International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2394-3629 PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CONCENTRATE BY OF IPOMEA BATATAS LEAVES IMPROVES LITTER SIZE AND SURVIVAL OF YOUNG RABBITS ORYCTOLAGUS CUNICULUS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3863 <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of use of Ipomea batatas leaves in the feeding of breeding rabbits. To this end, 28 rabbits does (3.2 kg to 3.5 kg), divided into 2 batches (100% concentrate and 50% concentrate supplemented with 50% Ipomea batatas leaves) have been used. The pregnancy rates were 100% identical. No difference (P&gt; 0.05) was noted between the average feed intake of pregnant rabbits before the farrowing. This parameter was higher in rabbits fed 50% concentrate supplemented with 50% Ipomea batatas leaves after births. The mean litter size of the batches fed the mixture feed was (7.66 rabbits / dam) higher (P &lt;0.05) than that of the 100% concentrate lot (6.85 rabbits / dam). At birth, the mean weight of the rabbits in the 100% concentrated lot (48.29g) was significantly higher (P &lt;0.05) than that of 50% concentrate supplemented with 50% Ipomea batatas leaves (47.74). The rabbits of the 50% concentrate lot supplemented with Ipomea batatas leaves had a survival rate (85.71%) higher than those of the 100% concentrate batch (74.50) at weaning.</p> Kraidy Athanase OTCHOUMOU Légbé Marie Flavienne Raïssa WOGNIN Konan Franck YAO Sébastien NIAMKÉ Copyright (c) 2020 Kraidy Athanase OTCHOUMOU, Légbé Marie Flavienne Raïssa WOGNIN, Konan Franck YAO, Sébastien NIAMKÉ https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-18 2020-11-18 8 11 1 6 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2089 DOES ENHANCED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION DISTURB HONEYBEES’ BEHAVIOUR? OBSERVATIONS DURING NEW YEAR’S EVE 2019 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3868 <p>Insects, and especially honeybees, are under major threat everywhere around the globe. Current studies lack in the consideration of potential effects which may directly affect other organisms or ecosystems, because of the very limited attention which is usually received by the potential adverse ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Here, it is hypothesized that planetary enhancement of electromagnetic radiation produces a disturbing pollution for honeybees. In order to test this hypothesis, a bi-directional wide frequency range microphone was placed during the New Year’s Eve night 2019 in a honeybee hive, in order to detect and analyze potential changes in the acoustic behaviour of the bees due to increased phone induced RF- EM radiation. It was observed that the honeybees produced strong worker piping signals. Such signals are typically produced shortly before takeoff of a swarm, or as the sign of a disturbed colony. It is therefore hypothesized that planetary enhancement of electromagnetic radiation produces a disturbing pollution for honeybees, such as during the New Year’s Eve night. Evidence of proof of such electromagnetic waves taking place at New Year's Eve should be investigated worldwide during forthcoming similar events based on a global network of long term EM measurements.</p> Daniel Favre Olle Johansson Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Favre https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-19 2020-11-19 8 11 7 14 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2151 TWO STAGE ON OFF KEYING CLASS A RF POWER AMPLIFIER IN 0.18μm CMOS TECHNOLOGY https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3851 <p>A novel architecture for the On Off Keying (OOK) modulator with high gain and high data rate power amplifier (PA) operating at 11.6 GHz IBM 0.18-µm RF CMOS technology is presented for a X-band passive RFID tag. Currently used low frequency switching techniques such as multiplexers were not functioning in the high frequency X-band architectures. In this novel approach OOK modulator with power amplifier, a CMOS switch was used to transmit ‘1’ and ‘0’ coming from the digital signal unlike in the existing low frequency architectures. Both the load and driver in this proposed PA were class A operation supplied by a single ended 1.83V source. The important design considerations include output power, 1 dB compression point and linearity. The fabricated results of the amplifier have a 1 dB compression point of 1.2 dBm and input power of 5.19 dBm at 9.2 GHz.</p> P.M. Senadeera Zhijian Xie Numan S. Dogan Copyright (c) 2020 P.M. Senadeera, Zhijian Xie, Numan S. Dogan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 8 11 15 21 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2067 A SIX PLATE MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESIDUES IN FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3852 <p>Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in livestock and aquatic products is a current public health concern. The monitoring of food commodities for antimicrobial residues will ensure the consumer safety and promote trade. