International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2394-3629 <p>With the licence CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.</p> <p>It is not necessary to ask for further permission from the author or journal board. </p> <p>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> STRATEGIC PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN STRATEGIC CHANGE MANAGEMENT MEDIATION IN STATE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY <p>The purpose of this study is to realize the legal, administrative and physical order of State Property in the State Intelligence Agency towards effective, efficient, optimal, and accountable management of State Property, as well as transparency, strategies and important steps are needed to realize change. In supporting the policy-making process related to State Property, it is necessary to fulfill basic information in the form of current and actual goods data by carrying out updates through periodic inventory of State Property.The research design and method used in this research is hypothesis testing. This research is a quantitative non-experimental, using a questionnaire given to 98 respondents. This research was conducted at the Logistics Bureau of the State Intelligence Agency. Data analysis using SPSS and PLS.3.20 software with multivariate Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis method.The results of this study indicate that: Strategic Planning and Organizational Culture on Strategic Change Management are positive and significant. The influence of Strategic Change Management on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. The influence of Strategic Change Management mediating Strategic Planning and Organizational Culture on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. It means that the higher/positive mediation of Strategic Change Management on Strategic Planning and Organizational Culture, the higher/positive Organizational Performance. The theoretical implication of Strategic Change Management as mediating to Strategic Planning and Organizational Culture able to improve Organizational Performance, by improving Strategic Change Management through increasing its dimensions will be able to improve the Organizational Performance of the State Intelligence Agency.</p> Dani Nugraha Dadan Umar Daihani Kusnadi Copyright (c) 2022 Dani Nugraha, Dadan Umar Daihani, Kusnadi 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 10 4 1 14 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4568 DETERMINATION OF FLUORIDE CONCENTRATIONS LEVEL IN DRINKING GROUND WATER IN SHENDI CITY, RIVER NILE STATE, SUDAN <p>Fluoride is one of the anions that endanger human health at concentrations lower and higher than the standard, also is one of the main problems in most parts of the world, where about 200 million people from 25 countries are exposed to high or low concentrations of fluoride from groundwater sources. . This descriptive and analytical study was conducted in shendi City to determine concentrations level of fluoride in ground water.&nbsp; 150 samples of ground water were tested per season (50 samples for each season), The water samples were collected from ground water sources (wells), distribution system and storage facilities that are used directly for drinking purpose in the community per seasons. Analyzing of samples had been completed according to standard methods for examinations of water, in this study used photometer device for determination concentrations of fluoride. Our study revealed that: the quality of ground water in study area is low fluoride content and below the optimum levels that recommended by WHO and SSMO guidelines for drinking water and seasonal variations have effects on fluoride’s solubility and concentrations. Based on the findings of this study we recommend that:&nbsp; community must not depend totally on ground water as main source for fluoride, and community in study area should be use other sources for fluoride intake to obtain on daily required amount of fluoride for protection the health.</p> Abdallah Ahmed Belal Basheer Mohammed El hassan Adam Dawria Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Abdallah Ahmed Adam Belal, Basheer Mohammed El hassan, Adam Dawria Ibrahim 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 10 4 15 25 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4493 SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH MALIGNANT PHYLLODES TUMOR OF THE BREAST IN THE NATIONAL ONCOLOGY INSTITUTE “DR. JUAN TANCA MARENGO” SOLCA – GUAYAQUIL <p>The aim is to establish the real relationship of incidence of the Malignant phyllodes Tumor of Breast and its effective surgical approach in patients treated at the Oncological Institute of Guayaquil, the reference center of Ecuador.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To establish the surgical management of Malignant phyllodes Tumors of Breast in the Oncological Institute of Ecuador SOLCA.