International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH <h3>International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH</h3> <p>is an open access peer-reviewed journal that provides monthly publication of articles in all areas of Engineering, Management, Social, Arts, Commerce, Technology and Science etc. It is an international refereed e-journal as well as print journal. IJRG have the aim to propagate innovative research and eminence in knowledge. IJRG Journals has become a prominent contributor for the research communities and societies. IJRG Journal is making the bridge between research and developments.</p> Granthaalayah Publications and Printers en-US International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH 2394-3629 A STUDY OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN SULTANATE OF OMAN <p>The objective of this research is to find impact of foreign direct investment on manufacturing industries in Oman. The study utilized a quantitative research method which applied primary and secondary data obtained from Oman's World Bank database (1984-2018). The primary data were collected from a research questionnaire administered to 410 respondents from nine industrial sectors, namely: Textile, Petroleum goods, Electronics, Automotive, Food &amp; Beverages, Agriculture &amp; Fishery, Publishing, Chemicals and Pharmaceutics. The results of this study also revealed that the spillover impacts on domestic companies, like novel technology, marketing strategies, organizational skills, money, jobs, export growth, diversifying of economy and greater competition, lead to enhanced domestic market efficiency and boosted productivity in skill-spreading host economies with the highest impact accompanied with Capital and Technology spillover.</p> Uvesh Husain Sarfaraz Javed Aisha Salim Al Araimi Copyright (c) 2021 Uvesh Husain, Sarfaraz Javed, Aisha Salim Al Araimi 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 9 3 1 9 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3696 STUDY OF POPULATION DYNAMICS AND EXPLOITATION RATES OF CRAYFISH (PANULIRUS SPP) IN SPERMONDE WATERS, MAKASSAR STRAIT <p>To stimulate catch production and wise management patterns, research is carried out on the study of ecological aspects, estimates of population dynamics and exploitation rates of crayfish (Panulirus Spp) in the Spermonde waters of the Makassar Strait.&nbsp; Based on the COA (Correspondence Analysis) (Ludwig and Reynold, 1988), as well as the analysis of Von Bertalanffy (1938, in Sparre et al., 1989), it was found that the micro-habitat of Panulirus spp., Generally co-exist with massive coral species Alcyonaria (Sarcophyton, Heliophora , and Tubipora), and branching reefs of the Acropora species (Goniopora and Pavona), as well as living with algal grass species of Caulerpa and Halimeda. The growth pattern of Panulirus lobster follows the equation Lt = 46.3561 (1- e -0.1738 (t + 1.7827)), which means that the length decreases at relatively old age. The total mortality coefficient (Z) of population is 0.5066/year, this is relatively the same as the ideal mortality (M) which means optimal utilization, but it is necessary to select catch sizes that are larger than 24 - 27cm (in the range of 34 - 46cm).</p> Budiman Yunus Basse Siang Parawansa Copyright (c) 2021 Budiman Yunus, Basse Siang Parawansa 2021-03-18 2021-03-18 9 3 10 17 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3697 THE IMPACT OF NATIONAL DEFENSE EXPENDITURE ON GROWTH OF ECONOMY IN SRI LANKA <p>This study aims to analyze the relationship between defense expenditure and growth of the economy in Sri Lanka applying annual data during the period between 1990-2019 by engaging the ARDL bounds test and the Granger causality test. Economic growth is considered as a dependent variable whereas; defense expenditure, broad money supply, capital investment and exchange rate are considered as independent variables for this study. The findings revealed that defense spending has a significant and positive effect on economic growth in the long- run. Exchange rate, capital investment and broad money supply have a significant and positive influence in the short-run and long-run. Further, the output of the Granger causality confirms the one-way association between the growth of the economy and defense expenditure. The study suggests that government should concentrate more on human capital development rather than spending on defense.</p> S. Maheswaranathan R. Jerusha Copyright (c) 2021 S. Maheswaranathan, R. Jerusha 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 9 3 18 25 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3710 TRENDS IN PRESS COVERAGE OF FEMINIST ACTIVITY IN THE UAE MEDIA: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY <p>This study seeks to shed light on Arab societies in general and the Emirati society in particular, as we find that customs and traditions have given the conservative form of women,</p> <p>Which, in turn, is reflected in the entirety of its relations, and its social and cultural processes in particular are closely related to the media institution that reproduced this model by adopting conservative contents, except in very few cases, which is often associated with some feminist institutions.</p> <p>In this study, the researchers focused on identifying the most important shapes, templates, trends, and areas occupied by all of these coverage. And then determine its contents and meanings. that is through analyzing the coverage and its types and all the arts of journalistic editing, News coverage is made up of the type of news and report, while the explanatory coverage is by the type of press article Investigation and press dialogue, as for the documentary coverage, it is related to the means of highlighting, whether they are news or non-news photos, figures and drawings.</p> Alaa Makki Marcel Issa Al Juinat Copyright (c) 2021 Alaa Makki, Marcel Issa Al Juinat 2021-03-20 2021-03-20 9 3 26 46 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3712 REVISITING POLITICAL THEORY: BEYOND EXCESSIVE EMPIRICISM AND EXTREME NORMATIVISM <p>In this paper we attempt to find an answer to the question – how can we revisit political theory? This question may seem apparently simple, but the moment one start exploring, the incongruities and complexities of politics make the undertaking question highly toilsome. It is impossible to completely reject the normative framework in political analyses as far as it deals with the human society. On the other side, the age of post-truth politics also creates a difficulty to find out the objective facts and truth. So rather than arguing which method of politics is more efficient to deal with the uncertainties of human political life today, we attempt to visualize politics from a new understanding i.e., politics as absence of general agreement beyond excessive empiricism and extreme normativism. It is the antagonistic nature of human beings what keep ‘the political’ alive, and constitute the factual practices known as ‘politics’.</p> Kunal Debnath Souvik Chatterjee Copyright (c) 2021 Kunal Debnath, Souvik Chatterjee 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 9 3 47 55 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3743 SMARTPHONE USE IN LEARNING AS PERCEIVED BY UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES: BENEFITS AND BARRIERS <p>Smartphones are attractive tools for the majority of young people particularly university undergraduates and integrating them in learning is something valuable. Nevertheless, they might do harm to their achievement if the use barriers and bad effects are not identified. Motivated by this idea, the present study was undertaken.&nbsp; Participants were (42) university undergraduates at the departments of mathematics and English language at Najran University in the first semester of the academic year 2020/2021. Findings showed that students were agreeable to smartphone usefulness, ease of use, and barriers. However, their responses to the effects of smartphone use were not clear. The majority of them were neutral, i.e., could not decide whether smartphones affect their learning or not. In light of these results, the study concluded that smartphone technology integration in learning is very crucial but when barriers and bad effects are clear to both teachers and students.