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a screening test to detect antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin. A bioassay consists of six plates was established, which enables screening of six groups of antimicrobials, namely; penicillins, sulphonamides, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracyclines and fluroquinolones. The Six Plate Test (SPT) is a bioassay technique, which is carried out using Bacillus subtilis BGA (Merck), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 11303) as indicator organisms. The Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) was used as the test medium at optimum pH for all indicator organisms except B.cereus, for which the Media No.8 was used. The Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDC) of SPT were determined using serial dilutions of antibiotics. All the MDC values obtained on SPT for the validated antimicrobials were below the recommended MRL of each antimicrobial. SPT can be developed to a quick, easy to perform, robust and low cost screening test to detect antimicrobial residues in food of animal origin.</p> Madhavi H. Hathurusinghe Ruwan C. Gunasena Preeni Abeynayake Copyright (c) 2020 Madhavi H. Hathurusinghe, Ruwan C. Gunasena, Preeni Abeynayake https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 8 11 22 28 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2069 IMPACT OF CURRENTLY ADOPTED NUTRITIONAL TRENDS ON SUDANESE HEALTH https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B09_3761 <p>Food items reflect the culture and tradition of any nation and respond to national and global demographic, social and economic changes.</p> <p>Sudanese as old African nation has rich and distinct nutritional heritage represent the traditional Sudanese diets which able to serve the nutritional requirement of linear growth of body and the brain for centuries.</p> <p>The present century has witnessed unprecedented globalization in term of mobilization of individuals and commodities with dramatic cultural changes. As direct result of such events, as elsewhere, western style of energy dense refined food items replaced the centuries’ long traditional nutrients and fibers dense diets.</p> <p>The aim of this article is to evaluate effects of shifting from traditional diets to the modern adopted food items on Sudanese health, as there are increasing discrepancy of neonatal physical parameters and rising incidence of obesity and non-communicable diseases.</p> <p>The study concluded that increasing urbanization and shifting from the traditional diets has grave consequences on human health in Sudan, with increasing incidence of low birth weight, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension as detail in the main text of this article.</p> Haghamad Allzain Mohamed Bulla Copyright (c) 2020 Haghamad Allzain Mohamed Bulla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 8 11 29 34 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1545 NAGA IDENTITY POETICS IN CONTEMPORARY NAGA ENGLISH LITERATURE (A KALEIDOSCOPIC VIEW) https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3856 <p>The Nagas originally a Sino-Mongoloid tribe are substantiated to have originated around 10th century B.C. in the plains between Huang Ho and Yangtze Ho in North Central China. As migration is a process which is reported to have been going on since time immemorial, the Nagas too could not have isolated themselves from being a part of the mass odyssey from their homeland with the anticipation of exploring and settling in naturally upgraded habitats. Hence today, the Nagas have been found to inhabit the banks of Chindwin and Irawaddy Rivers in Myanmar, and Nagaland in India. As far as their language is concerned, it is said to be an affiliate of the greater branch of Sino-Tibetan besides sharing certain similarities with Tibeto-Burman languages. As for the etymology of the word Naga is concerned, it is said to have been derived from either of the Sanskrit word namely Nagna or Nag with respective meanings ‘naked’ or ‘mountain. Frankly speaking both the etymons in question validate the universally recognized conception of Naga identity. Nagaland itself is dotted with multiple number of hills and a faction of people among all the Naga Tribes are said to have been still embracing primitivism. But what is most conspicuous about the Nagas is that though today we know Nagaland as a self-Governing state, the fact can never be contradicted that Nagas have never considered themselves part of India despite the state being taken over by India in 1952. Right from their partially being colonized by the British in the middle of the 19th century, to their strict resistance to both the British-Indian Government and then to the post-Independence Indian Government, the Nagas have shown that their assimilation to Indian mainstream is a daunting and cumbersome exercise. The origin of the Naga National Council, preceded by the armed resistance movement of Rani Gyindulu and that of the genesis of National Socialist Council of Nagaland simply bespeak that this prospect of wholesale assimilation into Indian Sense of Nationality will await the elapse of an elongated stretch of historical time. This very aspect has been enjoying international attention and the literary activists of Nagaland such as Dr Temsula Ao and Dr Easterine Kire have contributed a lot through their literary output in harnessing this aspect, throwing new critical insights into the same. This avouched denial cum resistance to be assimilated into the greater Indian National Fabric is one of the many facets of Naga Identity which also encompasses other cultural traits such as patriarchal ideology, Naga Heraka Practices, Animism, Mythogenesis and Head-Hunting Practices.