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> An analysis of the cases diagnosed and operated in the Oncological Institute of Guayaquil SOLCA in the period September 2009 to September 2019, based on a retrospective descriptive study to determine the surgical management of phyllodes tumors is performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Within the study period (9 years), 24 patients with Malignant phyllodes Tumor of Breast who met the admission criteria were analyzed. Two groups were established: 75% (n = 18) who left “alive” from the hospital and 25% “deceased” (n = 6). An analysis of the mortality adjusted to the surgical procedure was performed, where it can be observed that the radical mastectomy showed a survival of 82%, while the simple mastectomy and the lumpectomy, procedures chosen as the first option for the treatment of the malignant phyllodes tumor, presented a Survival less than 40%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The phyllodes malignant breast tumor has a low incidence among malignant breast tumors. It seems that radical mastectomy of the breast is the best option for patients with this type of cancer, and adjuvance does not improve patient survival.</p> Freddy Rueda Safady Fernando Miñán Arana Francisco Xavier Hernández Manrique Pablo Ulloa Ochoa Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Freddy Rueda Safady, Dr. Fernando Miñán Arana, Dr. Francisco Xavier Hernández Manrique, Dr. Pablo Ulloa Ochoa 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 10 4 26 31 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4494 THE EFFECT OF STRATEGY COMPETENCY AND WORK MOTIVATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF ARMY HEADQUARTERS MEDIATED BY ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT <p>The purpose of this study is to provide input to the leadership of the Indonesian Army National Armed Forces Headquarters regarding the importance of improving Human Resources through increasing good Work Motivation and applicable Competency Strategy order to produce good Organizational Commitment and Organizational Performance to support the success of the National Army Headquarters. Indonesian Army, especially in the General Section of the Indonesian Army National Army</p> <p>The design/design and research method used in this research is hypothesis testing. This research is a quantitative non-experimental, using a questionnaire given to 95 respondents. This research was conducted at the Indonesian Army National Army Headquarters. Data analysis using SPSS and PLS.3.20 software with multivariate Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis method.</p> <p>The results of this study indicate that: The influence of Strategic Competency, Work Motivation on Organizational Commitment is positive and significant. The effect of Organizational Commitment on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. The effect of Organizational Commitment mediating Strategic Competency, Work Motivation on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. It means that the higher/positive mediation of Organizational Commitment to Strategic Competency, Work Motivation, the higher/positive Organizational Performance.</p> <p>Theoretical implications: Organizational Commitment as a mediating of Strategic Competency, Work Motivation can able to improve Organizational Performance, by increasing Organizational Commitment through increasing its dimensions will be able to improve Organizational Performance of the General Section of the Indonesian National Army, Inspectorate General of the Indonesian Army, National Army Personnel Staff Indonesian Army. Logistics Staff of the Indonesian Army National Army, Planning and Budgeting Staff of the Indonesian Army's National Armed Forces</p> Erwin Junaedi Yuzwar Z Basri Kusnadi Copyright (c) 2022 Erwin Junaedi, Yuzwar Z Basri, Kusnadi 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 10 4 32 49 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4559 TRANSLATION AND THE TEACHING OF LINGUISTICS IN KISWAHILI IN KENYAN UNIVERSITIES <p>This article explores community relations in military operations in Nigeria. Initially, it notes that the interaction between the military and the civilian population is inevitable both in times of peace and during conflicts, while occasionally this interaction even requires and/or results in the use of force or arms for the achievement of the goals of the operations. Consequently, human rights are violated in the process. This article thus seeks to assess the derogation and limitation of human rights on the premise of national security, public safety and order as the arguments for the justification for violations of the rights during military operations and argues that a balance must be found between derogation and limitation of the rights on the one hand and the respect for and protection of the enjoyment of the right and freedoms on the other hand. The article thus recommends the integration of human rights into military law and training of commissioned and non-commissioned officers in the Nigeria Military.</p> Owala Silas Odhiambo Copyright (c) 2022 Owala Silas Odhiambo 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 10 4 50 55 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4552 DIGITAL CURRENCY VS. CRYPTOCURRENCY AND BLOCKCHAIN <p>Despite the Reserve Bank of India consistently raising concerns over the dangers of cryptocurrencies primarily its use is facilitating money laundering and terror financing –India has emerged as a blossoming crypto market contributing billions of dollars in trading volume. In recent years, though cryptocurrencies have gained momentum with various investors yet they have not made any significant impact due to the volatility of the transactions. The fact that cryptocurrencies require various kinds of tools like wallets, computer, internet connectivity and various other services, their usage have been restricted to only those who are technologically sound. As a result, a vast majority of the