Lecturer in Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Brawijaya University, Malang , Indonesia
Student of the Faculty of Animal Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

How to cite this article (APA): Junus, M, Jaya, F, , U, Kurniawan, MP, & Romadhon, YA (2021). Effect of temperature, use of quality waste and teachers in breast tank on gas bio performance. International Journal of Research - GRANTHAALAYAH, 9(4), 75. doi: 10.29121/granthaalayah.v9.i4.2021.3788


The aim of research to determine the effect of temperature and the use of livestock waste quail (LTP) and waste octopus (LG) in a digester tank is made of plastic curigen to the performance of gas bio production and nutrient content of sludge that is generated. The materials used are LTP and LG. The research method used 1) Randomized Block Design with 2 factors and 2) Completely Randomized Design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The first factor is the waste with 6 treatments are P0: 100% LTP, P1: sludge 90% and 10% LTP LG, P2: sludge 80% LTP, and 20% of LG, P3: s ludge  70% LTP, and 30 LG, P4: LTP and 20% LG, P5: sludge 50% LTP and 50% LG. The second factor with lamps, namely P01: without lamps, P02: use 1 lamp, P03: use 2 lamps. Furthermore, LTP and LG are diluted with water until they reach 7% dry matter and stored in a digestion tank (made of 24 plastic jerry cans with a volume of 25 liters ). The analysis showed that the effects of temperature, the use of LTP and LG have influence which is not significantly different (P > 0.0 1 ) against the pressure, the volume of gas bioand H S. Apart from that, it was also very significant (P <0.01) on the total N content, P elements and K elements, but the highest average total N and K element content was obtained in P0 sludge with a percentage of 100% LTP concentration. The conclusion of this study is that the effect of temperature, LTP, and LG affects the increase in gas bio production but not significantly different and the treatment of LTP and LG affects the increase in nutrient content.



Quail livestock waste (LTP) and octopus waste (LG) are generally as environmental threats that have not been given attention. Livestock waste is usually found around the sheds, while much of LG is dumped or buried in the ground. Finally, it produces liquid that enters the soil and produces groundwater contaminants. LTP and LG mixed with water and fermentation will produce gas bio and can open up ozone space, so that the location concerned can be said to be a source of environmental threats. LTP in general are planted in farms that can inhibit the production of livestock. That smell this will reduce the oxygen content of respiration, as a result the metabolic process is incomplete and egg production is not optimal [ (Junus, 1987)]. LG are mixed with water buried around the processing of octopus and if destroyed will produce nitrit (NO2), also known as NO3, which could contaminate the groundwater. Mixing LTP with LG which is inserted into the digestion tank will produce gas bio, with different substance and nutrient content than the LTP based on [Darmanto, Soeparman, and Wdhiyanuriawan, 2012].

According to (Junus, 2010)  Gas bio occurs when organic materials such as animal waste, fishery waste or organic waste stored in a closed or anaerobic place. LTP and LG are generally as overlooked environmental threats. However, if processed into gas bio digesters, they become environmentally friendly. The productivity of gas bio is influenced by the temperature of the air environment because temperature greatly affects the decomposing microorganisms in the anaerobic fermentation process. Bacteria perform the highest activity in a temperature range of 35 ° C to 55 ° C [ (Junus, 2015)].

Sludge is a waste gas unit of gas bio, in the form of organic material that is ready to be used for further living creatures. Sludge that is separated into solids can be processed into animal feed and liquid as liquid fertilizer which is ready to be used as fertilizer for land and water plants [ (Junus, Widodo, & Djunaidi, 1998)]. Plants that absorb fertilizer are the same as putting elements from the soil into the roots. So the substances that enter the roots are not organic materials, but those that have become nutrients [ (Junus, Satata, & S, 2007)] .

Based on explanation a mix LTP and LG fermented in a digestion tank is expected to be useful for gas bio production instead of polluting the environment. 


The materials used for the manufacture of gas bioare LG 100 kg, 100 kg LTP, 24 jerry cans, 36 5 watt light bulbs , a gas gauge ( smart sensor multi gas monitor AS8900 ) , analytical scales Lab GM-303 . The research method used 1) Randomized Block Design with 2 factors and 2) Completely Randomized Design with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The first factor wastes with 6 treatments are P0: 100% LTP, P1: sludge 90% LTP and 10% LG, P2: sludge 80% LTP, and 20% of LG, P3: sludge   70% LTP, and 30 LG, P4: LTP and 20% LG, P5: sludge 50% LTP and 50% LG. The second factor with lamps, namely P01: without lamps, P02: use 1 lamp, P03: use 2 lamps. Furthermore, LTP and LG diluted d ith water until it reaches 7% dry matter and stored in the digester tank. LG obtained from PT. at PT. National Foodpacker Ketapang, Banyuwangi Regency and LTP in Tumpang Malang Regency. Analysis of nutrients (N, P, and K) using the Kjedahl method. Measurement of production of gas bio , gas biopressure and H2S using CTSR.

