• Teuku Rihayat Department of Chemical Engineering, Lhokseumawe State Polytechnic, Lhokseumawe, Aceh 24301, Indonesia
  • Syafruddin Department of Chemical Engineering, Lhokseumawe State Polytechnic, Lhokseumawe, Aceh 24301, Indonesia
  • Adi Saputra Ismy Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lhokseumawe State Polytechnic, Lhokseumawe, Aceh 24301, Indonesia
  • Nurhanifa Aidy Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh, Bukit Indah, Muara Satu, Aceh 24355, Indonesia
  • Nurul Izza Department of Chemical Engineering, Lhokseumawe State Polytechnic, Lhokseumawe, Aceh 24301, Indonesia



Polyurethane, Coating Application, Palm Oil, Bentonite, Chitosan

Abstract [English]

Chitosan/clay hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared as natural antibacterial and anticorrosion agents to enhance the protective function of polyurethane-based coating paints. Chitosan is a material with antibacterial properties because it contains acetamide group which is widely used for hygiene purposes in the medical field. Clay is a natural clay particle with a hollow structure that allows loading and release of active substances such as surfactant ions that can contribute to improving the properties of the material. The polyurethane in this study was obtained from palm oil oleic acid, which was processed into polyol, toluene diisocyanate was added to produce polyurethane. Coating paint is efficiently loaded with chitosan and clay active substances which are combined to form a hybrid composite. Based on the FTIR data of polyurethane showing the formation of a hydroxyl group on the palm oil epoxide compound, the reaction lasted for 2 hours at 60oC as evidenced by the absorption of the OH wave number which widened at 3305.99 cm-1. The value of the wavelength of the OH group in the bentonite sample before and after purification has decreased, proving that the intercalation of surfactants into the bentonite interlayer causes the hydrophilic nature of bentonite to change to hydrophobicity. The d-spacing layer of raw bentonite has a maximum reflection angle peak of 7.26o with a d-spacing value of 1.132 nm, and the d-spacing size increases to 1.631 nm at the peak of the maximum reflection angle of 4.49o after purification. The presence of absorption at 1064.71 cm-1 in shrimp shell chitosan indicates COC vibration.


Download data is not yet available.


Acik, G., Kamaci, M., Altinkok, C., Karabulut, HRF, and Tasdelen, M. A. (2018). Synthesis and Properties of Soybean Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyurethane Films. Progress in Organic Coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 123, 261-266.

Adak, B., Butola, B.S., and Joshi, M. (2019). Effect of Organoclay-Type and Clay-Polyurethane Interaction Chemistry for Tuning the Morphology, Gas Barrier, and Mechanical Properties of Clay/Polyurethane Nanocomposites. Applied Clay Science, 161, 343-353.

Amjed, N., Bhatti, I. A., Zia, K. M., Iqbal, J., and Jamil, Y. (2020). Synthesis and Characterization of Stable and Biological Active Chitin-Based Polyurethane Elastomers. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 154, 1149-1157.

Back, J.-H., Baek, D., Kim, T., Seo, B., Lee, W., & Kim, H.-J. (2020). Synthesis of Phosphorus-Containing Polyol and its Effects on Impact Resistance and Flame Retardancy of Structural Epoxy Adhesives. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 100.

Cassales, A., Ramos, L.A., and Frollini, E. (2020). Synthesis of Bio-Based Polyurethanes from Kraft Lignin and Castor Oil with Simultaneous Film Formation. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 145, 28-41.

Chaudhari, A., Gite, V., Rajput, S., Mahulikar, P., and Kulkarni, R. (2013). Development of Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Coatings Based on Neem Oil Polyetherimide. Industrial Crops and Products, 50, 550-556.

Cheng, H., Liu, X., Zhang, L., Hou, B., Yu, F., Shi, Z., and Wang, X. (2019). Self-Floating Bi2s3/Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Composites on Polyurethane Sponges for Efficient Solar Water Purification. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 203, 110127.