population do not have the technological know-how and hence are unable to use them. Furthermore, the complexities involved in these transactions have reduced their trust and acceptability. One of the major shortcomings is that the cryptocurrency network can only validate the payment but not the delivery of various products and services. Hence, buyer of products and services are handicapped as the network does not simultaneously validate both sides of the transactions. The sharp volatility in the value of cryptocurrencies over relatively short period of time are a major issue due to which, maintaining price stability becomes extremely difficult. Furthermore, the absence of regulatory mechanisms and decentralised nature of the transactions raises various fear and apprehension that cryptocurrencies may be used for illegal activities. The solution to get over some of the shortcomings of cryptocurrencies is the issue of digital currency by the Central Bank. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has warned of the risks posed by cryptocurrencies especially in emerging and developing countries and has suggested coordinated action to put in place global standards for cryptocurrencies. According to the IMF, “Determining valuation is not the only challenge in the crypto ecosystem: identification, monitoring, and management of risks which defy regulators and firms are areas of concern. These include operational and financial integrity, risks from crypto assets exchanges and wallets, investor protection, inadequate reserves and inaccurate disclosure for some stable coins. According to the IMF, capital flow management may need to be fine-tuned due to digital currencies. “Crypto’s cross-sector and cross-border remit limits the effectiveness of national approaches. Countries are taking very different strategies, and existing laws and regulations may not allow for national approaches that comprehensively cover all elements of these assets. Importantly, many crypto service providers operate across borders, making the task for supervision and enforcement more difficult. Uncoordinated regulatory measures may facilitate potentially destabilizing capital flows”. In the Union Budget of 2022-23 it has been proposed that, the Reserve Bank of India would be issuing Digital Currency which would go a long way for identifying, monitoring, regulating, management of risks, and capital flow management as well as in mitigating the financial stability crisis stemming from the crypto eco-system. Furthermore, a structured taxation regime of 30 % on virtual digital assets, as well as 1 % TDS would have the potency to track investments or profits generated/ losses incurred in this type of trading of virtual digital assets. The issuance of Digital Currency by RBI as well as bringing the same within the ambit of a structured taxation regime would lead to regulation of liquidity as well as volatility and would ensure stability in the economy.</p> Sarita Mishra Kolhe Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Sarita Mishra Kolhe 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 10 4 56 70 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4528 IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS ON BREAST CANCER CELL LINES UNDER THE TREATMENT OF WORTMANNIN AND THALIDOMIDE IN VITRO <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin and the angiogenesis inhibitor Thalidomide on Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) on breast cancer cell lines which have non (67NR) and high (4T1) metastatic potential using immunocytochemical technique.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>The cells were evaluated using avidin-biotin-peroxidase indirect immunocytochemistry method. Anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-MyD88, anti-PI3K and anti-NFκB primary antibodies were performed after 24h and 48h administrations of Wortmannin and Thalidomide. The distribution of immunocytochemical intensities of primary antibodies were graded semi-quantitatively as mild (1), moderate (2), strong (3) and very strong (4). The mean values of the staining intensities and the percentage of positively stained cells were calculated using the H-Score. Statistics were comparatively evaluated by using the One-way ANOVA test. Significance was defined as p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>On the control group of 67NR breast cancer cell line, immunoreactivity of TLR2 was seen as very strong. While immunoreactivity of MyD88 was seen as strong, immunoreactivities of TLR4, NFκB and PI3K were observed as moderate in this group. On the control group of 4T1 breast cancer cell line, immunoreactivities of MyD88 and NFκB were seen as strong, while immunoreactivities of TLR2, TLR4 and PI3K were observed as moderate/strong in this group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was demonstrated by this study, that the effects on the 24th and 48th hour of the Wortmannin acts as an inhibitor of PI3K and Thalidomide acts as an inhibitor of NFκB were effective on TLR signaling pathway and related molecules on 67NR and 4T1 breast cancer cell lines which have different metastatic properties. It was concluded that these drugs have an important role as inhibitors in cancer signaling pathways included invasion and metastasis. As future expectation, they might be used therapeutically in addition to classical treatments on cancer treatment.