</p> Thouqan Saleem Yakoub Masadeh Copyright (c) 2021 Thouqan Saleem Yakoub Masadeh 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 9 3 56 65 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3764 DOES COVID-19 INFLUENCE THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE PARTNERSHIPS ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE? TAKE THE ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY INVESTIGATION METHOD OF ZHEJIANG PROVINCE AS AN EXAMPLE <p>Due to the influence of COVID-19, the global electronic industry has encountered problems in cooperation. Including a number of chip supply problems, so want to know whether the electronics industry executives have an impact on the company's performance?This study through the investigation to the region in zhejiang province, 2020 local top one thousand electronic industry enterprise executives as questionnaire survey, the questionnaire (N = 331, excluding the reserved cross validity with data and error data, the number of available data and 195 pen, comply with the minimum sample demand, the main research object is for zhejiang area electronic industry as investigation object, and to establish its enterprise system agree with will affect the overall performance and profit of enterprise.Questionnaire design of this study was made through Likert seven-point scale, and reliability and validity verification analysis was conducted for this topic</p> Li-Wei Lin Meng-yao Zhang Yun-Han Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Li-Wei Lin, Meng-yao Zhang, Yun-Han Zhang 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 9 3 66 70 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3768 EVIDENCE BASED LEARNING: AN ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF TEACHER’S DESIGN MODEL ON CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING <p>Lewis dot structure is taught in Chemistry at senior secondary school level. The competence to draw the Lewis dot structure and its interpretation lays foundation for advance learning.&nbsp; In the present paper attempt is made to investigate the impact of teacher made model to enhance deep conceptual understanding of Lewis dot structure in Chemistry.&nbsp; The concept is taught by using expository and discussion method but these teaching methods do not improve the students’ ability to construct their knowledge - as a result learners do not have deep conceptual understanding. An optional way to increase learner’s understanding in cognitive aspect is by using teaching aids developed by the teacher.&nbsp; Feasibility percentage of these models is 95%. The present research uses one group (pre-formative and post formative assessment) experimental design. Totally 35 students of Grade 12 partake in the study. Purposive sampling technique is used to draw the sample. Data is collected by using formative assessment before and after the treatment. Test score and t-test are the statistical tools used for the analysis of data.&nbsp; The content test validity is 96% and the reliability co-efficient is 0.86 on Spearman- Brown.&nbsp; Result of the present study illustrates that the model developed for teaching-learning of Lewis dot structure is effective to enhance the deep conceptual learning and to acquire intended learning outcomes.&nbsp; It is illustrated by the paired analysis of sample t with t score (-38.52) is less than the critical - t value (-2.03). There is a major difference in the scores of learners before and after the treatment.&nbsp; The effectiveness of teacher made Lewis dot structure model is determined by formative assessment both before and after the treatment. The score of cognitive skills (0.658) is categorized under moderate gain.</p> Prashant Thote Gowri S Copyright (c) 2021 Prashant Thote, Gowri S 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 9 3 71 77 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3702 THE EFFECT OF POPULATION DYNAMICS ON FOREST COVER IN DARO LEBU WEREDA, WEST HARARGHE ZONE, OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA <p>Forest is one of renewable land properties which endowed with numerous resources that are valuable to man. The quality of the environment is constantly losing its status due to increase in population size in most countries of the world. The general objective of this study was to assess the effect of population dynamics on forest cover in West Hararghe Zone in general and Daro Labu Wereda (DLW) in particular. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the target population of this study whose total number was 364 households from four kebeles of DLW. Questionnaire, interview, FGD and satellite imagery used as data gathering tools for this study. The quantitative data of this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were discussed and interpreted through narration. As the result in this study a mixed method was used. This study is triangulation study in its design. The study was found out that population dynamics had contributed a lot to deforestation of the wereda under the study through agricultural land expansion, settlement, fuel wood gathering and illegal tree cutting. Thus due to&nbsp; population growth, lack of alternative livelihood approach, ruthless profit making, lack of economic transformation human encroachment and lack of alternative sources of energy. Population growth had contributed greatly to forest deforestation especially as it affected the forest covers. The major findings were observed that expansion for cultivated and settlement LULC classes rapidly increased from1973 to 2013 on the contrary forest and shrub lands decreased in DLW due to population dynamics and human encroachment in the forest cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need with government for the various stakeholders in environmental resource management to provide mechanism that can prevent the forest cover from further reduction in the study area.</p> Delelegy Legese Alemayehu Diriba Roba Copyright (c) 2021 Delelegy Legese, Alemayehu Diriba Roba 2021-03-22 2021-03-22 9 3 78 96 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3761 CORONAVIRUS INFECTION AND ITS CONTROL THROUGH VARIOUS APPROACHES: A SHORT REVIEW <p>Coronavirus is a common virus causing very serious issues to public health. This virus, SARS-COV-2, has disseminated worldwide respiratory illness, designated as COVID-19. This viral infection disturbs people in various ways. A lot of people infested due to this virus develop a mild illness and get relief soon without any sort of hospitalization. But mostly, it becomes highly severe later and the patient has to undergo shortening of breath as well as some other chest-related abnormalities like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Acute Respiratory Syndrome. In this manuscript, we have discussed multiple areas like symptomatology, management approaches including Homoeopathic and Allopathic (drugs) treatments, plus vaccination.&nbsp; Lastly, we have put in the conclusion of overall literature, and most importantly implicated or suggested certain new research areas for the researchers to explore which may assist in preventing further spread of this threatening syndrome now and in the future.</p> Shoaib Shareef Sawera Khalil Muhammad Shahid Sharif Copyright (c) 2021 Shoaib Shareef, Sawera Khalil, Muhammad Shahid Sharif 2021-03-23 2021-03-23 9 3 97 101 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3769 DEFINITION OF VEDIC ASTROLOGY <p>The definition of Vedic Astrology (“Jyotish”, one of the six Vedangas and ancillary of ageless four Vedas)) clearly refutes the wrong notion about Astrology. ‘The think tank’ holds that Astrology as ‘nonsense’ and not to be taken seriously, felt that astrology needs to gain academic credentials in order to be taken seriously. The academics wondered why astrology needs to find a place at university. After all, it shows no interest in being linked to fields of science. In the present study, it is proved that “Indian Astrology” is an embodiment of all modern sciences and a panacea for all the evils plaguing the mankind. Astrology is the study of effect of sunlight on the planet Earth and life living on it based on the laws of Astrophysics.</p> Y. V. Subba Rao Copyright (c) 2021 Y. V. Subba Rao 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 9 3 102 108 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3763 TRADO-MODERN COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study examined trado-modern communication strategies for effective implementation of community development programmes in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Two objectives and two research questions guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey and exploratory research designs. 