Doley, S., and Dolui, S. K. (2018). Solvent and Catalyst-Free Synthesis of Sunflower Oil-Based Polyurethane Through Non-Isocyanate Route and its Coatings Properties. European Polymer Journal, 102, 161-168.

Guo, L., Pang, Z., Gao, C., Chen, X., and Liu, L. (2020). Engineering Microbial Cell Morphology and Membrane Homeostasis Toward Industrial Applications. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 66, 18-26.

Jaganathan, S. K., Prasath Mani, M., Ayyar, M., and Rathanasamy, R. (2019). Biomimetic Electrospun Polyurethane Matrix Composites with Tailor Made Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds. Polymer Testing, 78, 105955.

Javaid, M. A., Zia, K. M., Zafar, K., Khosa, M. K., Akram, N., Ajmal, M., Imran, M., and Iqbal, M. N. (2020). Synthesis and Molecular Characterization of Chitosan/Starch Blends- Based Polyurethanes. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 146, 243-252.

K., S.S., MP, I., and GR, R. (2019). Mahua Oil-Based Polyurethane/Chitosan/Nano Zno Composite Films for Biodegradable Food Packaging Applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 124, 163-174.

Kong, X., Liu, G., and Curtis, J. M. (2012). Novel Polyurethane Produced from Canola Oil-Based Poly (Ether Ester) Polyols: Synthesis, Characterization and Properties. European Polymer Journal, 48(12), 2097-2106.

Mekewi, M. A., Ramadan, A. M., ElDarse, F. M., Abdel Rehim, M.H., Mosa, N. A., and Ibrahim, M. A. (2017). Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane Plasticizer for Flexible Packaging Applications: Natural Oils Affirmed Access. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 26(1), 9-15.

Nacas, A. M., Antonino, L. D., Chinellato, A. C., and dos Santos, D. J. (2019). Nano Boron Nitride/Polyurethane Adhesives in Flexible Laminated Food Packaging: Peeling Resistance and Permeability Properties. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 93, 102326.

Noreen, A., Zia, K. M., Zuber, M., Tabasum, S., and Zahoor, A. F. (2016). Bio-Based Polyurethane: An Efficient and Environment Friendly Coating Systems: A Review. Progress in Organic Coatings, 91, 25-32.

Omonov, T. S, Kharraz, E., and Curtis, J. M. (2017). Camelina (Camelina Sativa) Oil Polyols as an Alternative to Castor Oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 107, 378-385.

Ourique, P. A., Krindges, I., Aguzzoli, C., Figueroa, C. A., Amalvy, J., Wanke, C. H., and Bianchi, O. (2017). Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Hybrid Polyurethane-Urea Obtained from Air-Oxidized Soybean Oil. Progress in Organic Coatings, 108, 15-24.

Ranjani, B., Pandian, K., Kumar, G. A., and Gopinath, S. C. B. (2019). D-glucosamine Chitosan Base Molecule-Assisted Synthesis of Different Shape and Sized Silver Nanoparticles by a Single Pot Method: A Greener Approach for Sensor and Microbial Applications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 133, 1280-1287.

Rayung, M., Aung, Min. M., Ahmad, A., Su'ait, Mohd. S., Abdullah, L. C., and Ain Md Jamil, Siti. N. (2019). Characteristics of Ionically Conducting Jatropha Oil-Based Polyurethane Acrylate Gel Electrolyte Doped with Potassium Iodide. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 222, 110-117.

Ridwan, Basuki Wirjosentono, Tamrin, R. Siburian, Teuku Rihayat, and Nurhanifa. (2018). Modification of PLA/PCL/Aceh's Bentonite Nanocomposites as Biomedical Materials. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2049(1), 02008.

Rihayat, Teuku, Suryani, Satriananda, Riskina, S., Syahputra, W., Nurhanifa, and Mawaddah. (2019). Formulation of Polyurethane with Bentonite-Chitosan as Filler Applied to Carbon Steel as an Antibacterial and Environmentally Friendly Paint. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. science. Eng, 536.