</p> Melike Ozgul Onal Elgin TURKOZ ULUER Gamze TANRIOVER Vissun Sevinç İnan Copyright (c) 2022 Melike Ozgul Onal, Elgin TURKOZ ULUER, Gamze TANRIOVER, Vissun Sevinç İnan 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 10 4 71 85 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4556 THE INFLUENCE OF RESOURCE BASED VIEW, STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ON PERFORMANCE OF PERSONNEL IN INFORMATION INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGY IN STATE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY MEDIATED IN STRATEGIC POLICY <p>This research is aimed at the interests of the Organization of the State Intelligence Agency, especially the Deputy for Information Technology, which is the implementing element of some of the tasks and functions of the State Intelligence Agency in the Field of Technology Intelligence who is directly responsible to the Head of the State Intelligence Agency. The Deputy for Technology Intelligence has the task of carrying out policy formulation and implementation of Information Technology intelligence activities and/or operations.</p> <p>The method of analysis is done through explanatory research, with the application of PLS/SEM. Concepts and problems under study look at causality, then explain the variables causing the problem under study. The research sample was 96 Staff and Officials of the Directorate of Planning for Control of Activities and Operations, the Directorate of Telematics, and the Directorate of Geospatial Intelligence at the State Intelligence Agency.</p> <p>The results of this study Resource Based View has a positive effect on Performance. Strategic Management Information System has a positive effect on Performance. Strategic Policy has a positive effect on Performance. illustrates that Resource Based View, Strategic Management Information System and Strategic Policy at the Deputy for Information Technology of the State Intelligence Agency can have an influence on the performance of the personnel of the State Intelligence Agency. Theoretical implications of the Strategic Policy through increasing its dimensions will be able to improve the performance of the Deputy for Information Technology of the State Intelligence Agency so as to increase the trust and loyalty of related parties. Resource Based View, and Strategic Management Information System The results of this study strengthen the positive and significant influence of Resource Based View, and Strategic Management Information System on Strategic Policy. Improvement and development of the quality of human resources must first, pay attention to policies and strategies. The development will give a good indication of the performance of the State Intelligence Agency personnel.</p> Bambang Purwanto Zulkifli Husini Sarfilianty Anggiani Kusnadi Copyright (c) 2022 Bambang Purwanto, Zulkifli Husini, Sarfilianty Anggiani, Kusnadi 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 10 4 86 98 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4565 THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITY, AND STRATEGIC PLANNING ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MEDITED ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE ARMY CENTRAL IMPLEMENTING AGENCY <p>The purpose of this study is to provide input to the leadership of the Indonesian Army National Armed Forces Headquarters regarding the importance of knowledge management on technological developments because this knowledge is one way to create and improve work professionalism in the military, especially the Indonesian Armed Forces.The research design and method used in this research is hypothesis testing. This research is a quantitative non-experimental, using a questionnaire given to 93 respondents. This research was conducted at the Central Implementing Agency for the Indonesian National Armed Forces.The results of this study indicate that: The effect of Information Technology Capability, Strategic Planning on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. The influence of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. The influence of Knowledge Management mediating Information Technology Capability, Strategic Planning on Organizational Performance is positive and significant. It means that the higher/positive mediation of Knowledge Management on Information Technology Capability, Strategic Planning, the higher/positive Organizational Performance.Theoretical implications: Knowledge Management as a mediating of Information Technology Capability, Strategic Planning is able to improve Organizational Performance, by increasing Knowledge Management through increasing its dimensions it will be able to improve the Organizational Performance of the Central Implementing Body of the Indonesian Armed Forces.</p> Eko Daryanto Farida Jasfar Kusnadi Copyright (c) 2022 Eko Daryanto, Farida Jasfar, Kusnadi 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 10 4 99 111 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4567 ESTIMATE OF DISK NOT CONTAINING ROOTS OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS <p>Let is a polynomial of degree. Also let coefficients of polynomial follow a certain pattern of decreasing or increasing in magnitude. Then we have many results for providing the regions containing all the roots of polynomial functions. Here, in this paper we prove a result that gives a disk or circular region containing no roots of function, Thereby our result finally gives annular region containing all roots of polynomial function and hence thereby improves the earlier proved .results.