              The observed variables include the volume of gas bio, pressure, H S and nutrient (N, P, and K) . The result of the observation were analyzed by variance by using the Duncan Multiple Range Test.


Based on observations and calculations show that the variance value of digestion LG and LTP to the amount of gas bio , the pressure of gas bio and H2S no significant effect (P> 0.01). The average of the results of the analysis of the amount of gas bio , pressure gas bio and H2S produced can be seen in Table 1 .

Table 1:  The average amount of gas biopressure , volume of gas bioand H S in the waste treatment and temperature as well as the interaction of the two treatments



Pressure (atm)

Volume (dm)

S (%)







































Description: interaction between effluent concentration difference and the temperature difference does not give a real difference to the gas pressure, the volume of gas bio and H2S .


The results of the average amount of gas bioobtained in this study ranged from 0.739 -1, 494 dm3Table 1  shows that the composition of the digestive medium between LTP and LG does not have a significant effect on the production of gas bioproduced. When viewed from Table 1  , it can be seen that the most gas bioproduction is in the digestion tank (P) with an average of 1, 494 dmwith 50% LTP and 50% LG treatment and in the digestion tank (P) with 70% treatment. LTP and 30% LG produced the lowest average of 0.739 dm. This is because the digestive tank made of plastic jerry cans experience a human error so that the average gas production decreases, because the digestive tank cap is not tight enough so that a leak occurs. Abdulkareem [2005] almost all organic matter can be processed into gas bio, because the basic ingredients of gas biocome from organic waste. At P5 with a ratio of 50% LTP : 50% LG produces the most optimum gas biowhen compared to other treatments, this is in because P5 has a balanced filling or substitution between LTP and LG , so that it is sufficient to provide nutrients to bacteria to produce gas bio. According to Budiyanto [2010] in Bahrin, et al. [2011] stated that when the number of bacterial populations increases, the bacterial activity produces methane gas with a large composition. This also includes non-methanogenic bacteria which also increase, thereby increasing the production of gas bio.

The use of different bulbs in the treatment can be used to influence the temperature in each treatment because according to Rahim et al. [2015] Incandescent lamps are a source of artificial light generated through electricity distribution which can then produce even heat so that the temperature inside and outside the incubator is of course different . To reach a temperature of 38C-39 oC use 4 light bulbs with a total power of 20 watts with 5 watts each . So that the difference in the number of light bulbs in the treatment results in a difference in air temperature in the digestion tank, causing a difference in the amount of gas bioproduction in each given treatment. This agrees with  (Gerardi, 2003)  statement which states that the process of making  gas biois   influenced by several factors, including temperature, pH, substrate, stirring and starter. Bacteria perform the highest activity at a temperature range of 35° C to 55 ° C, above that temperature the activity decreases so that the bacteria do not have activity both in their growth and in the production of acetic acid (Darmanto et al, 2012).  (Ratnaningsih, Widyatmoko, & Yananto, 2009) stated that the optimum working temperature for producing gas biois 35 ° C and anaerobic digestion can take place in a temperature range of 5 ° C to 55 ° C. The highest total production of gas biounder mesophilic conditions and in a longer retention time. The production of gas biounder thermophilic conditions was higher only in the first ten days of gas bioproduction  (MB, 2014) .


The results of the observation of gas bio pressure that had been analyzed for various showed that the use of a different number of light bulbs in the digestive tank did not give a very significant difference (P <0.01) to the percentage of pressure in the gas bio. The results of this study obtained the pressure from the difference between the light bulb and the treatment. In the digester tank without la m pu (0) obtained the average (0.0233 atm), with one lightbulb ( 0.275 atm ), and by using 2 bohla m lamp ( 0,312 atm ) . This is because the increasing number of days, the pressure in gas biocontinues to increase. Pressure biogas which is greater indicates that the biogas produced is also more and more [ (MD, 2013) ] .