405 respondents were adopted as sample size through total enumeration sampling. A structured questionnaire titled “Trado-Modern Communication Strategies for Effective Implementation of Community Development Programmes” (QT-MCSIECDP) with r = 0.82 was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts from the Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage and mean statistics. Results show that traditional rulers, groups, town-criers, face-to-face interaction and village squares are the available trado-modern communication channels for effective implementation of community development programmes in Bayelsa State; trado-modern communication keeps the communities up-to-date and enables individuals to react knowledgeably and intelligently to the environment, communicates feelings, creates acceptable changes in behaviour, boosts information, shows ways to solve problems and further growth for effective implementation of community development programmes in Bayelsa State. The study recommended among others that traditional rulers, town-criers, groups, village square and face-to-face interaction should always be used to inform, convince and motivate the community citizens for effective implementation of community development programmes.</p> GILPIN MORGAN M.E. Hanachor M.A. OYEBAMIJI Copyright (c) 2021 GILPIN MORGAN, M.E. Hanachor, M.A. OYEBAMIJI 2021-03-25 2021-03-25 9 3 109 117 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3709 THE IMPACT OF USING LOGO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL VISUALISATION ABILITY AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS <p>This study aims to investigate the effect of using LOGO on the improvement of spatial visualisation abilities among fourth-grade elementary students. In order to achieve this objective, the researchers have selected the Arabic version of spatial ability test prepared by Paul Newton and Helen Bristoll, which involves spatial visualisation perception. The researchers have employed the pre and post-test quasi-experimental approach. The research was applied to a sample group composed of 53 students enrolled in the fourth grade of the elementary stage. The sample group was selected from an elementary school-based in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Members of the sample group were randomly and simply divided into two groups; specifically the experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught using LOGO programming language, while the control group was taught using the traditional method. After implementing the research treatment and processing data and information statistically, findings revealed that there are statistical differences between the two groups; namely, the experimental and control groups – in terms of the development of spatial visualisation perception in favour of the experimental group.</p> Sameer Ali Khormi Areeb Alshoshan Abdulrahman Binrsheed Copyright (c) 2021 Sameer Ali Khormi, Areeb Alshoshan, Abdulrahman Binrsheed 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 9 3 118 127 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3771 PROPAGATION OF MANIPURI DANCE TO THE WORLD <p>The then Manipur was a sovereign state ruled by a lineage of many kings. Inspite of being situated in a far, isolated place from other lands and countries and also surrounded by ranges of hills with thick forestation, the inhabitants of this place faced untold hardship in communicating with other external lands and countries. But the state is now recognised by the outside world due to its rich storage of custom, tradition and culture of dance and music. &nbsp;</p> <p>Indeed, it is very surprising and happy when we think of the matter. That we cannot but remember afresh and count the Universal poet Guru Rabindranath Tagore, the descendants of king of Tripura and Miss Luis Lightfoot of Australia and all dedicated and pioneer preceptors in the field of dance. &nbsp;</p> Yaikhom Hemantakumar LAISHRAM HEMANTAKUMARI DEVI Copyright (c) 2021 Yaikhom Hemantakumar, LAISHRAM HEMANTAKUMARI DEVI 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 9 3 128 131 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3780 ASSESSMENT OF SUITABLE LANDFILL SITE USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES: A CASE STUDY OF RAIPUR URBAN REGION, CHHATTISGARH, INDIA <p>Currently, the solid waste management work of Raipur is being done in a completely traditional way, which is very expensive and time consuming. The site selection method using Geospatial techniques can function as a decision support tool for enhanced efficient and effective management of municipal solid waste. This Study’s aim was to develop landfill siting by crossing major barriers such as political, economic and environmental pressures for the execution of a suitable site criteria by employing combination of geospatial technique and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Raipur urban area. The preliminary step of the methodology was geospatial operation and Study that disqualified all areas unsuitable for landfill siting. The insularity of suitable criteria for landfill site was generated based on published information on solid waste management, existing laws and regulatory necessities, as well as the existing local conditions. The different suitability criteria considered are soil, land use land cover, digital elevation model (DEM), surface waters, transport network, lithology and geological structures. Criteria were mapped using the geospatial technique; each criterion was identified and weighted by score for overlay to create suitability maps using GIS. The final results showed that there are more locations for landfills for Raipur urban area. In the present Study there are sporadic areas identified as suitable sites for landfill location. In the site suitability analysis 74.79% area found not suitable for landfill siting, 20.93% least suitable and 3.25% moderate suitable. Out of the remaining area, 1.03% area is found most suitable.</p> Amit P Multaniya Sanju Verma M. K Beg Copyright (c) 2021 Amit P Multaniya, Sanju Verma, M. K Beg 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 3 132 148 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3778 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION TOWARD EVIDENCE BASED MEDICINE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SHENDI UNIVERSITY- SUDAN <p>Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the “conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence (Thamer Z. et al. 2018 .It is the evolving science of clinical care. It is the judicious use of the best current evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient.&nbsp; It also integrates clinical expertise, patient desires, values, and needs .&nbsp; (Michael LeFevre.2014 )</p> <p>The current study intended to assess Knowledge, attitude and perception toward EBM among medical students in Shendi University in Sudan. It was descriptive cross-sectional one, from October to December 2020; It included one hundred and twenty one (121) medical students. Data was collected employing structural self –administered questionnaire and the data collected was analyzed by SPSS.</p> <p>The findings of the study described the current status of level of awareness and use of EBM .More than half of students have poor knowledge toward EBM. Approximately half or less have good attitude compared with their poor knowledge, while the perception of the importance of evidence based medicine was good (72%).</p> Naba’a Alkhair ALshaikh Haghamad Allzain Bashier Eltayeb Shumo Copyright (c) 2021 Naba’a Alkhair ALshaikh, Haghamad Allzain, Bashier Eltayeb Shumo 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 9 3 149 155 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3773 A STUDY ON CUSTOMER AWARENESS LEVEL AND SATISFACTION OF HEALTH INSURANCE POLICIES IN CHENNAI CITY <p>The study proposed to examine product awareness of health insurance products on their satisfaction among the customers in Chennai city. The study employed primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected from the customers of health insurance policyholders in Chennai city. The responses are gathered from the policyholders through the well-designed questionnaire copy. The purpose of the secondary data is to familiarize the research area. The secondary information is collected from the research articles, magazines, Insurance Regulatory Development Authority, and daily newspapers. The study used a convenience sampling method. Overall, 300 questionnaires are distributed, out of which the customers return 283 filled responses. The filled answers are checked and finalized the entire 283 samples for the final study. Therefore, the total sample size of the study is 283. The study used frequency distribution, one-sample t-test, and General Linear Model of Multivariate Tests. The study confirmed that the customers are well aware of the health insurance companies and their products.