</p> <p><strong>Objective of this write-up: </strong>This write-up endeavours its best to foreground the very traits of Naga Identity Poetics by taking into consideration selective but relevant literary fabrications, the brainchilds of one of the two internationally recognized Naga Writers, Dr Easterine Kire with the other being Dr Temsula Ao.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This write-up is built upon the selective reading of the summary of the novels and poems of both the writers with selective perusal of secondary anecdotage in the form of critical essays, the Naga History of Independence and Naga Anthropology.</p> Sankar Biswas Copyright (c) 2020 Sankar Biswas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-22 2020-11-22 8 11 35 40 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2076 EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF 'HINGLISH' LANGUAGE WITHIN THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3878 <p>Hindi is the official language of India which is spoken by around 350 million of people in India. Hindi and English have an incestuous relationship ever since India became colonized. Since then, Hindi began to mix with English and became famous as ‘Hinglish’ in Indian society. ‘British-Raj’ is considered as the first Hinglish word which was used in the colonial period and now Hinglish has become a common phenomenon practice in India in day-to-day life. Due to the popularity of Hindi movies and television, Hinglish has been spread beyond the metropolitan areas in India. Therefore, it is expected to examine the impact of using Hinglish by Hindi speaking people in India on the existence of standard Hindi language. The language spoken in North India and the language used in media were utilized as primary resource. Books, magazines, journal articles related to Hindi language were used as secondary resources. This paper highlights that Hinglish has been acquired a big demand in Indian society and now it is hard to eliminate this trend which has largely affected the day-to-day communication of Indians. This paper emphasizes that the extensive use of Hinglish by the Hindi speaking people in India has become a huge challenge for the existence and the values of standard the Hindi language.</p> A. N. Salwathura Copyright (c) 2020 A. N. Salwathura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 8 11 41 48 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2278 COVID-19 ON BEHÇET’S DISEASE PATIENT : SHED LIGHT ON SHADOWS (CASE REPORT) https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B09_3758 <p>A new family type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was first seen in Wuhan, China name coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 primarily attacks the respiratory system, but several studies have shown that infection with SARS-COV-2 can cause thrombosis and have therefore considered COVID-19 to be a prothrombotic disease.</p> <p>Behçet's disease (MB) is a systemic vasculitis. Its ethiopathogeny is still poorly understood. Blood vessels of any caliber can be affected. Arterial involvement, such as thrombosis and / or aneurysm, is possible.</p> <p>This article reports the case of SARS-COV-2 infection in a patient with behcet's disease.</p> Hanane Ezzouine Mehdi simou Aymane El louadghiri Mounir Louardi Imane Khaoury Akram Mansour Med Amine Abidi Boubaker Charra Copyright (c) 2020 Hanane Ezzouine, Mehdi simou, Aymane El louadghiri, Mounir Louardi, Imane Khaoury, Akram Mansour, Med Amine Abidi, Boubaker Charra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 8 11 49 52 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1539 THE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ETHIOPIA: HULET EJU ENESIE WOREDA https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3787 <p>This study was examined secondary school teachers’ instructional practices by using First Principle of Instruction model as guiding principle. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. The total populations of the study were 52. From these 40 Biology teachers, 4 directors, 4 supervisors and 4 department heads were selected through comprehensive sampling technique. Data were obtained through questionnaire, interview, classroom observation and document analysis. Various statistical tools such as mean, frequency and percentage were applied to analyze the data. The finding indicated that secondary school Biology teachers design their lessons by using First Principle of Instruction Model and they practiced it partially. And biology teacher’s instructional practices are aligned partially with First Principle of Instructional Model. Some factors that affect the design and implementation of the lessons based on the First Principle of Instruction model were identified: teachers’ related problems, students related problems, time constraints, policy issues, and resources. Based on the finding, it is recommended that woreda education office and general secondary schools should have to prepare short- and long-term training, seminars and workshop for teachers. Secondary school directors and supervisors should help teachers to have personal, professional knowledge and pedagogical skill. They should also support them by creating good educational environment.