able to achieve the exploitation activity: the ability to serve clients in a timely and optimal manner; the provision of products that meet customer desires; maintaining the organisation’s brand; and protecting the intellectual assets that you own.

Exploration - Exploration is the ability to discover opportunities in a business environment, and is considered to be one of the most important activities that organisations should not neglect due to the fact that the impact of a discovered opportunity reflects positively on the organisation in many areas, the most important of which being the survival of the organisation in the business market. The term ‘exploration’ is associated with research, experimentation, employment, and resilience activities (Schreuders & Legesse, 2012). (Dhliwayo & Vuuren, 2007) defined exploration as ‘a vision that is concerned with introducing new goods and services to enable the organisation to outperform competitors while anticipating future needs and preparing for change’. Exploration operations include activities to search for opportunities resulting from changes in the business environment—which confirms the need for exploration activities to be flexible (O'Reilly et al., 2011). Furthermore, in order for organisations to achieve exploration, they must possess a set of skills: the ability to adapt to a dynamic work environment; to be able to explore opportunities in the business environment in which they work; to maintain distinguished relationships with stakeholders (especially clients) to stay informed about their future needs—an opportunity for any organisation (Danneels, 2003).

## RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

### HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT AND THE RESEARCH MODEL

As mentioned previously, some studies have examined the variables that the researchers used in this study with different dimensions depending on the nature of the studies and their objectives. Amongst these studies is (Baškarada, Watson, & Cromarty, 2016) (entitled ‘The Impact of Strategic Leadership on Organisational Ambidexterity in Australian Defence Industry Firms’), which concluded there to be an impact of strategic leadership on organisational ambidexterity in Australian defence industries companies. They additionally concluded that the type of strategic leader’ behaviour that enhances exploitation is exemplified by training, performance management, and knowledge management, whilst the type of behaviour that promotes exploration is commitment, visibility, risk tolerance, delegation of authority, and inclusiveness. Meanwhile, (Zaid & N, 2016) (entitled ‘The Impact of Strategic Leadership on Organisational Ambidexterity: A Field Study on Jordanian Chemical Industry Companies’) found there to be a statistically significant impact of strategic leadership on the organisational ambidexterity in the studied Jordanian chemical industries companies, the researcher in turn indicating the necessity of increasing managers’ interests in the skills of vision, focus, and implementation in order to achieve better performance and to ensure the continuation of successful work.

In order to achieve the objectives of the study and to answer its questions related to research on strategic leadership and its impact on organisational ambidexterity at KADDB, the study hypotheses were formulated as follows:

Ho1: There is no statistically significant impact at a significant level (P≥0.05) for strategic leadership in its dimensions (defining strategic direction, investing strategic capabilities, promoting human capital, enhancing organisational culture with ethical practices, and implementing balanced organisational supervision) on organisational ambidexterity with its dimensions (exploration; exploitation) at KADDB.

Source: (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2011)

### THE STUDY POPULATION AND SAMPLE

The comprehensive survey strategy was adopted due to the small size of the study population. All the members of the study population were notably chosen to answer the paragraphs of the study questionnaire. Such a strategy is appropriate in the event that the study population is small, or in situations whereby the garnering of special information is the goal (Neuman, 2000).

The study population is represented by all the directors of the executive and supervisory management in KADDB, of which there are 92 directors. These directors represent the decision-makers in the KADDB.

Only 86 questionnaires were answered (93.5%) due to the fact that a number of the study sample was occupied with working and travel conditions, as well as annual leave. Regardless, 93.5% is a statistically acceptable percentage: it exceeds the minimum size of the statistically acceptable study sample, which was calculated based on (Sekaran & Bougie, 2016) method, as follows:

Where n represents the statistically acceptable sample size, regardless of the size of the study; N represents the size of the study population; $\stackrel{-}{n}$ represents the statistically acceptable sample size (adjusted for the size of the study population n ̅); t represents the number of standard units and equals 1.96 for a 95% confidence level; d represents the limits of permissible error, equal to 5% for a 95% confidence level; and P represents 50% of the vocabulary possessing research characteristics.

## RESEARCH METHOD

The study tool was designed after reviewing a number of previous studies and research related to the subject of the current study—and, in order to sufficiently reflect the study’s hypotheses and objectives, the study questionnaire was divided into two parts: the demographic information of the study population (i.e., gender; position; educational qualifications; number of years of experience); and the study variables and their main dimensions, divided into two parts: the independent variable, represented by strategic leadership in its dimensions (defining strategic direction; investing strategic capabilities; promoting human capital; enhancing organisational culture with ethical practices; implementing balanced organisational supervision) and relying on some previous studies to prepare the paragraphs related to strategic leadership (Hitt et al., 2011), (Ireland et al., 2005), (Obeidat, 2019), (Mubarak & Yusoff, 2019), (Kitonga, 2017) and the dependent variable, represented by organisational ambidexterity with its dimensions (i.e., exploration and exploitation) and relying on some previous studies in order to prepare the paragraphs related to organisational ambidexterity (O’Reilly et al., 2008), (Severgnini, Vieira, & Galdamez, 2018), (Elfindah, 2020), (Palm et al., 2017). The study questionnaire consisted of 34 items, and was distributed amongst the study variables and their dimensions, as shown in Table 3. The questionnaire was notably distributed to all the items of the study sample electronically via the Google Forms application so that unanswered questions were not accepted, the respondent being reminded of the necessity to return to the question and answer it. Here, the researcher uses the five-point Likert Scale and assigns the scores 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 to the options strongly agree, agree, average, disagree, and strongly disagree respectively.

### VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

In order to ascertain the apparent validity of the study tool, the study tool was judged by presenting it to a group of referees from academic professors to express an opinion concerning the validity of the questionnaire to collect data related to the study variables, their clarity, coherence, cohesion, accuracy of translation, and any remarks they deem appropriate in terms of addition, deletion, or modification. Indeed, the paragraphs have been amended according to the remarks received from the distinguished arbitrators. Factor analysis was performed to ensure the approximate validity of the study tool and to determine the ability of the study tool and its various parts in measuring the relevant variables. Here, the value is acceptable and strong if the result of the testing of the path load values ​​for the vertebrae with its variables is greater than 0.60 (Hair, Jr, Hult, Ringle, & Sarstedt, 2017). The results of the factor analysis of the study tool can be seen in Figure 3 .

The Composite Reliability (CR) analysis test is one of the convergent validity tests of the study instrument, and is similar to the Cronbach Alpha test in measuring confidence for all study variables. Researchers (Fornell & Larcker, 1992) considered it to be better than the Cronbach Alpha Test due to its reliance on the values of the path analysis of the study paragraphs in measuring the consistency of the answers of the study sample individuals—in contrast to the Cronbach alpha test, which assumes constant path analysis values for all items of the study, deeming the value of CR as acceptable if it is greater than 0.70 (Hair et al., 2017). The Average Variance Extracted (AVE) test is also considered to be one of the tests of convergent validity of the study instrument, measuring all the variables in the study model. Here, the test value is deemed acceptable if it is greater than 0.50 (Hair et al., 2017). This means that the variables of the study model measure more than 50% of the variance in the paragraphs of the study tool. The results of aforementioned test can be seen in Table 3 .

This is an indication of the consistency between the paragraphs of the study tool and the credibility and reliability of the study tool for conducting statistical analysis.

### HYPOTHESES TESTING RESULTS

Correlation was tested and multiple linear regression analysed for the main hypothesis, which was as follows: ‘There is no statistically significant impact at a significant level (P≥0.05) for strategic leadership in its dimensions (defining strategic direction, investing strategic capabilities, promoting human capital, enhancing organisational culture with ethical practices, implementing balanced organisational supervision) on organisational ambidexterity with its dimensions (exploration, exploitation) at KADDB.’ Here, the significance level (α level) was 0.05 and the probability value (p) obtained from the statistic hypothesis test was the decision rule to reject the nihilistic hypothesis (Creswell, 2009). If the value p is less than or equal to the level α, the nihilistic hypothesis will be rejected and the alternative hypothesis will be accepted; however, if the value of p is greater than the level of α, the nihilistic hypothesis will be accepted and the alternative hypothesis will be rejected.

The results of the hypothesis test to measure the impact of strategic leadership practices in organisational ambidexterity, as shown in Table 4 .

We notice from Table 4 that the value of the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.884, thus indicating the existence of a relationship between the independent variables (dimensions of strategic leadership) and the dependent variable (organisational ambidexterity). Here, we additionally note that the value of the determination coefficient (R2) was(0.781, which indicates that the combined strategic leadership dimensions explain 78.1% of the variance in the ‘organisational skill’ dimension. We also note that the value of F was 52.409, with a significant level of Sig = 0.000. This indicates the significance of the relationship at (P ≤ 0.05).

We also note from the table that the value of B for the dimension ‘defining strategic direction’ was 0.176, as well as the fact that this t value reached 2.173, with a significant level of Sig = 0.030. This indicates that the effect of this dimension is significant at a level of significance (P ≤ 0.05), whilst B for the dimension ‘investing strategic capabilities’ was 0.016, this t value reaching 0.157 with a significant level of Sig = 0.767. This indicates that the effect of this dimension isn’t significant at a level of significance (P ≤ 0.05). Meanwhile, B for the dimension ‘promoting human capital’ was 0.158, this t value reaching 1.667, with a significant level of Sig = 0.017. This indicates that the effect of this dimension is significant at a level of significance (P ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, B for the dimension ‘enhancing organisational culture with ethical practices’ was 0.324, this t value reaching 3.304 with a significant level of Sig = 0.001. This indicates that the effect of this dimension is significant at a level of significance (P ≤ 0.05). Finally, B for the dimension ‘implementing balanced organisational supervision’ was 0.321, and this t value reached 2.658 with a significant level of Sig = 0.008. This indicates that the effect of this dimension is significant at a level of significance (P ≤ 0.05).

## CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

Based on the above information, we reject the main null hypothesis and accept the alternative main hypothesis as follows: There is statistically significant impact at a significant level (P≥0.05) for strategic leadership in its dimensions (defining strategic direction, investing strategic capabilities, promoting human capital, enhancing organisational culture with ethical practices, and implementing balanced organisational supervision) on organisational ambidexterity with its dimensions (exploration, exploitation) at KADDB.

This result indicates that the strategic leadership has a clear impact on improving the application of organisational ambidexterity at KADDB, also acting as (according to the researchers) evidence of KADDB’s awareness (to some extent) of the opportunities and threats in the business environment, as well as its skill in building strategic plans, following up on their implementation, and directing workers to believe in and support them, as well as their exploitation of its distinctive capabilities in achieving its goals. Here, the vital availability of strategic leadership features in the KADDB is indicated—which reflects positively on its application of organisational ambidexterity skills and enables KADDB to achieve competitive advantage and precedence.