&nbsp; The study also creates a significant relationship between awareness about health insurance products and the level of satisfaction</p> Vijaya Chitra V. Ramya Vijayakumar Gajenderan Copyright (c) 2021 Vijaya Chitra, V. Ramya, Vijayakumar Gajenderan 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 9 3 156 161 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3792 LAW ENFORCEMENT POLICIES IN CRIMINAL ACTS OF CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA <p>The law enforcement of corruption crimes that have been carried out so far only illustrates success in uncovering, arresting, detaining, prosecuting and convicted of the perpetrators who are found guilty. Still, it has not demonstrated success in eradicating corruption crimes widely. So that the success of such efforts creates a perception that Indonesia's corruption crimes are increasing, with this fact, what is illustrated is that Indonesia is a corrupt country. This is undoubtedly a contradiction with the expected goal of eradicating corruption crimes. The purpose of this article is to analyze corrupt law enforcement policies in Indonesia. This article concludes that amid national development efforts in various fields, the public's aspirations in eradicating corruption and any form are increasing because sin has caused enormous losses to the State, which could impact the emergence of crises in various fields. To overcome this, it is necessary to implement penal and non-penal policies to prevent criminal acts of corruption. Thus, the use of correctional and non-penal facilities must go hand in hand in overcoming corruption crimes</p> Yopi Gunawan Copyright (c) 2021 Yopi Gunawan 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 9 3 162 169 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3798 SUPERVISING HEAD OF SCHOOLS IN IMPROVEMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE TEACHER <p>The school principal has been unable to carry out his duties as a supervisor optimally, Objective of this research is to find out why the head of the School is not optimal in carrying out duties as supervis or . Determination of the subject using purposive sampling technique. This study uses a qualitative approach with data collection methods, namely observation, interviews and documentation. Data analysis techniques include data reduction, data presentation and verification / drawing conclusions, while checking the validity of the data is done by extending observations , observation accuracy, and triangulation. The findings in this study indicate that the principal considers the teacher to have professional competence obtained from his education, the principal considers that the implementation of supervision is not so important, and the principal himself does not know about optimal supervision. The conclusion is that the principal has not performed his duties as a supervisor optimally because the principal thinks the teacher already has professional competence obtained from his education so that the implementation of supervision is not so important. The principal should make a class visit to observe the learning process directly, then conduct individual talks to solve the problems faced by the teacher, and the principal programmatically conducts learning simulations for the teacher to observe.</p> Rusni Heru Setiawan Copyright (c) 2021 Rusni, Heru Setiawan 2021-04-01 2021-04-01 9 3 170 177 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3772 MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POSTHARVEST MANGO FRUITS AND EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS ACTIVITY OF GROWTH INHIBITION <p>This work aimed to perform the molecular identification of fungi mango fruits, in addition to verifying the effect of the essential oils for microbial control. Pericarp segments containing injured and healthy areas of mango fruits were initially disinfested, and then incubated in PDA culture medium at 25 °C. From all isolated material, UDC03, UDC04, UDC09 and UDC12 were preselected, which presented homogeneous cultures. The UDC04 and UDC12 isolates were submitted to the sequencing of the ITS region for presenting mycelial growth both greater and morphologically distinct of fungi from Colletotrichum genus. When BLAST is used in species identification, it was observed that UDC04 and UDC12 belong to Botryosphaeria dothidea and Neofusicoccum parvum, respectively. Regarding the control of UDC04, it was observed that BDA culture medium containing 1.5 to 2% of lemongrass and eucalyptus oils resulted in complete inhibition. For UDC12, mycelial growth inhibition was detected with the use of 1% and 1.5% essential oils of eucalyptus and lemongrass, respectively. The chia essential oil was not effective for the isolates control. Finally, the results reveal the importance of molecular identification of these phytopathogens associated with the establishment of an alternative control of fruits due to problems of contamination with chemical products.</p> Adilson Ricken Schuelter Fernando Otaviano da Silva Rosane dos Santos Grignet Debora Pereira Rafael Francisco da Silva Marcelo Ceccon Merçon Vieira Adriana Fiorini Rosado Vanessa Daneluz Gonçalves Copyright (c) 2021 Adilson Ricken Schuelter, Fernando Otaviano da Silva, Rosane dos Santos Grignet, Debora Pereira, Rafael Francisco da Silva, Marcelo Ceccon Merçon Vieira, Adriana Fiorini Rosado, Vanessa Daneluz Gonçalves 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 9 3 178 189 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3782 BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER WITH PARANOID ELEMENTS <p>The case of patient V is one you want to dig for, being an example in which a Cluster B disorder (i.e., borderline personality disorder) is also accompanied by elements from Cluster A (such as those in the paranoid area). Symptoms from the dependent personality can be involved.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The presentation of a medical case of an 18-year-old young man, initially diagnosed at the age of 16 with Bipolar Affective Personality Disorder, and whose personality structure is better explained by a Borderline Disorder is the aim of the present article.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The patient was hospitalized involuntarily. He was under medical supervision and treatment. He also underwent specialized investigations (EEG, brain CT), psychological and personality tests, as well as daily monitoring. Throughout the procedure there have been a collaboration with his family and the authorities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; From the detailed anamnesis and the reconstruction of the significant life events, a borderline personality structure emerged, having a paranoid core that provided V the capacity of being goal-oriented. The personality scales also showed elements of an antisocial nature, manipulation and desire to be socially liked. Psychodynamic interpretations show an emotional flattening, avoidance of being in touch with he's own emotions and feelings, his unconscious mind housing an unbearable pain.