</p> BIZU KINFE ZEKIROS Copyright (c) 2020 BIZU KINFE ZEKIROS https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 8 11 53 62 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1682 DISTRIBUTION DEPENDENT CORRELATIONS: A MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLE UTILIZED IN PHYSIOLOGY, OR CORRELATION BIAS? https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B09_3748 <p>In many studies, we may raise the question of whether relative amounts of particular variables are positively or negatively associated, but investigations specifically focusing upon this issue seem hard to find.&nbsp; Previously, we reported some general rules for associations between relative amounts of positive scale variables. The main research question of the present work was: How are correlations between percentages of the same sum brought about? One particular feature of such correlations seemed to be that distributions (ranges) of the variables were crucial for obtaining either positive or negative correlations, and for their strength, suggesting the name Distribution Dependent Correlations (DDC). Certainly, such correlations might cause bias. However, previous findings raise the question of whether DDC might have a physiological relevance as well.&nbsp; In the current work, we extend and systematize theoretical considerations, and show results of computer experiments to test the hypotheses. Finally, we briefly mention a couple of examples from physiology. The results seem to support the idea that true, within-person distributions of the variables are crucial for obtaining positive or negative correlations between their relative amounts, raising the question of whether evolution might utilize DDC to regulate metabolism.</p> Arne Torbjørn Høstmark Copyright (c) 2020 Arne Torbjørn Høstmark https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-27 2020-11-27 8 11 63 75 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1470 REVIEW OF SOME FINANCIAL RATIOS AND THE EFFECT ON CHANGES IN INCOME IN REGISTERED FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANIES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3823 <p>This study aims to determine the effect of financial ratios such as current ratios, debt to assets ratio, gross profit margin on changes in earnings in food and beverage companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange.</p> <p>The population of this research is food and beverage companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sampling technique was using purposive sampling method. Based on purposive sampling from 40 companies, it was obtained a sample of 19 companies that met the criteria.</p> <p>The research data is secondary data obtained from the Indonesian Stock Exchange (www. Idx.co.id) and ICMD 2016-2017. Testing the research hypothesis used multiple linear regression analysis techniques (Multiple Regression Model), with the application tool SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions).</p> <p>The results of this study indicate that there is no significant effect between Current Ratio, Debt to Assets Ratio and Gross Profit Margin on partial changes in earnings, so it can be concluded that the first hypothesis is rejected. Likewise, the simultaneous test of Current Ratio, Debt to Assets Ratio, Gross Profit Margin simultaneously or together is unable to explain changes in the dependent variable, namely changes in earnings.</p> Syamsul Bahri Surbakti Windy Aginta Aria Masdiana Copyright (c) 2020 Syamsul Bahri Surbakti, Windy Aginta, Aria Masdiana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 8 11 76 88 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1897 OUTCOME BASED LEARNING: AN ANALYSIS OF IMPACT ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3872 <p>The present century belongs to Science and Technology. Scientific knowledge is valued across the globe and great emphasis is on scientific attitude towards all fields of life. The purpose of education of Science school is to lead the nation to collaborate and compete with rest of the world.&nbsp; The students face difficulty in studying Chemistry due to its abstract nature of concepts. To address this issue, students are taught solid state Chemistry by using computer-based models of unit cells and the crystal lattices. The present study is experimental in nature. Total 60 students participate in the study.