</p> Roshan Lal Copyright (c) 2022 Roshan Lal 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 10 4 112 117 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4541 INPUTS COST SENSITIVITY ANALYSES OF BETEL LEAF PRODUCTION: A STUDY ON SELECTED FARMERS AT THE DISTRICTS OF KUSHTIA-JHENIDAH IN BANGLADESH <p>The study aims to evaluate the inputs cost sensitivity of betel leaf production of selected farmers in Bangladesh. Purposively two districts like Kushtia and Jhenidah were chosen for study area. Both primary and secondary data were used for the purpose of the study. Primary data were collected from 120 farmers. For analyzing data 9 variables were used like Material cost, Labor, Land cost(Lease), Fertilizer, Insecticide, Irrigation Cost, Depreciation of Primary cost, Selling and Distribution cost, Other cost as input costs and one variable(Sales) was used as output variable. The analysis have been done by applying descriptive statistics, Cobb-Douglas production function and marginal physical productivity (MPP) to identify nature of production function and influential sensitive input costs. The summation of all regression co-efficient included in the model, ∑βi=1.35 indicated that the production function is in the state of increasing return to scale. The highest MPP value was found in other cost (64.95) followed by insecticide (3.22); selling and distribution cost (2.69); labor cost (1.25) and fertilizer (1.20) which are very sensitive inputs and have the strong influence on output variables.</p> Md. Abdus Sabur Md. Mizanoor Rahman Md. Abu Sina Md. Nazmul Huda Md. Kamal Uddin Copyright (c) 2022 Md. Abdus Sabur, Md. Mizanoor Rahman, Md. Abu Sina, Md. Nazmul Huda, Md. Kamal Uddin 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 10 4 118 124 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4554 ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS STRATEGIES ON CUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY: A STUDY OF NIKE CUSTOMERS IN THE UK <p>This research aims to evaluate the impacts of Nike’s public relations strategies on customer-based brand equity by analysing the perceptions of Nike customers in the UK. It has also evaluated the effectiveness of Nike’s PR strategies and its customer-based brand equity based on customers' perceptions through rating on a five-point Likert scale. <br>This study has used the proposition of positivism philosophy and deductive reasoning. This means seven hypotheses were developed based on literature and theories associated with public relations and customer-based brand equity. Primary data from the customers of Nike were collected to test those hypotheses. The strategy of a survey through an online questionnaire tool has been implemented to collect data from Nike customers in the UK. A sample of 151 customers was chosen based on the convenience sampling technique. The data analysis followed statistical and mathematical techniques, including frequencies, charts, percentage analysis, standards deviation, arithmetic mean, correlation, and regression. <br>This study identified that PR strategies have significant positive impacts on customer-based brand equity. This means all the seven PR strategies considered in this study have significant positive impacts on CBBE. The correlation and regression between PR strategies and CBBE indicated that the PR strategies of Nike and customer-based brand equity are intercorrelated with each other and overall PR strategies have significant positive impacts on CBBE with β = 0.817 and p = 0.000. PR strategies implemented by Nike are significantly effective based on customers’ perceptions in the UK. Nike is significantly managing its customer-based brand equity based on customers' perceptions in the UK.</p> Ramesh Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 Ramesh Neupane 2022-05-04 2022-05-04 10 4 125 160 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4562 IMPACT OF RUSSIA-UKRAINE WAR ON INDIAN STOCK MARKET - AN EVENT STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO NIFTY 50 <p>The Russia-Ukraine conflict is a major blow to the global economy as financial backlash unleashed not only in Russia and Ukraine but also in the rest of the world. Both the countries, being prominent international players constitute a major part in global trade especially in the export of wheat, crude oil, raw material for industries and so on. The world market was hit massively on account of invasion of Ukraine by Russia on 24 February 2022, from when the stock markets tanked even in India. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyse the effects of the Russia-Ukraine conflict on Indian stock market by taking Nifty-50 index as the base. The Event Study methodology is used in this study, considering the changes in Nifty-50 indices for an event period of 16 days (8 days of estimation period+8 days of observation period) from 8th February 2022 to 4th March 2022. The index values thus obtained and analysed elucidated that there has been a significant impact of Russia-Ukraine war on Nifty-50 in particular and Indian stock market in general.