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The diagnosis of Bipolar Personality Disorder, sustained two years ago, is refuted, the patient being included in an axis II frame (i.e. borderline personality with a strong paranoid core and pathology of addiction)</p> Alexandra-Cristina Anghel Daria-Elvira Cosma Ramona Năstase Simona Trifu Copyright (c) 2021 Alexandra-Cristina Anghel, Daria-Elvira Cosma, Ramona Năstase, Simona Trifu 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 9 3 190 194 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3796 PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA -BETWEEN HYPERSEXUALITY AND SADOMASOCHISM <p><strong>Motivation/Background:</strong> In this paper we aimed at clinically analyzing a patient diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, who also displays features specific to multiple personality disorders, in the context of a presentation whose key topic is sexuality. Given the global prevalence and the severity of schizophrenia, it is increasingly important to appropriately adapt and identify the patients' clinical and non-clinical personality profile. This paper also aims at making the profile of a patient diagnosed with axis I disorder ever since the age of 19, who also has got traits specific to certain personality disorders. At the same time, the work provides an interpretation of the behaviour from the psycho-dynamic point of view.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The following instruments were used for performing the analysis: a clinical interview, heteroanamnesis, psychological tests, clinical course monitoring, psychodynamic interpretations, defence mechanisms identification, psychiatric observation and treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the materials aforementioned, it has been established a possible diagnosis which includes multiple disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, Cotard Syndrome, Kandinsky-Clérambault Syndrome. and there were identified defense mechanisms and coping strategies, under the influence of sexuality and sadomasochistic impulses.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is highlighted the clinical picture of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia, who presents symptoms for differential diagnoses, with disorganized discourse focused on sexuality, with delusional ideation, psychotic manifestation, but also with high suggestibility, especially on the paternal line</p> Simona Trifu Beligeanu Mihaela Iacob Beatrice Ștefana Larimian Ștefania Parisa Copyright (c) 2021 Simona Trifu, Beligeanu Mihaela, Iacob Beatrice Ștefana, Larimian Ștefania Parisa 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 9 3 195 203 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3791 YIELD RESPONSES OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS LUNATUS (THUMB) IN A COASTAL PLAIN SOIL UNDER VARIABLE FERTILIZER RATES AND IRRIGATION REGIME IN A DRY SEASON PRODUCTION CYCLE <p>Field experiments were conducted during 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons at Illah, Delta North ecological zone of Nigeria to investigate the appropriate rates of NPK fertilizer and irrigation intervals in relation to yield response of water melon (Citrullus lunatus). The site had sandy loam texture, low in organic carbon (0.38%), low in total nitrogen (0.064%), available phosphorus (6.83 mgkg-1) and cation exchange capacity (6.74 cmolkg-1). The fertilizer rates were (0:0:0), (50:25:25), (80:40:40), and (120:60:60) KgN, P2O5 and K2O/ha and irrigation regimes of 6:12:18 days. It was a factorial experiment laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that increase in fertilizer rates from 0:0:0 to 80:40:40 kg/ha significantly increased growth and fruit yield. Further increase to 120:60:60 kg/ha depressed yield. Increase irrigation intervals from 6 -12 days also influenced significantly growth and fruit yield and further increase to 18 days intervals affected negatively the parameters. Interaction effects between fertilizer x irrigation intervals were not significant. Correlation analysis showed that the growth and yield characters were significant and positively correlated with fruit yield. Results indicated that fertilizer rates and 12 days irrigation interval were adequate and recommended for increased production of watermelon in the study area.</p> Collins EGBUCHUA Emmanuel Chukudinife ENUJEKE Copyright (c) 2021 Collins EGBUCHUA, Emmanuel Chukudinife ENUJEKE 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 9 3 204 210 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3794 MEDIA POLICIES OF THE STATE IN THE TIME OF COVID-19 <p>Media and communication management during pandemic is very crucial to development process of the nation. This paper analyses four (public) policy level actions of India, through its media units and ministries viz., MIB, MoC and MeitY . It uses a self-curated analytical framework, under three themes to study the policies and discusses their relevance and effectiveness. From C-DOT’s launch of communication strategies, to facilitating smooth operations of media, to curbing misinformation on Corona virus and representing “positive news”, an in-depth analysis has been conducted based on the designed framework.</p> Anogh Acharya Unnikrishnan K. Copyright (c) 2021 Anogh Acharya, Unnikrishnan K. 2021-04-07 2021-04-07 9 3 211 220 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3800 SASI - BASED PROTECTION FOREST STRATEGY IN MALUKU (AMBON) <p>This research is about Sasi-based protection forest strategy, it is done to find out how the Sasi-based protection strategy mechanism in protecting the forest. The research method used is a qualitative research method with a normative legal research. The research was conducted at Universitas Kristen Indonesia from January to March 2021. The objects studied in this study were documents either in reports or regulations related to indigenous peoples' local wisdom. The research instrument used was a document checklist. The data analysis technique used is the descriptive analysis technique. The result of the research is that traditional Sasi wisdom has values and norms to protect forests, water sources, annual plants and food plants. With the concept and understanding of how environmental managers with various customary rules to obtain benefits and maintain the kinship value of area units that already have an identity and must continuously be maintained in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, food security for indigenous peoples on the island of Maluku (Ambon) during the Covid-19 pandemic, namely by building food security by encouraging a new paradigm based on local food with directions and policies for developing food security and absorption of dryland technology to support sustainable food self-sufficiency through sources</p> Aarce Tehupeiory Copyright (c) 2021 Aarce Tehupeiory 2021-04-08 2021-04-08 9 3 221 228 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3809 HOW TO CRITICALLY APPRAISE A RESEARCH PAPER? <p><strong>Background:</strong> Critical appraisal of research paper is a fundamental skill in modern medical practice, which is skills-set and developed throughout the professional career. The professional experience facilitates this and through integration with clinical experience and patient preference, permits high quality evidence-based medicine practice in patient care. These skills to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by the clinicians involved in clinical practice.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To provide a simple and robust method for assessing the trustworthiness of a research paper and its value in clinical practice.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Through detailed literature search, All essential sections and subsection mandatory for a research paper were identified followed by the necessary steps or information required in each section or questions which may arise or needs to addressed were identified. The important questions or steps which are integral in assessing the reliability and validity of a research are gathered during critical review of a research paper.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 128 full text articles, 49 full-text articles containing robust and pertinent information as per objective were short listed for review.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Critical appraisal of a research paper or project is a fundamental skill in modern medical practice for assessing the worth of clinical research and in providing a guideline of its relevance to the profession.</p> Ishtiaq Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Ishtiaq Ahmed 2021-04-08 2021-04-08 9 3 229 240 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3779 HISTRIONIC IMMATURE PERSONALITY DISORDER <p>Background: We aim at presenting a clinical case of a 37-year-old patient, who has been a nun for several years and at the moment can no longer adapt to the environment in which she lives and to the requirements of everyday life. The perspective of this analysis is both a psychiatric one, explaining the diagnosis of Axis II of Histrionic Immature Personality Disorder, but also the overlap with dissociative conversion disorder, and explanatory from a psychodynamic perspective, by addressing the regression issues and the presence of the Oedipus Complex.