&nbsp; Samples are distributed in two groups (study group and control group). Data is collected by using question paper. The Chemistry of solid state is taught to the experimental group by using model based on computer and control group is taught by using traditional chalk and board methodology. The instrument is validated by its content and is consulted by an expert. The instrument reliability of is analyzed by applying t-test. Result of the research reveals that the computer-based model on crystal lattices and unit cell is more effective than conventional model in learning and the academic achievement of the students in Chemistry. The t-test proves that the t-value 0.691 is substantial with p (p&lt;0.05). Based on the findings of the present study the computer-based model of unit cell and crystal lattice is an effective teaching tool for learning and to improve the academic achievement in Chemistry.</p> Prashant Thote Gowri S Copyright (c) 2020 Prashant Thote, Gowri S https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 8 11 89 94 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2222 MOBILE PHONE BRAND EQUITY AND PURCHASE INTENTION: THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF BRAND PREFERENCE https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3873 <p>The mobile phone industry is one of the major technological-based area that the fastest growing industry in the overall world. The purpose of the research report was to find out how the brand preference effect as a mediating variable between brand equity and purchase intention. According to the study, the researcher investigated the level, relationship, and impact of those variables.</p> <p>The study mainly considering the primary data and secondary data. Structured questionnaire was used as the method of data collection and there are 31 research questions. Among them five questions are consist with personal information of the respondent and other twenty-six questions are research information. The five likerts point scale was used which ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. It has been conducted a pilot test to test the reliability of the questionnaire and all the questions are reliable. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS computer package having the univariate and bivariate analysis. A sample of 204 respondents was selected for the study from mobile phone users in Trincomalee district Town and Gravets area. Convenience sample method used to make the sampling frame of the study and also quantitative research approach used for this study.</p> <p>The finding of the study reveals that the brand equity, brand preference and purchase intention were in high level among mobile phone users in Trincomalee district Town and Gravets area. There were high positive relationship among brand equity, brand preference and purchase intention in mobile phone users in Trincomalee district Town and Gravets area. The final objective showed that the positive impact of brand equity on purchase intention, positive impact of brand equity on brand preference and purchase intention, positive impact of brand preference on purchase intention and brand equity and brand preference positively impact on purchase intention. The mediating analysis reveals partial mediation by brand preference the relationship between brand equity and purchase intention.</p> F. B. Kennedy Sewanthy Copyright (c) 2020 Sewanthy, F. B. Kennedy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 8 11 95 99 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2272 GANDHIAN IDEAS OF GRASSROOT DEVELOPMENT AND INDIAN DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN 21ST CENTURY (SPECIAL REFERENCE OF PANCHAYAT RAJ INSTITUTIONS) https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3843 <p>In the recent times, 'Good Governance' is associated with efficient and effective of administration in a democratic framework and responsiveness of the state and its institutions. The main key elements of 'Good Governance' refer that respect for human rights, equity, rule of law, transparency in public procedure, strong democracy and capacity in public administration.The ideal democracy depends upon the equality of all the purely public opinions. In the same way Gandhian ideas of Panchayat Raj system is a broad concept in independent india and it is a transparency of government in public administration as a part of good governance. It was a concept of diffused grass-roots democracy and process of democratic decentralization. It's a large number of rural people who are directly involved in the field of democratic participation. From ancient times the village has always been regarded as the primary unit in the governance of India. Important govt. policies are implemented through panchayats. The Gram Sabha&nbsp; plays an important role in the whole Panchayat Raj institution in India's democratic system. This is a purely qualitative study. So, Present study is going to focus on the Gandhian point of view Panchayat Raj. This is necessary to development in India 21st century and this conception go ahead powerful in the Nation.