• Dr Juhaina Abdulrahiem PhD in Epidemiology, Infection control department , King Saud Medical City Riyadh Saudi Arabia
  • Asia Sultan MD. Infection Control Department, King Saud Medical City Riyadh Saudi Arabia
  • Faisl Alaklobi MD. Infection Control Department, King Saud Medical City Riyadh Saudi Arabia
  • Hala Amer Phd Infection Control Department, King Saud Medical City Riyadh Saudi Arabia
  • Hind Alzoman MD. Infection Control Department, King Saud Medical City Riyadh Saudi Arabia




Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) is a type of bloodstream infection that is caused by microorganisms after the insertion of central lines. Paediatric Intensive Care Units have been studied to conduct this research on CLABSI in children from 2 to 15 years old. Children have been divided in two age groups that are 2-5 and 5-15 years. The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne has been chosen as a sample of this besides other five hospitals of Australia. A total of 350 patients are studied in the course of this research and 216 among them were inserted with central lines. Bloodstream infection has been identified in 49 patients from these 216 patients and CLABSI occurred in 75.51% of them that is 37 patients. Associated microorganisms and other underlying diseases are listed in this study to develop an idea about factors responsible for CLABSI.


Download data is not yet available.


Alghamdi, S. (2018). The Adoption of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Saudi Arabia. University of Hertfordshire. https://doi.org/10.18745/th.21153 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26226/morressier.5ad774d7d462b80296ca6443

Almasadi, M. M., Al-Qahtani, S. M., & Alhelali, I. (2020). Pattern and Frequency of Hospi- tal Acquired Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Abha Maternity and Chil- dren Hospital, Saudi Arabia. World Family Medicine Journal/Middle East Journal of Fam- ily Medicine, 18(8), 5–12. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.5742/mewfm.2020.93839 10.5742/mewfm.2020.93839 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5742/MEWFM.2020.93839

Armignacco, P., Garzotto, F., Bellini, C., Neri, M., Lorenzin, A., Sartori, M., & Ronco, C. (2015). Pumps in Wearable Ultrafiltration Devices: Pumps in Wuf Devices. Blood Purification, 39(1-3), 115–124. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000368943 10.1159/000368943 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000368943

Ayaz, I., Hameed, H., Amber, W., & Zafar, T. (2020). Nosocomial Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi Pakistan. Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College, 9(4), 269–274. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.35787/jimdc.v9i4.533 10.35787/jimdc.v9i4.533 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35787/jimdc.v9i4.533

Baer, S. L., Larsh, A. H., Prunier, A., Thurmond, V., Goins, D., Hickox, N., Gardenhire, M., Walker, T., Bernal, S., Nowacki, M., Griffin, L., & Hunter-Watson, H. (2020). Reduction of Central-Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections in a Spinal Cord Injury Unit (Vol. 41). Cambridge University Press (CUP). Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.998 10.1017/ice.2020.998 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.998

Bearman, M., & G. (2020). (Vol. 41). Cambridge University Press.

Burke, P., Nickoli, E., Sitaras, J., Mullins, W., & Dandache, P. (2020). Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters Present on Admission and the Risk of Central-Line–Associated Blood- stream Infection (Vol. 41). Cambridge University Press (CUP). Retrieved from https:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.964 10.1017/ice.2020.964 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.964

catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in adult ICUs. (n.d.). Journal of hospital medicine, 13(2), 105–116.

Constantinescu, C., Furr, C. C., Vayalumkal, J., Conly, J., Gilfoyle, E., & Kassam, A. (2020). Friend or Foe: Perceptions of Infectious Disease Specialists as Stewards and Social Determinants of Antimicrobial Prescribing (Vol. 41). Cambridge University Press (CUP). Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.791 10.1017/ice.2020.791 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.791

Coombs, G., Bell, J. M., Daley, D., Collignon, P., Cooley, L., Gottlieb, T., Iredell, J., Kotsanas, D., Nimmo, G., & Robson, J. (2000). Level 5, 255 Elizabeth Street. Sydney NSW. Retrieved from Website:www.safetyandquality.gov.au

Costello, J. M., Morrow, D. F., Graham, D. A., Potter-Bynoe, G., Sandora, T. J., & Laussen, P. C. (2008). Systematic Intervention to Reduce Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Rates in a Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit. PEDIATRICS, 121(5), 915–923. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-1577 10.1542/peds.2007-1577 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-1577

DeMuro, J., McNelis, J., Hanna, A., Thekkel, V., Chandrankunnel, J., & Cunha, B. A. (2012).