</p> <p>Histrionic Immature Personality Disorder and its overlap with Dissociative/Conversion Disorder are conditions with negative effects in terms of adaptation to the social environment and assuming professional responsibilities. Also, the particularities in the sphere of immaturity make it difficult to relate to those around.</p> <p>Method: Hospitalization, psychiatric interview, psychodynamic interview, psychological tests - CAQ Personality Questionnaire and the Szondi Test, psychodynamic interpretations.</p> <p>Results: The results highlight aspects of an immature premorbid personality, characterized by a high degree of sensitivity. Currently, the patient's ego is fragile and cannot adapt to the emotional meanings in the environment in which she lives, which leads to functional crises and manifestations such as dissociative fugue.</p> <p>Conclusions: Dissociative manifestations are associated with immaturity and reduced ability to adapt to professional requirements. On a personal level, the same immaturity leads to the denial of one's sexuality and projection.</p> Simona Trifu Elena-Alexandra Neacșa Ștefania-Elena Neagoe Andreea-Simina Ojică Copyright (c) 2021 Simona Trifu, Elena-Alexandra Neacșa, Ștefania-Elena Neagoe, Andreea-Simina Ojică 2021-04-08 2021-04-08 9 3 241 247 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3801 SOFTWARE FOR CALCULATING A WATER QUALITY INDICATOR SPECIFIC TO THE AMAZON REGION <p>The quality of the water in the Amazon's reservoirs is of fundamental importance for natural ecosystems, biota, and for the region's population. Maintaining the water quality involves long-term monitoring programs established by the requirements of Brazilian legislation. A web interface may facilitate the use of monitoring results routinely, which allows periodic insertion of previously selected water quality parameters results, to finally provide a simple and direct way to evaluate the water quality. The general objective of this study was to develop a software based on a water quality indicator (WQI) system considering chemical, physical-chemical, and biological parameters evaluated in four seasonal periods in Samuel dam. Multivariate analysis was used to select 10 significant variables (oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, chlorophyll a, phosphate, Ba, Ca, Fe, Na, and Sn). The web software added innovation to the project, enabling to storage of data from analysis of field-collected samples in an organized and safe way in a database, in addition to speeding up the calculation of the WQI, making it possible to classify the water quality more quickly and accurately.</p> A. M. F. de Souza S. F. P. Pereira L. P. Santos C. S. e Silva R. M. Rocha R. M. de Sousa D. P. Nogueira Copyright (c) 2021 A. M. F. de Souza, S. F. P. Pereira, L. P. Santos, C. S. e Silva, R. M. Rocha, R. M. de Sousa, D. P. Nogueira 2021-04-08 2021-04-08 9 3 248 261 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3802 THROUGH THE LENS OF A WOMAN WITH SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER: A CASE STUDY <p><strong>Motivation/Background: </strong>Historically speaking, the distinction between manic-depressive disorders and schizophrenia finds itself in an unclear and vast spectrum bordered by the two illnesses. In this paper, we will present a case study that raises a question of diagnosis: bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder? Following the description of the symptoms and diagnosis criteria of each of the disorders, along with the personal data of the patient (the ones that are available to us), we will attempt analyzing the case as thoroughly as possible. The paper introduces the case of a 40-year-old woman who presents affective/mood related symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>psychiatric evaluation, psychiatric interview, psychodynamic interview and psychodynamic interpretation.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The subject has a pathology of attachment developed over a structure with homosexual attachment choices. The multiple psychotraumas of childhood and the busy life history overlap with a vulnerability for emotional manifestations. She develops as axis I pathology a bipolar affective disorder, which at the moment takes the form of a mixed dispositional episode with psychotic phenomena. The artistic side makes it work markedly on delirious interpretativity, as it is to be appreciated the patient's effort not to completely detach from reality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Late detection of these habits by the relatives, as well as other signs of psychiatric conditions, has contributed to an alteration of the identity of the patient and an inability to develop proper social behavior. After an overview of the patient's life experience, we can presume that the psychiatric condition is present and that it is evolving. The aim of the paper is to provide a theoretical viewpoint on this specific pathology, with particular features for this case study</p> Simona Trifu Emilia Șerban Meryem Serdaroglu Naomi Evelina Soare Copyright (c) 2021 Simona Trifu, Emilia Șerban, Meryem Serdaroglu, Naomi Evelina Soare 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 9 3 262 268 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3805 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SPRINGBACK OF LOCALLY HEATED ADVANCED-HIGH STRENGTH STEELS <p>Sheet metal bending is one of the important metals forming processes at ambient temperature. The usage of high-strength steel is one of the stronger materials for the construction of components in the automotive industries. However, for complex shapes, cold forming is not always sufficient, and heating the workpiece plays a major role in manufacturing these shapes. Bendability may increase with increasing forming temperature and currently, hot forming of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is becoming more attractive. While hot forming of AHSS is beneficial for high formability, subsequent quenching is required to maintain final strength. This procedure extends the production time. In this study, temperature gradients, bending loads, and springback after V-bending were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on a 2 mm thick Docol 1500M steel at various temperatures by using a speed-controlled servo press machine. The bending regions of the specimens were locally heated to 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600oC by using a high-frequency induction heating device. The results show that; punch loads were significantly lowered with increasing the local heating temperature during bending. There were no cracks observed on the specimens. The amount of spring back is decreasing with the bending temperature and around 500oC almost no springback was measured. Negative spring back was observed for the bending temperatures higher than 500oC</p> Omer Eyercioglu Sevket Alacaci Mehmet Aladag Copyright (c) 2021 Omer Eyercioglu, Sevket Alacaci, Mehmet Aladag 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 9 3 269 277 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3811 EVALUATION OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION LEARNING PROGRAM USING THE CSE-UCLA EVALUATION MODEL AT THE PPD SOCIAL WELFARE INSTITUTION IN KOTA BATU <p>A good lesson should involve an evaluation based on the results or outputs of the teaching-learning transformation process and pays attention to evaluating each program component in the learning process itself. Educators in the field are busily spurring students to obtain satisfactory evaluation results. It holds meaningful learning is equally important to evaluate whether the learning that educators do is good or still needs to be improved or even replaced. It is necessary to evaluate the learning program. The Doulos recovery cottage social welfare institution that has handled mental illness clients using PAK learning therapy needs to be evaluated. The PAK learning program's evaluation for psychic clients at the Doulos recovery cottage, Batu City, East Java social welfare—knowing the CSE-UCLA evaluation model for the PAK learning program using four stages of question variables. Every psychic client can be handled appropriately