According to (Pertiwiningrum, 2015) , the measure of gas biopressure depends on the amount of cow dung sludge that enters the digester and the capacity of the digester. The highest gas biopressure in the digestion tank is 0.470 atm with a sludge composition ratio of 50% LTP and 50% LG and the lowest is 0.204 atm with a sludge  ratio of 70% LTP, and 30 LG . This is because in the biological process of gas bioformation there are several stages [ (Suyitno & Dharmanto, 2010)]: the first stage is the hydrolysis stage, organic materials containing cellulose, hemicellulose and extractive materials such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids will be broken down into compounds with shorter chains. The second stage is the acidification stage, the bacteria will produce acid which will function to convert short compounds from hydrolysis to acetic acid. To produce acetic acid, these bacteria need oxygen and carbon obtained by dissolved oxygen in solution. For an even metabolism to occur, a good mixture with a water concentration of 50% is required. The third stage is the stage of forming CH gas , the bacteria that play a role are methanogenesis bacteria. These bacteria require a digester that is completely airtight [ (Sholeh, Sunyoto, & Al-Janan, 2012)].

According to  (Putri, Salahuddin, & Gumay, 2018) that the pressure generated during the fermentation process is closely related to the production volume, if the volume of gas bioproduction is high, the pressure produced by gas biowill also be high. The relationship between pressure and temperature is directly proportional to the higher the temperature released, the resulting pressure will increase. This is supported by the statement (  (Riswanto, 2019)) that the increasing number of gas bioproducts by utilizing the pressure of the gas bioproduced by the day increases. Pressure is one of the factors that can affect the production of gas bio. If the pressure decreases, the production of methane gas increases, but if the pressure decreases again, the production of methane gas does not experience an increase in volume.


The results of H2S observations that have been analyzed for variety show that the use of different numbers of light bulbs in the digestion tank does not give a very significant difference (P <0.01) to the percentage of H S content in gas bio. Results showed the average H S from the difference in treatment is obtained averaging the highest at P3 ( 0, 034 ppm ), and the lowest is P0 ( 0, 0 to 22 ppm ) . This happens because of differences in the treatment of the sample. The results of the research byFebriana, Sutanto, and Mulyanto (2014) explain that as the flow rate of methane gas increases, the hydrogen sulfur gas content decreases. G as H S is a small element that makes up gas biowhich can have a bad impact on human health and H S is an undesirable element in the use of gas biobecause H S is corrosive . Increasing the quality of gas produced from gas biois carried out by means of the gas biopurification process from H so that the CH content in the gas biois higher and can be used as biomethane fuel [Iriani, Suprianti and Kuniawan, 2016]. This is supported by [ (Hamidi, Wardana, & Widhiyanuriyawan, 2011) ] that the gasmethane content (CH) of gas biocan be increased by separating carbon dioxide gas (CO ) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S ) which are corrosive from gas bio.

Table 2: Average N, P and K sludge


N (%)

P (%)

K (%)


2.9 ± 0.06c

2.4 ± 0.06b

4.1 ± 0.07e


2.8 ± 0.09c

2.1 ± 0.05a

3.7 ± 0.05d


2.5 ± 0.07b

2.6 ± 0.03c

3.3 ± 0.03c


2.9 ± 0.05c

3, 3 ± 0.08d

2.9 ± 0.06b


2.0 ± 0.06a

3.5 ± 0.06e

2.6 ± 0.07a


2.4 ± 0.03b

3,4 ± 0,05e

2.9 ± 0.04b

Description: Superscripts a, b , c, d , e with different notations in the same column averaged elements of N, P and K show very significant differences (P <0.01) .


 It is known from Table 2 that the average results show the highest total N obtained from treatment P0 (2.91 ± 0.06) which is a treatment with a concentration of 100% LTP sludge fertilizer without the addition of LG during the gas bioprocess. Treatment P1 ( 2.8 ± 0.09 ) and P3 (2.9 ± 0.05) had an effect that was not different from P0. While P2 ( 2.5 ± 0.07 ), P4 ( 2, 0 ± 0.06) and P5 ( 2.4 ± 0.03 ) have different influences. The results of laboratory analysis showed that P0 had a high total N content compared to other treatments. This is due to the difference in concentration during the gas biofementation process where the raw materials for each treatment are different. P0 has a LTP concentration of 100%. This shows that the 100% LTP gas biosludge has a high total N content without the need for additional from LG .