</p> SUDIP MANDAL Copyright (c) 2020 SUDIP MANDAL https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 8 11 100 105 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1990 GLYCOGEN AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION ATRIAL MYOCYTES CONTRACTILITY AS MECHANICAL FACTOR SHIFTING INTRACELLULAR GLYCOGEN AGAINST INTERCALATED DISCS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3855 <p>The purpose of this communication is to introduce in the medical literature an additional factor until now hypothesized action of atrial cells depolarization as factor in intracellular flow of glycogen molecules coalescing against the gap junctions. The demonstrated effect of gap junction blockers on paired cells contractility combined with gap junction’s selectivity towards glycogen molecules; and the visualization of contrasting intracellular glycogen images during atrial fibrillation are shown. Published data supporting atrial myocytes contraction as a mechanism in intracellular glycogen molecules migration and its deleterious effects leading into atrial fibrillation (AF) is proposed.</p> Abraham A. Embi Copyright (c) 2020 Abraham A. Embi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 8 11 106 111 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2075 AVIFAUNAL COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS MICROHABITATS OF SOUTHERN NAGAUR (PARBATSAR, KUCHAMAN, NAWA AND MAKRANA), RAJASTHAN https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3884 <p>Present study comprises a comprehensive dataset about the Avifaunal diversity of one of the climatic transition zone i.e., Southern Nagur, Rajasthan. The Study was conducted under the classified six different microhabitats i.e., Agricultural Field Plains, Sambhar Lake and Other Waterbodies, Aravalli Hill Patches, Urban Settlements, Scrub Thorn Forest and Open Grasslands &amp; Wastelands. The key aspect of present study is to provide well structured and extensive information on the avian diversity, their distribution and their habitat association at the study area. A total of 191 Avifaunal species belonging to 21 Orders and 61 Families were recorded from study area. A total of 7 Feeding Guilds were observed in the study area viz., Carnivores, Frugivores, Granivores, Herbivores, Insectivores, Nectivores and Omnivored. The Migratory status and IUCN status of the observed species was also assessed. Jaccard and Sorenson index’s was highest for the Agricultural and Grassland Microhabitats.</p> Vivek Sharma Rounak Choudhary Praveen Mathur Copyright (c) 2020 Vivek Sharma, Rounak Choudhary, Praveen Mathur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 8 11 112 128 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2318 IMPACT OF COVID-19 IN EDUCATION DOMAIN: AN ANALYSIS IN TWIN CITY OF ODISHA, INDIA https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3891 <p>The COVID era is responsible for generating repercussions across the globe. These are responsible for generating tectonic shift in several domains. The educational sector is one of them. With forced lockdowns, stay at home and be safe being the norm, educational sector is witnessing the advent of online medium of instructions of teaching. This paper is an attempt to seek answer to the question. An extant review of literature resulted in the following research questions (a) In the context of education what is means to be sustainable? and (b) What means and mechanisms are needed to remain sustainable? The sample techniques are purposive and the sample size is 314 though the authors have targeted the sample size of 500. The data analysis was done by applying descriptive statistics and exploratory data analysis. The research implications of the study is the realisation of the fact that COVID is here to stay and that new variables are identified which form the new areas of research. The future recommendation arising out of the study is the fact findings can be customized to suit the applicability to the specific educational institution. A large sample size would have provided more insight into the behaviour of the variables and their interactions. The conclusion of the study stems from the fact COVID has generated the need for focussing the sustainability. The sustainability inn itself is different for different components of educational eco-system and that different means and mechanisms are adopted to ensure that sustainability is maintained.</p> Sukanta Kumar Baral Copyright (c) 2020 Sukanta Kumar Baral https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 8 11 129 136 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2365 NEW APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF ARYLOXY 1,3-OXAZINES https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3890 <p>Oxazine compounds have drew the attention&nbsp; of many researchers to find different approaches to the synthesis of this type of compounds&nbsp; according to the success of their use in a wide range of pharmaceutical application during the last decades&nbsp; .It is&nbsp; also for the difference&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; reactivity of these analogues is exhaustively depicted and illustrates the rich versatility of this class of starting material. They proved to have&nbsp; most of actions of a combination of other drugs. We are herein investigate the synthesis of ethyl aryloxy acetate(S1-6)&nbsp; from the reaction of the corresponding ethyl bromo acetate with aryl phenols .These intermediates