for a good recovery</p> Djoys Anneke Rantung Susan Latupeirissa Copyright (c) 2021 Djoys Anneke Rantung, Susan Latupeirissa 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 9 3 278 287 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3812 CHALLENGES FACED BY ART AND TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIAL AND ETHICAL GROUNDS <p>The use of technologies in art is at its peak and it wouldn't be wrong to state that the blend of technology and art has become the strongest factor for shaping the educational and artistic landscape. From reviving modern art, technology acts as an influential path for artists to create something unique. Different genres of art also merge with technology and give rise to pieces of work that reflect exclusiveness. It offers a powerful connection paralleled with human endeavor. These digital technologies instill smart thinking, smart concepts, and methods of creation in artists. However, the study explores the challenges faced by art and technology in terms of social and ethical platforms. To study the challenges faced by art and technology, we will also discuss opportunities it provides to artists and the art industry. To address the research paper, the study adopts a quantitative method to answer the research objectives</p> MANINDER SINGH DHUNNA Garima Singh Copyright (c) 2021 MANINDER SINGH DHUNNA, Garima Singh 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 9 3 288 290 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3489 ATTITUDE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS OF SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA TOWARDS UTILIZATION OF WATER SANITATION FACILITIES <p>The study examined the Attitude of rural households of south west Nigeria towards utilization of water sanitation facilities the study specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the rural household heads; identified various sources of water supply and their providers; determined the attitude of respondents to the utilization of water sanitation facilities and identified the constraints to water sanitation facilities utilization. The population of the study comprised of all the rural households in Ondo and Oyo States in Southwestern of Nigeria. The sampling procedure employed was multistage sampling technique to select 355 household heads comprising a total of 167 rural household considered out of 278 rural households from the selected cells in Oyo state while a total of 188 rural household heads selected out of 314 rural household heads from the selected cells in Ondo State for the study. The data for the study were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation while inferential statistical tools such as logistic regression analysis model and Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The result revealed a mean age of the respondents from Ondo State was 47 years while that of respondents from Oyo State was 45 years. Rain water collection was the major source of improved water supply from Ondo State (87.4%) and Oyo State (86.7%). Majority had favourable attitude towards utilization of water sanitation facilities while the level of utilization of water sanitation facilities is still on moderate level. The result of the Regression analysis model indicated that years of schooling (t=-3.758***; p=0.000) and households’ size (t=-2.089**; p=0.037) were significantly related to utilization of water sanitation facilities. It was therefore concluded that the utilization of water sanitation facilities was influenced by income level, household size and people’s attitude/disposition towards water sanitation facilities. Since income level is a strong determinant of utilization of water sanitation facilities, there is need to make credit available to the rural households in case of breakdown of the facilities to enable immediate repairs thereby enhancing their health and utilization level</p> W.A. Adewole A.R. Ayoade E.O Oladapo Copyright (c) 2021 W.A. Adewole, A.R. Ayoade, O.E Oladapo 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 9 3 291 300 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3566 ASSESSMENT OF WATER SANITATION FACILITIES UTILIZATION AMONG THE RURAL HOUSEHOLDS OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA <p>The study examined the water sanitation facilities utilization among the rural households of south west Nigeria. The study specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the rural household heads; identified various sources of water supply and their providers; examined the rural household heads’ knowledge of water source contamination; examined respondents’ awareness of adequate water treatment methods and the awareness of waterborne disease. The population of the study comprised of all the rural households in Ondo and Oyo States in Southwestern of Nigeria. The sampling procedure employed was multistage sampling technique to select 355 household heads comprising a total of 167 rural household considered out of 278 rural households from the selected cells in Oyo state while a total of 188 rural household heads selected out of 314 rural household heads from the selected cells in Ondo State for the study. The data for the study were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation while inferential statistical tool such as logistic regression analysis model</p> <p>The mean age of the respondents from Ondo State was 47 years while that of respondents from Oyo State was 45 years. Rain water collection was the major source of improved water supply from Ondo State (87.4%) and Oyo State (86.7%). In both Ondo and Oyo States, the knowledge of water source contamination is still on moderate level. Households in Ondo State (WMS = 2.98) and Oyo State (WMS = 2.91) were more aware of boiling of water as the major adequate water treatment methods. In both states, the awareness of adequate water treatment methods is still on moderate level. In both States, the awareness of water-borne diseases is still on moderate level, majority had favourable attitude towards utilization of water sanitation facilities while the level of utilization of water sanitation facilities is still on moderate level. The result of the Regression analysis model indicated that years of schooling (t=-3.758***; p=0.000) and households’ size (t=-2.089**; p=0.037) were significantly related to utilization of water sanitation facilities.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It was therefore concluded that the utilization of water sanitation facilities was influenced by income level, knowledge of water source contamination, awareness of adequate water treatment methods, awareness of water-borne diseases, household size. The local council being the agency saddled with water provision, should be more empowered in terms of resources and facilities in order to be able to do their work of water provision and water sanitation information dissemination effectively</p> W.A. Adewole A.R. Ayoade O.A Olaniyi E.O Oladapo Copyright (c) 2021 W.A. Adewole, A.R. Ayoade, O.A Olaniyi, O.E Oladapo 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 9 3 301 308 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3567 RACISM: AFRICAN AMERICANS’ EXPERIENCES AS VICTIMS OF SLAVERY AND SEGREGATION AS IMPLEMENTED BY THE POLICIES OF WHITE SUPREMACY <p>This essay will be divided into three parts – Slavery, Segregation, and Past and Recent Events that will document the impact on the social, political, and economic fabric of marginalized communities. It will focus on the social construct theory of domination and subordination and the caste system that subjugated African Americans under the guise of white supremacy</p> Fred Bedell Copyright (c) 2021 Fred Bedell 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 9 3 309 320 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3804 ANALYZING SPATIAL-PHYSICAL LAYOUT OF URBAN BAZARS: A WAY TO BRING BACK THE PUBLIC SPACES INSIDE MARKETPLACES WITH A CONSIDERATION FOR SAFETY ISSUES <p>The acceleration of diversified retail in urban streets and bazars, reachable from homes and work have become a common phenomenon in achieving an environmental, social, economic and sustainable neighborhood. Fostering social cohesion, such settlements encompass, groceries, confectionaries, soft drinks, magazines and newspapers, tobacco products, restaurants and cafes which help to build community. Local employment is also generated by such local trade points. Despite