Beyond Bundles and Coated Catheters: Effective Interventions to Decrease Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) (Vol. 33). Cambridge University Press (CUP). Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/668035 10.1086/668035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/668035

Dube, W., Jacob, J., Zheng, Z., Huang, Y., Robichaux, C., Steinberg, J., & Fridkin, S. (2020). The Second Central Line Increases Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Risk by 80%: Implications for Inpatient Quality Reporting Programs, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Cambridge University Press, 41(S1), 499–500. https://doi.org/ 10.1017/ice.2020.1180 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.1180

Fakih, M. G., Groves, C., Bufalino, A., Sturm, L. K., & Hendrich, A. L. (2017). Definitional Change in NHSN CAUTI Was Associated with an Increase in CLABSI Events: Evaluation of a Large Health System. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 38(06), 685–689. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2017.41 10.1017/ice.2017.41 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2017.41

Fontela, P. S., Rocher, I., Platt, R. W., Pai, M., Buckeridge, D. L., Frenette, C., Dionne, M., & Quach, C. (2015). Evaluation of the Reporting Validity of Central Line–Associated Blood- stream Infection Data to a Provincial Surveillance Program. Cambridge University Press, 34(2). https://doi.org/10.1086/669074 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/669074

Grigg, C., Nkwata, A., Gross, C., & Magill, S. (2019). Characteristics of Pediatric Ventilator- Associated Events Reported to the National Healthcare Safety Net- work. Cambridge University Press, 41(S1), 164–164. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.689[Opensinanewwindow] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.689

Hammadi, A. A., Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Boston, K., Mcinnis-Cole, T., & Butler, J. (0113). Accu- racy of the NHSN Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) Definition. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5, 3–3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy209.004

Holder, C., Overton, E., Kalaf, S., Wong, D., Holdsworh, J., Yun, M., Schreck, D., Haun, P., Omess, S., Whitson, M., Ott, D., Mitchell, R., & Steinberg, J. (2020). Impact of Expan- sion of Vascular Access Team on Central-line–Associated Bloodstream Infections. Infec- tion Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 41(S1), s260–s260. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.825 10.1017/ice.2020.825 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.825

Infection Data to a Provincial Surveillance Program, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiol- ogy. (n.d.)., 34, 217–219.

Kendirli, T., Yaman, A., Ödek, Ç., Özdemir, H., Karbuz, A., Aldemir, B., Güriz, H., Ateş, C., Özsoy, G., Aysev, D., Çiftçi, E., & İnce, E. (2017). Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Turkish Journal of Pediatric Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine, 4(2), 42–46. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.4274/cayd.86580 10.4274/cayd.86580 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4274/cayd.86580

Lee, B., Durand, J., Jones, H., Gartner, N., Driscoll, J., Watson, C., Chandran, U., Sivarajan, V., Pereira, N., Clonfero, M., Degroot, J., & Childs, M. (2020a). Collaborative.

Lee, B., Durand, J., Jones, H., Gartner, N., Driscoll, J., Watson, C., Chandran, U., Sivarajan, V., Pereira, N., Clonfero, M., Degroot, J., & Childs, M. (2020b). Approach to Developing Infec- tion Prevention Control Recommendations at a Tertiary-Care Pediatric Hospital, Infec- tion Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Cambridge University Press, 41(S1), 173–173. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.702[Opensinanewwindow] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.702

Maria, G., & Christos, T. (2020). The impact of central line insertion and maintenance care checklist on central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs): A literature review. Rostrum of Asclepius/Vima tou Asklipiou, 19(1).