were cyclized with antharanilic acid affording the titled compounds</p> Ghufran T. Sadeek Mohammad S.Al-jely Neim H. Saleem Copyright (c) 2020 Ghufran T. Sadeek, Mohammad S.Al-jely, Neim H. Saleem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-03 2020-12-03 8 11 137 144 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2364 STRUGGLE IN FORMAL EDUCATION BY DOMESTIC-WORKER STUDENTS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3893 <p>The various concept in education such as “Education for All (EFA)”, “Equity in Education”, “Inclusive Education” are the burning issues as well as implementation complexities in today’s education system in developing countries. Stepping on these issues, this article focuses on seeking equity in education in the Nepalese community schools. Education for all is an ongoing process in globally. Under the national and international education framework, Nepal is on the process of implementation of the School Sector Development Program (SSDP). But, equity in education is still far behind for some groups of students. Here, this study intends to focus on, one of the similar groups of students, who are living as domestic-worker and continuing their study at the school level. This study tries to throw light on the learning-struggle of a particular group of students in Nepali community schools. The study is based on the experiences of 7 domestic-worker students (DWS) and 3 teachers teaching them. The DWS faced numerous labor exploitation problems in the workplace and school premises.&nbsp;</p> Boj Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2020 Boj Bahadur Budhathoki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-03 2020-12-03 8 11 145 152 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2377 THE SUCCESS OF ETHNICALLY BASED POLITICAL PARTIES: CASE OF SRI LANKA https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B10_3832 <p>Ethnic identities or policy interests; what influences the Sri Lankan voter the most? This analysis will be done providing particular attention to the case of Sri Lanka. The development in electoral outcomes in Sri Lanka provides an explicitly clear image of how, particular political parties obtain support from particular ethnic groups and in return serve the interest of particular groups. This study will be based on the results of the 1989 Parliamentary General Election and 2010 Parliamentary General Election samples, mainly in the North and East constituencies.</p> <p>The Sri Lankan ethnic conflict offers an overview of the role of political parties and political actors in the competitive electoral system in relation to a conflicting situation. Therefore, this paper will examine as to how, such parties obtain support from particular ethnic groups and thereby safeguard the interest of those groups. Furthermore, this paper will seek to analyze how the, obtaining of moderate support from another ethnic group provides the best outcome but it is insufficient to divert from the interest of the group who provides the greatest support. Hence, this paper attempts at deciphering the main factor as to why it is harder for an ethnic party once established to become multi-ethnic.</p> Nirmali Wijegoonawardana Copyright (c) 2020 Nirmali Wijegoonawardana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-03 2020-12-03 8 11 153 163 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.1932 STUDY OF THE INHIBITION POTENTIAL OF REMDESIVIR DERIVATIVES ON MPRO OF SARS-COV-2 https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3887 <p>The emergence of the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is known to trigger some common diseases in humans such as pneumonia and diarrhea, the search for appropriate therapy combat COVID-19 has been intense and exhaustive.</p> <p><strong>Motivation/Background:</strong> Thus, based on the rational study of drugs, a survey of potential ligands that can inhibit the vital protein in virus replication, the main protease (Mpro), has been carried out worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>In this battle, the antiviral Remdesivir, which was created to fight the Ebola virus, proved, through the molecular anchorage, to be quite effective against its target because it presented affinity energy far superior to its co-crystallized ligand.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In this work, a study was carried out with Remdesivir and its derivatives, obtained in a zinc database15, to present a possible alternative, based on its structure-affinity, as potential Inhibitors of SARS-COV-2 MPro, with affinity energy ranging from -6.3 to -8.2 kcal/mol.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was found that both remdesivir and its diastereoisomeric derivatives have an affinity with the main protease (Mpro), responsible for viral replication, with inhibition capacity and possible alternative in its treatment.