the popularity of street trading, the system of growth of such establishments remains chaotic and they lack public spaces within the market. This study analyses the dynamics of urban streets and bazar and social life at the local public space inside the market keeping in mind the current safety situation of the pandemic in three cases of Dhaka city and proposes possible opportunities to overcome the anarchy</p> Muzaiana Naomi Khan Saniya Tabassum Copyright (c) 2021 Muzaiana Naomi Khan, Saniya Tabassum 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 9 3 321 337 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3818 A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE LEVEL OF HAPPINESS AMONGST PRACTITIONERS OF YOGA, AEROBICS AND WALKING DURING CORONA LOCKDOWN <p>Fitness and Yoga has been the focus of studies in recent decades for the not only the general well-being but also a therapeutic modality for mental stress, obesity, and other lifestyle disorders. Individual studies indicate positive effects of exercises like aerobics, walking and yoga under covid-19 lockdown conditions, suggesting that they can be used as non-pharmacological and as non-invasive interventions or as a supplement to drug therapy for the prevention and treatment of various mental and physical conditions. 120 moderately active healthy males (59) and females (61) volunteered to participate in the survey study with the aim to study the level of happiness and related variables age, body mass index, level of education and choice of physical activity of the participants. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) developed by psychologists Michael Argyle and Peter Hills at Oxford University was used to collect data. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the choice of activity out of the three namely: aerobics, yoga and walking to stay fit and healthy. The level of happiness was found to be better for those who spent a greater number of years in school/college/university and another finding was that the level happiness was lower amongst the participants who were of more age as compared to the ones who were of lesser age. There was a significant difference in the level of happiness amongst the walkers, aerobic practitioners and yoga practitioners. It was not possible however to point out exactly the magnitude of difference between the three groups because the data was non-parametric. No gender differences were observed amongst males and females on level of happiness on activities chosen by the participants (aerobics, yoga and walking) to stay fit and healthy. Significant differences amongst the participants were observed amongst the underweight, normal weight and overweight participants</p> Vikram Singh Pragyendu Yaduvanshi Karan Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Vikram Singh, Pragyendu Yaduvanshi, Karan Singh 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 9 3 338 346 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3829 ART OF TYEB MEHTA <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>English :&nbsp;</strong>Most of the paintings of internationally renowned painter and sculptor Tyeb Mehta, honored with Kalidas and Padma Bhushan, have been influenced by many incidents in the childhood, Edward Munsch and Kokoshka had a great influence on Tyeb, born in Kheda, Gujarat, in his art style from time to time. But change is seen. In the initial paintings, the expression has been given space, in the medium level pictures, the expression of the space has been replaced by the bifurcated two- dimensional picture and the empty space, the diagonal took its place in the final pictures, under which started drawing pictures in triangles. With festivals, Kali, etc., he was counted among the most expensive artists of India. During his lifetime, he produced very few artifacts and died in 2009. Apart from the sculptor, he was also a film maker.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Hindi :&nbsp;</strong>कालिदास और पद्म भूषण से सम्मानित अंतरराष्ट्रीय स्तर के प्रसिद्ध चित्रकार और मूर्तिकार तैयब मेहता के चित्रों में से अधिकांश बचपन में कई घटनाओं से प्रभावित रहे हैं,&nbsp;एडवर्ड मुंस और कोकश्का ने अपनी कला में गुजरात के खेड़ा में पैदा हुए तैयब पर काफी प्रभाव डाला था। समय-समय पर शैली। लेकिन बदलाव देखा जाता है। प्रारंभिक चित्रों में,&nbsp;अभिव्यक्ति को स्थान दिया गया है,&nbsp;मध्यम स्तर के चित्रों में,&nbsp;अंतरिक्ष की अभिव्यक्ति को द्विभाजित दो-आयामी चित्र और खाली स्थान से बदल दिया गया है,&nbsp;विकर्ण ने अंतिम चित्रों में अपना स्थान लिया,&nbsp;जिसके तहत त्रिकोणों में चित्र बनाना शुरू किया। त्योहारों,&nbsp;काली आदि के साथ,&nbsp;उन्हें भारत के सबसे महंगे कलाकारों में गिना जाता था। अपने जीवनकाल के दौरान,&nbsp;उन्होंने बहुत कम कलाकृतियों का निर्माण किया और 2009 में उनकी मृत्यु हो गई। मूर्तिकार के अलावा,&nbsp;वह एक फिल्म निर्माता भी थे।</p> Kulwinder Kaur Anjali Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Kulwinder Kaur, Anjali Pandey 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 9 3 347 352 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3783 COLOUR TRADITION & CHALCOLITHIC POTTERY <p>Hindi: "भूतकाल का अध्ययन केवल वर्तमान के माध्यम से ही किया जा सकता है । बीते हुए समय के अध्ययन के लिए वर्तमान वस्तुओं तथा वर्तमान में विद्यमान संस्करणों को भूतकाल के अवशेषों के रूप में लेकर उनसे भूतकाल की घटनाओं के बारे में निष्कर्ष निकाला जाता है। वे तर्क जिनके आधार पर निष्कर्ष निकाले जाते हैं वे वर्तमान वस्तुओं घटनाओं तथा संबंधों के अवलोकन पर आधारित होते हैं"।<sup>1</sup>&nbsp;</p> <p>English: The excavation work done in India gives information about the stages of ancient Indian culture and various cultural region and their important characteristics. The materials and pottery found from the excavation of chalcolithic sites in Madhya Pradesh are the direct evidences of tradition of pottery paintings . In Madhya Pradesh the cultural range from the Chalcolithic (Tamrashmiya) period to the early medieval period can be traced to the sites of Kayatha, Ujjain, Nagda, Vidisha, Maheshwar-Nawadatoli, Arawa, etc..The erstwhile pottery here provides a perfect example of the amalgamation of different cultures. The Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh has its own style of personal character tradition, this tradition has been more advanced and elaborate than other eligible traditions.</p> Anjali Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Anjali Pandey 2021-04-14 2021-04-14 9 3 353 359 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3817 THE IMPACT OF MANIPURI DANCE IN THE ROYAL COURT OF TRIPURA <p>Manipuri people are a small group of Tripura. During the time of the Maharaja’s these people’s song and music attained a very special status. Firstly, it was royal palace centered, secondly, in various places of Tripura in the Manipuri dominant areas and in their temples, mandaps or at various festivals. According to many writers it can be said clearly like a mirror the Manipuri culture touched Tripura during the tenure of Rajdhar Manikya from 1785 – 1804. And at that very same time the tenure of Manipuri king Bhagyachandra is 1759 – 61 and 1763 – 1798. The Manipuri Raas established by him later on achieved the status of Indian classical dance. In later times, Manipuri culture started influencing the royal palace right after Harisheshwari became the queen of Tripura. In that time’s Agartala that means in Old Agartala, near to the royal palace for the first time Radhamadhab temple was established. The name of the Manipuri dominant areas in this Old Agartala is Nalgaria. This is where Maharani Tulsibati took birth. According to the writer Udainarayan Adhikari – “The Manipuri’s who came to Tripura with Princes Harisheshwari of Manipur at the fag end of the 18th century as a result of her wedding with Rajdhar Manikya II of Tripura, were settled in a village near capital old Agartala. This village now goes by the name of Mekhlipara, because Mekhli was the Tripura name for Manipur in the days of yore. There is a small township called Ranir Bazar a few kilometres east of Old Agartala or Khayerpur. It was founded by the Manipuri queen Maharani Tulsibati. Her parents lived at Nalgadiya a little east of Ranirbazar. So she founded this bazaar or township in order to develop this area. The name Ranirbaazar reminds us that it was founded by a Rani (Maharani Tulsibati).</p> Sudeshna Singha Copyright (c) 2021 Sudeshna Singha 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 9 3 360 367 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i3.2021.3785