</p> Gururaj p Sanath Kumar K Deepa C. Bhat Copyright (c) 2022 Gururaj P, Mr. Sanath Kumar K, Ms. Deepa C. Bhat 2022-05-05 2022-05-05 10 4 161 167 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4566 JAPANESE GUESTS AND EUROPEAN INQUIRERS: CULTURAL BARRIERS OR FLAWED HERMENEUTICS? <p>Martin Heidegger’s Dialogie on Language between himself and a Japanese who visited him at his home in Freiburg in March 1954 is the best known but not a singular event of this kind in the last century, either in respect to the topic (the opposition between the East and the West) or setting. The three cases we are referring to in this paper are all communications of the Platonic kind, that is, sites of debate on cultural differences. Generally perceived as statements in the unsurpassable distinctions of mental make-up mapped onto geographical frontiers, these European-Japanese encounters seem, at a closer look, to convey quite the opposite meaning encrypted, however, at a deeper, subconscious level of a false consciousenss nourished by fashionable ideas of the moment.</p> Maria-Ana Tupan Copyright (c) 2022 Maria-Ana Tupan 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 10 4 168 178 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4569 DEVELOPING A MULTI-ITEM, MULTI-PRODUCT, AND MULTI-PERIOD SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN AND PLANNING MODEL FOR PERISHABLE PRODUCTS <p>Background/Objectives: In this paper, a sustainable supply chain network design and planning model is developed for perishable products. The model aims to maximize total profit in addition to preventing the expiration of perishable products using the FIFO inventory strategy to reduce environmental impact by reducing waste.</p> <p><br>Methods/Statistical Analysis: A mathematical model is developed to design a sustainable, multi-item, multi-product, multi-period, three-echelon supply network including three potential suppliers, three potential factories, a warehouse, and three retailers. The model is formulated as mixed-integer nonlinear programming. It is solved by DICOPT/GAMS.</p> <p><br>Findings: The behavior of the model has been verified by solving six scenarios of different demand patterns. The results verify the ability of the developed model in assisting the SC organizations to manage their network more efficiently</p> <p><br>Novelty/Applications: The model considered the production, inventory, and transportation of two perishable products in multi-periods. It maximizes the profit in addition to preventing the expiration to minimize environmental impact to ensure sustainability of the supply chain. The model is solved by DICOPT/GAMS.</p> M. S. Al-Ashhab Fahad Alanazi Copyright (c) 2022 Fahad Alanazi, M. S. Al-Ashhab 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 10 4 179 199 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4574 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF PARIKARTIKA WSR FISSURE IN ANO : A CASE STUDY <p>Nowday’s hurry and worries lifestyle give rises to Ano rectal diseases. Fissure_in_ano in one of the most common disease found in society. Constipation, burning sensation at anal region, bleeding with stool are common symptoms of fissure_in_ano. In Ayurved its can compare with parikartika.<br>20 years old male patient suffering from guda daha, sarakta mala_prawrutti, malavshmbha, aanaha from last 10 days. With modern medicine he got temporary relief in guda daha but there is no relief in rest symptoms. For Ayurvedic treatment he came to our hospital. With first day he got relief and at the end of 5rd days he feel total cure.</p> Suresh Malakari Dhayagonde Sayaji Desai Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Suresh Malakari Dhayagonde, Dr. Sayaji Desai 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 10 4 200 204 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4581 EFFICACY OF GUDA AMALKI YOGA IN PITTAJ MUTRAKRUCCHA WSR CYSTITIS – A REVIEW STUDY <p>According to Ayurved, dosh, dhatu, mala are basic elements of human body. When they cross their normal limit i.e kshaya and vruddhi then disease starts to occur. In normal opd it is seen that pittaj Mutrakruccha is common disease. Modern lifestyle is responsible for such disease. Shoolyukta, Raktayukta, Dahayukta and muhurmur mutraPrawrutti is symptoms of pittaj Mutrakruccha.<br>In modern, it can compare with cystitis. Burning micturition, dysuria, increases frequency of urination are main symptoms of cystitis. There are plenty of antibiotic and other medicines are available for that but it’s seen that, there is resistance comes for this medicine.<br>There is description of Guda Amalaki Yoga in chakrdutta. Its simple ayurvedic formulation. As per it’s contain its useful drug on pittaj Mutrakruccha.<br>It’s my review study which theoretically proves that efficacy of Guda Amalaki Yoga in pittaj Mutrakruccha.</p> Vaishali Uday Dupade Laxmi M Narhare Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Vaishali Uday Dupade, Dr. Laxmi M Narhare 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 10 4 205 208 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4585 CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM AND CARBON CYCLING OF SEWAGE WASTE BY CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS <p>Wetlands, either constructed or natural, offer a cheaper and low-cost alternative technology for wastewater treatment. A constructed wetland system that is specifically engineered for water quality improvement as a primary purpose is termed as a ‘Constructed Wetland Treatment System’ (CWTS). In the past, many such systems were constructed to treat low volumes of wastewater loaded with easily degradable organic matter for isolated populations in urban areas. However, widespread demand for improve in water quality, and water reclamation and reuse, is currently the driving force for the implementation of CWTS all over the world. Recent