</p> Aluísio Marques da Fonseca Antonio Luthierre Gama Cavalcante Rubson Mateus Matos Carvalho Jeferson Falcão do Amaral Regilany Paulo Colares Emmanuel Silva Marinho Moises Maia Neto Copyright (c) 2020 Aluísio Marques da Fonseca, Antonio Luthierre Gama Cavalcante, Rubson Mateus Matos Carvalho, Jeferson Falcão do Amaral, Regilany Paulo Colares, Emmanuel Silva Marinho, Moises Maia Neto https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-03 2020-12-03 8 11 164 174 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2342 GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AQUIFER SYSTEMS USING VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SOUNDING METHOD IN DEMSA, NORTHEAST NIGERIA https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3895 <p>Electrical resistivity method using vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique and Schlumberger array was employed with the aim of delineating limits and types of aquifer system(s), and stratigraphic composition of the Demsa area, a confluence of Benue River in Northeast Nigeria. The result revealed that the hydrogeology of the area may be controlled by fractures (secondary porosity) developed in sedimentary units. Two aquifers, namely the upper alluvial aquifer and the confined deeper aquifer systems exist in the study area. The two aquifers occur at depths of 20.5 – 41 m, and 43.8 – 78.9 m respectively, and are separated by a thin layer of poorly permeable clays and silts, ranged between 1.1 – 5.3 m in thickness. The lateral extent of the aquifer systems extend almost evenly across the area. The aquifers’ thickness tends to decrease with increase in distance of VES station from the Benue River which suggested that the aquifer systems are probably recharged by direct escapement of the Benue River.</p> <p><br><br></p> Saleh Mustapha Babagana Satendra Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Saleh Mustapha Babagana, Satendra Sharma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 8 11 175 184 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2379 HEALTHY LIFESTYLE: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3897 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to identify the social representations of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients on the effect of an educational intervention to guide the adoption of healthy habits.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This was a qualitive study, where semi-structured intervies.&nbsp; Semi-structured interviews were applied after an educational intervention and were analized using the Collective Subject Discourse technique, based on the Theory of Social Representations.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>21 patients participated. In the analysis of the three questions, eleven Central Ideas emerged: “Aspects that contribute to health”; "There are difficulties for putting it into practice"; "Everything positive, including the attention received"; "It is possible, everything is there in nature"; "It is possible, but it does not replace the drugs"; "It is not always possible, it depends on some factors"; “If the person doesn't want it, everything is difficult”; “You can use them all”; “Mainly sun, physical activity, healthy eating ”; "I like water very much"; “Trust in God is essential”.</p> <p><strong>Final considerations:</strong> the participants recognized the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle and highlighted the positive results of adopting healthy habits.</p> NÊDA LYAN SOUTO LOPES DE QUEIROZ paula paulina costa tavares NELIA DE OLIVEIRA DAMASCENO DA SILVA MARCIA OLIVEIRA DAMASCENO GINA ANDRADE ABDALA MARIA DYRCE DIAS MEIRA Copyright (c) 2020 NÊDA LYAN SOUTO LOPES DE QUEIROZ, paula paulina costa tavares, NELIA DE OLIVEIRA DAMASCENO DA SILVA, MARCIA OLIVEIRA DAMASCENO, GINA ANDRADE ABDALA, MARIA DYRCE DIAS MEIRA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 8 11 185 194 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2381 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTONATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECHES BY CHINESE EFL LEARNERS AND NATIVE SPEAKERS https://www.granthaalayahpublication.org/journals/index.php/granthaalayah/article/view/IJRG20_B11_3900 <p>Intonation plays an essential role in verbal communication. Besides, intonation patterns that influence information transmission in speeches have always been a significant research focus in current years. Based on Halliday's intonation systems, this study investigated the intonation features, including tonality, tonicity and tone shown in speeches of Chinese EFL learners and English native speakers. In the study, the acoustic tool Praat and Excel were employed to label the data and analyze the obtained statistics. Results indicated that Chinese students were able to use tone groups and marked tonicity to emphasize the focus of information units. However, there existed some improper and excessive use of tonality segmentation and marked tonicity. Moreover, Chinese students showed more changeable tones when delivering speeches, which might create an understanding barrier of listeners. In order to improve Chinese EFL learners' use of intonation, a more thorough comprehension of the information units, key focus and meaning of each tone is required.</p> Yunjie Huang Yizhang Copyright (c) 2020 Yunjie Huang, Yizhang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 8 11 195 203 10.29121/granthaalayah.v8.i11.2020.2438