Marschall, J., Mermel, L. A., Fakih, M., Hadaway, L., Kallen, A., Grady, N. P., Pettis, A. M., Rupp, M. E., Sandora, T., Maragakis, L. L., & Yokoe, D. S. (2014). Strategies to Prevent Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in Acute Care Hospitals. Infection Con- trol & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(S2), 89–107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0899823X00193870

Moss, M., Ehni, J., Herbison, I., Rabii, K. B., Koepsell, C., Devries, E., Fetman, R., Latrace, M., Mahoney, C. D., Neill, A., Kranitzky, B. ., Bailey, P. L., Patrick, A., Rittmann, B. J., Pryor, R., Cooper, K., & Doll, M. E. (0505). Use of CLABSI Prevention Bundle Audits to Decrease CLABSI Rates in COVID Positive ICU Patients in an Acute Care Hospital in New York City During the COVID-19 Epidemic. In Open Forum Infectious Diseases (Vol. 7, pp. 318–319). Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa439.699

Niedner, M. F., Huskins, W. C., Colantuoni, E., Muschelli, J., Harris, J. M., Rice, T. B., Brilli, R. J., & Miller, M. R. (2011). Epidemiology of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 32(12), 1200–1208. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/662621 10.1086/662621 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/662621

Pan, R., Fuller, J., Gaines, T., Hill, J., Hueso, B., Liu, C., & Mitchell, H. J. (2016).

Patel, P. K., Gupta, A., Vaughn, V. M., Mann, J. D., Ameling, J. M., & Meddings, J. (2017). Review of strategies to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Europe PMC, 105–116. Retrieved from https://europepmc.org/article/med/29154382 10.12788/jhm.2856

Qiu, Y., Lam, J., Leung, S., & Liang, W. (2016). Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics to the Airways— From Bench to Bedside. Molecules, 21(9), 1249–1249. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091249 10.3390/molecules21091249 Rch, O., & Au. (n.d.). 2021. About. Available. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091249

Saedi, A., Jasthaniah, A., Yaseen, W., Alahmadi, M., Taguas, M., Tana, R., Abuskout, E., Younis, O., Daniel, O., Bhutta, M., Alshamrani, J., & M. (2019). 34 Achieving and sustaining zero CLABSI events in oncology patients by implementing targeted interventions. BMJ Jour- nal, 8. Retrieved from https://bmjopenquality.bmj.com/content/8/Suppl_1/A15.2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2019-PSF.34

Steffens, R., & Sarrazin, D. (2015).

Steiner-Dillon, J. (2019). Sticking Points: Epistemic Pluralism in Legal Challenges to Manda- tory Vaccination Policies. SSRN Electronic Journal, 88, 169–169. Retrieved from https:// dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3334657 10.2139/ssrn.3334657 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3334657

Tang, H. J., Lai, C. C., & Chao, C. M. (2015). Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Caused by Sporobolomyces salmonicolor, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Cambridge University Press, 36(9), 1111–1112. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2015.158 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2015.158

Weber, S., von Cube, M., Sommer, H., & Wolkewitz, M. (2016). Necessity of a Competing Risk Approach in Risk Factor Analysis of Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infec- tion (Vol. 37). Cambridge University Press (CUP). Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/ 10.1017/ice.2016.166 10.1017/ice.2016.166 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2016.166

White, J. T., & Fraimow, H. (2011). Consistency versus Accuracy in Reporting Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (Vol. 32). Cambridge University Press (CUP). Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/659955 10.1086/659955 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/659955

Woods-Hill, C., Koontz, D., Voskertchian, A., Miller, M., Fackler, J., Shea, J., & Milstone, M. (2020). Bright STAR Collaborative Consensus Guidelines for Blood Culture Use in Crit- ically Ill Children, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Cambridge University Press, 41(51), 22–23. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.499[Opensinanewwindow] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.499



How to Cite

Abdulrahiem, J., Sultan, A., Alaklobi, F., Amer, H., & Alzoman, H. (2021). A COMPREHENSIVE UPDATE ON INCIDENCE, PREVALENCE AND COMPLEX ETIOLOGY OF CENTRAL LINE–ASSOCIATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION IN PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE UNITS IN KING SAUD MEDICAL CITY . International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(5), 56–63. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i5.2021.3907