concerns over wetland losses have generated a need for the creation of&nbsp;&nbsp; manmade wetlands, which are intended to emulate the functions and values of natural wetlands that have been destroyed. Natural characteristics are applied to CWTS with emergent macrophyte stands that duplicate the physical, chemical and biological processes of natural wetland systems. The number of CWTS in use has very much increased in the past 50 years. The use of constructed wetlands is gaining rapid interest. Most of these systems cater for tertiary treatment from towns and cities. They are larger in size, usually using surface-flow system to remove low concentration of nutrient (N and P) and suspended solids. However, in some countries, these constructed wetland treatment systems are usually used to provide secondary treatment of domestic sewage for village populations. These constructed wetland systems have been seen as an economically attractive, energy-efficient way of providing high standards of wastewater treatment.</p> <p>Typically, wetlands are constructed for one or more of four primary purposes: creation of habitat to compensate for natural wetlands converted for agriculture and urban development, water quality improvement, flood control, and production of food and fiber (constructed aquaculture wetlands). In present research the sewage water is treated by constructing Horizontal sub – surface flow constructed wetland, and reed grass is used as vegetation to treat waste and make the sewage waste water clean.</p> Shalini Saxena Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Shalini Saxena 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 10 4 209 215 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4517 RELEVANCE OF GRAMMAR <p>This piece of paper presents the practical and theoretical utility of grammar. From the very beginning, grammarians implemented their basic concept to the readers what we find today. Grammar, as is known, is a science that articulates us to intuit both writing and speaking English in a correct and concise way. Orthography, etymology, syntax, punctuation, and prosody are said to be the bases of grammar. Without utterances of these words, nothing can be imagined in grammar. They have been arranged in a sequence so that every next part may be semantic in use. Orthography is the smallest unit of etymology. The world of syntax is vast. Punctuation balances the sentences whereas prosody personifies them.</p> Manoj Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Manoj Kumar Singh 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 10 4 216 222 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4580 TOP MANAGEMENT’S WILL TO SUPPORT SAFETY CULTURE <p>How Do Company Directors Support Safety Culture Excellence is a deep question to explore the goal of incidents-free status? This article presents a qualitative framework on the issues related to the top/site management at large that are responsible for weak safety culture at the corporates as well as sites resulting in incidents and fatalities. Qualitative research in this paper makes a lot of sense in this regard. 204 industry professionals participated in the study to reflect on the top/site management issues and solutions. Almost 80% industry professionals observed a lack of management’s will to support in safety culture, which amounts to a lag in business sustainability. Top managements need guidance about interventions leading to safety culture transformation.</p> Harbans Lal Kaila Copyright (c) 2022 Harbans Lal Kaila 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 10 4 223 228 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4573 EFFECT OF ULTRA-ENDURANCE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON THE RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF THE WOMEN RUNNERS <p>Endurance physical activities like running are beneficial for enhancement in immunity and functional health. But excessive and high intensity sustained endurance physical activities like marathon and ultra-marathon running might affect negatively the immune capacity of the participants at least temporarily due to high inflammatory stress. Compromises in upper respiratory tract health may be common among recreational marathon runners. Methods: Thirty women recreational marathon runners above the age of forty years participated in the study. WURSS-44 questionnaire was used to quantify the URTI symptom scores of the participants on the previous day of the run, followed by after one day, three days, five days, seven and nine days. ANOVA was used to find out the variance among the different days at 0.05 level of significance. Results: Variance analysis indicated that there was significant difference among the different days URTI scores (F=3.2441at P of 0.0079) of the group and the Tukey’s HSD post hoc analysis brings out that there was significant difference between the run previous day score and the after seventh day score (4.78 at P of p&lt;0.05) and also significant difference between the post first day score and the post ninth day score (4.349 at P of p&lt;0.05) for the group. Conclusion: Above forty years women recreational runners’ group of the study experienced significant increments in their URTI symptoms score due to their acute marathon running event.</p> Sailaja Lanka Gopikrishna Yarlagadda Copyright (c) 2022 Sailaja Lanka, Gopikrishna Yarlagadda 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 10 4 229 233 10.29121/granthaalayah.v10.i4.2022.4582