Salwiczek, M., Qu, Y., Gardiner, J., Strugnell, R. A., Lithgow, T., McLean, K. M., and Thissen, H. (2014). Emerging Rules for Effective Antimicrobial Coatings. Trends in Biotechnology, 32(2), 82-90.

Sharma, S., Jain, P., and Tiwari, S. (2020). Dynamic Imine Bond-Based Chitosan Smart Hydrogel with Magnified Mechanical Strength for Controlled Drug Delivery. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 160, 489-495.

Shendi, H. K., Omrani, I., Ahmadi, A., Farhadian, A., Babanejad, N., and Nabid, M. R. (2017). Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Internal Emulsifier Derived from Sunflower Oil for the Preparation of Waterborne Polyurethane and Their Application in Coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 105, 303-309.

Suryani, Harry A., Basuki W., and Nurhanifa A. (2017). Improving the Quality of Biopolymer (Poly Lactic Acid) with the Addition of Bentonite as Filler. IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering, 222(1), 012008.

Teuku R., Suryani, Satriananda, Ridwan, Nurhanifa, Alfian P., Nia A., Muhammad Y., Sariadi, Safari, Ramzi J., Nani Siska Putri Khan, and Saifuddin. (2018). Influence of Coating Polyurethane with Mixture of Bentonite and Chitosan Nanocomposites. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2049, 1-6.

Teuku Rihayat, Suryani, Zaimahwati, Salmyah, Sariadi, Fitria, Satriananda, Alfian Putra, Zahra Fona, Juanda, Raudah, Aida Safitri, Mawaddah, Nurhanifa, Shafira Riskina and Wildan Syahputra. (2019). Composition on Essential Oil Extraction from Lemongrass Fragrant by Microwave Air Hydro Distillation Method to Perfume Dermatitis Production. IOP Publishing, 506(012053),1-6.

Wang, D., Zhang, N., Meng, G., He, J., and Wu, F. (2020). The Effect of Form of Carboxymethyl-Chitosan Dressings on Biological Properties in Wound Healing. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 194.

Xu, C., Qu, Z., Tan, Z., Nan, B., Meng, H., Wu, K., Shi, J., Lu, M., and Liang, L. (2020). High-Temperature Resistance and Hydrophobic Polysiloxane-Based Polyurethane Films with Cross-Linked Structure Prepared by the Sol-Gel Process. Polymer Testing, 86.

Yan, J. W., Hu, C., Tong, L. H., Lei, Z. X., and Lin, Q.-B. (2020). Migration Test and Safety Assessment of Polyurethane Adhesives Used for Food-Contact Laminated Films. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 23.

Yuan, H., Qian, B., Chen, H., and Lan, M. (2017). The Influence of Conditioning Film on Antifouling Properties of the Polyurethane Film Modified by Chondroitin Sulfate in Urine. Applied Surface Science, 426, 587-596.

Yuan, H., Xue, J., Qian, B., Chen, H., Zhu, Y., and Lan, M. (2017). Preparation and Antifouling Property of Polyurethane Film Modified by Chondroitin Sulfate. Applied Surface Science, 394, 403-413.

Zaimahwati, Harry Agusnar, T Rihayat, D Reflianto, and S Gea. (2014). The Manufacture of Palm Oil-Based Polyurethane Nanocomposite with Organic Montmorillonite Nanoparticle as Paint Coatings. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 7, 2537-2544.

Zulkifli, Teuku R., Suryani , Facraniah , Ummi H., Nia A., Teuku F., Nurhanifa , Zaimahwati, Rosalina. (2018). Purification Process of Cooking Oil Using Active Chorcoal Kepok's Banana. Aip Conference Proceedings, 1, 1-6.




How to Cite


Most read articles by the same author(s)