              The high total N content in the sludge is caused by the organic matter fermentation process that occurs in the digester. LTP in the form of excreta has a high N content supported by high protein feed. In accordance with [ (Junus, Widodo, Suprapto, & Zamrudy, 2014) ] the addition of LTP is also able to increase the nitrogen (N) content of liquid organic fertilizers because LG contains macronutrients such as C-Organic 5.61%, Nitrogen 0.36%, P2O50, 08%, K2O 0.13%. L imbah quail farm produce phosfor elements such as nitrogen and potassium, especially elements that can improve plant growth. Biogas unit waste has a high nitrogen content which comes from the remaining NH production in the digester so that it can be used as a source of N for plants through sludge fertilizers . The total N content of the LTP sludge fertilizer has met the minimum requirements of the Minister of Agriculture Regulation No. 28 / Permentan / SR. 130/5/2009 which states that the minimum technical requirement for organic fertilizer in the form of microbial enriched crumbs or without microbes is 2-6%. The availability of nitrogen in sufficient quantities affects the absorption of phosphorus which plays a role in flower formation [ (Sumendap, Notarianto, & Muchtar, 2019) ].


It is known from Table 2  that the average results show that the highest P content is obtained from the P4 treatment ( 3.5 ± 0.06 ) which is a treatment with a fertilizer concentration of 60% LTP sludge and 40% LG during the process of making gas bio. Treatment P5 ( 3.4 ± 0.05 ) did not have a significant difference with P4 treatment concentrations of P5 50% LTP and 50% LG . Whereas treatment P0 ( 2.4 ± 0.06 ), P1 ( 2.1 ± 0.05 ), P2 ( 2.6 ± 0.03 ), P3 ( 3.3 ± 0.08 ) had different effects. treatment. This shows that the composition of the LTP and LG sludge in a balanced concentration results in a high enough P content. This is in accordance withAgustin, Pinandoyo, and Herawati (2017) states that the LTP contains 0.061 to 3.19% N, P content of 0.209 to 1.37%, and the content of K2O amounted to 3.133%. [ (Rokua, Kamaruddin, & Amarlita, 2012)] added that the content in octopus for every 100 g of meat ranges from 15-16 g protein, 1g fat, 73-91 calories, contains vitamins B3, B12, potassium, pospor, selenium. , Iodine. The high P content in the P4 and P5 treatments was due to the fact that LTP had a P content of 0.2-1.37 and LG also had a phosphorus content. The combination of a balanced composition of LTP and LG will produce a sufficiently optimal P content. LTP and LG (P4) sludge fertilizers contain P elements which can be used to improve soil quality with a P content of ( 3.5 ± 0.06) .

The P element content of the LTP and LG sludge fertilizers has met the minimum requirements of the Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture No.28 / Permentan / SR.130 / 5/2009 which states that the minimum technical requirements for organic fertilizers in the form of microbial enriched crumbs or without microbes are 2- 6%. Phosphorus (P) is a constituent component of several enzymes, proteins, ATP, RNA, and DNA. ATP is essential for the energy transfer process, while RNA and DNA determine the genetic traits of plants. The element P also plays a role in the growth of seeds, roots, flowers and fruit. The effect on the roots is by improving the root structure so that the plant's absorption capacity for nutrients will be better [ (Sumendap et al., 2019)].


It is known from Table 2  that the average results show that the highest K content is obtained from treatment P0 ( 4.12 ± 0.07 ). This shows that the percentage of LTP during the process of making gas biohas a high K content in the fertilizer. Fertilizer P0 with a percentage of 100% LTP gives the highest average K element, which means the optimal percentage of elemental K content in the fertilizer. Gas bioliquid waste contains C-organic (47.99%), N-Total (2.92%), C / N (15.77%), P (0.21%) and K O (0.26%) . Winarso (2015) added that Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. There is no other element that can replace its function in the plant, so the plant must obtain or contain enough P for its normal growth. The important function of phosphorus in plants is in the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, energy transfer and storage, cell division and enlargement and other processes in plants. Because the P needed by plants is quite large, it is called a macro nutrient, apart from N and K. In general, the P content in plants is below the N and K levels, which is around 0.1 to 0.2%. The amount of P (P ) absorbed by several plants with certain production.

The K element content of the LTP and LG sludge fertilizers has met the minimum requirements of the Minister of Agriculture Regulation No.28 / Permentan / SR.130 / 5/2009 which states that the minimum technical requirements for organic fertilizers in the form of microbial enriched crumbs or without microbes are 2 -6%.



  • The effect of temperature, LTP and LG affected the increase in gas bioproduction but was not significantly different.

  • The treatment of LTP and LG affects the increase in nutrient content.


The application of LTP and LG which are processed to increase the production of gas bio, sludge for fertilizer is important to improve environmental quality.

(Sanjaya, Haryanto, & Tamrin, 2015)

(Burke, 2001)

(Wibowo, A, Dharma, & Refilda, 2013)

(Dionisus et al., 2019)

Creative Commons Licence This work is licensed under a: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

© Granthaalayah 2014-2021. All Rights Reserved.