Granthaalayah
OPPORTUNITIES, TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE AND ENGAGEMENT IN CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) ACTIVITIES

Opportunities, Teachers’ Attitude and Engagement in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Activities

 

Elvie Barzo Gonzaga 1Icon

Description automatically generated

 

1 Student, Graduate School, Guimaras State University, Buenavista Guimaras, Philippines

 

A black dots with orange circles and a tree

Description automatically generated

A picture containing logo

Description automatically generated

ABSTRACT

This descriptive research investigated the opportunities, attitude, and engagement in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities among elementary school teachers in the Province of Iloilo for the school year 2023-2024. The population comprised of elementary school teachers, with 380 participants selected through random sampling. Data were collected through an online survey utilizing a structured, researcher-made, validated and reliability tested questionnaire. The results revealed significant differences in the opportunities for CPD activities across congressional districts. Additionally, significant variations were found in teachers' attitude towards CPD activities based on their educational attainment. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the level of teachers' engagement in CPD activities concerning both educational attainment and congressional district. However, no significant differences were found when teachers were classified according to their age, sex, school level, and school size. This study concludes that, while opportunities and attitude significantly influence engagement in CPD activities, their significant differences vary when they were classified according to their educational attainment and congressional district. Hence, it is imperative to consider these when designing CPD programs for elementary school teachers in the Province of Iloilo. Tailoring CPD opportunities and strategies is highly recommended to address the specific needs and preferences of teachers based on their educational backgrounds and geographic locations. Moreover, further research is warranted to explore additional variables that may influence teachers' engagement in CPD activities and to assess the long-term effectiveness of CPD programs in enhancing teaching quality and student outcomes.

 

Received 10 March 2024

Accepted 11 April 2024

Published 30 April 2024

Corresponding Author

Elvie Barzo Gonzaga, elviesalazar.barzo@gmail.com

DOI 10.29121/granthaalayah.v12.i4.2024.5598  

Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

With the license CC-BY, authors retain the copyright, allowing anyone to download, reuse, re-print, modify, distribute, and/or copy their contribution. The work must be properly attributed to its author.

 

Keywords: Opportunities, Teacher’s Attitudes, Teacher’s Engagement, Continuing Professional Development Activities


1. INTRODUCTION

The Continuing Professional Development Act of 2019 (Republic Act No. 10912) mandates and strengthens the CPD program for all regulated professions in the Philippines. This act aims to continuously improve the competence of professionals, ensure their contribution to national development, and align their qualifications with international standards (Section 2). It outlines the key components of CPD programs, including the roles of the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), Professional Regulatory Boards (PRBs), and CPD Councils (Sections 4-9). Notably, the act makes CPD mandatory for the renewal of professional licenses and emphasizes its role in career progression and specialization (Sections 10, 12). This legislation provides a strong legal basis for your study exploring opportunities, attitudes, and engagement in CPD activities among teachers, as it highlights the national importance of ongoing professional development for maintaining and enhancing professional competence. (Republic Act No. 10912, 2019) The United Nations Economic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) desires an educational utopia where all teachers have seamless access to high-quality, ongoing, and contextually relevant professional development (CPD) opportunities UNESCO. (2022). These activities are tailored to their individual needs and preferences, aligning seamlessly with the ever-evolving demands of the educational landscape UNESCO. (2023). Effective CPD would empower teachers with the knowledge, skills, and practices to significantly improve student learning outcomes OECD. (2023). Intrinsically motivated, teachers would actively engage in CPD, recognizing its vital role in shaping their professional growth and identity Wilder et al. (2022). Unfortunately, the current reality falls short of this ideal. Many teachers face significant barriers to participating in CPD, including limited access to quality opportunities, financial constraints, time pressures, and inadequate support from school administrators OECD. (2023). Additionally, teachers' attitudes towards CPD vary, with some perceiving it as irrelevant, ineffective, or simply disconnected from the realities of their classrooms Acharya et al. (2020). Consequently, engagement in CPD is often uneven and inequitable, leaving some teachers reaping greater benefits than others Darling-Hammond & Sykes (2020). This stark divergence between the ideal and real states of CPD underscores the critical need for research to explore the factors influencing teachers' engagement. This includes examining the barriers they face, as well as their individual needs, preferences, and motivations. Additionally, research is crucial to evaluate the effectiveness of different CPD models and identify best practices for designing and delivering programs with demonstrably positive impact Fullan & Quinn (2018). This study investigates the opportunities, attitudes, and engagement of teachers in CPD to bridge the gap between the ideal and real states. The findings aim to inform the development of more equitable, relevant, and effective CPD programs that ultimately benefit all teachers and students.

 

1.1.    Statement of the Problem:

This study aimed to determine the opportunities, teachers’ attitude and engagement in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities in the Schools Division of Iloilo, Philippines for School Year 2023-2024.

Specifically, the following questions were answered:

1)     What are the opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when taken as a whole and when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district?

2)     What is the teachers’ attitude in CPD activities when taken as a whole and when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district?

3)     What is the level of teachers’ engagement in CPD activities when taken as a whole and when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district?

4)     Are there significant differences in the opportunities of CPD activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district?

5)     Are there significant differences in the teachers’ attitude in CPD activities when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district?

6)     Are there significant differences in the level of teachers’ engagement in CPD activities when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district?

7)     Do opportunities and teachers’ attitude significantly influence their engagement in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities?

 

1.2. Hypotheses

There are no significant differences in the opportunities of CPD activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district.

There are no significant differences in the teachers’ attitude in CPD activities when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district.

There are no significant differences in the level of teachers’ engagement in CPD activities when classified according to age, sex, educational attainment, school level, school size, and congressional district.

The opportunities and teachers’ attitude do not significantly influence their engagement in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities.

 

1.3. Theoretical framework

This study draws inspiration from several theoretical frameworks to analyze the impact of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) on teacher engagement and learning outcomes. The Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) Theory highlights how teachers' responses to CPD opportunities (the stimuli) are shaped by their individual interpretations Huang (2023). In conjunction, Self-Determination Theory (SDT) emphasizes how intrinsic motivation, driven by autonomy, competence, and relatedness, fuels engagement in CPD Deci & Ryan (2020). Andragogy principles stress the importance of designing CPD programs that are relevant, participatory, and self-directed, aligning with the unique needs of adult learners Knowles et al. (2018). Finally, the study is grounded in the legal mandate of the Philippines' Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Law (Republic Act No. 10912), which underscores the importance of CPD for maintaining professional competence and ensuring teachers remain up-to-date within their field Professional Regulation Commission. (2023).

 

1.4.  Conceptual framework

This study examines the complex relationships between opportunities, attitudes, engagement, and learning outcomes in the context of Continuing Professional Development (CPD). Availability, support, and accessibility of CPD are key independent variables that shape the types of opportunities teachers experience. The dependent variables are teacher engagement levels, attitudes toward CPD, and the resulting impact on their learning. Demographic factors like age, experience, educational attainment, and gender act as control variables. Research shows that accessible and diverse CPD opportunities can foster positive attitudes and engagement Darling-Hammond & Sykes (2020), while teacher demographics can influence their responses Avalos (2021). Ultimately, this study aims to understand how these factors interact to affect teacher engagement, a key factor in influencing student learning outcomes Guskey (2020), Desimone (2019).

 

1.5. Research Paradigm

Figure 1

A diagram of cpd activities

Description automatically generated

Figure 1 Schematic Diagram Showing Relationships of Variables in the Study

 

1.6. Significance of the Study

This investigation holds significant benefits for diverse stakeholders within the educational landscape. Department of Education (DepEd) officials gain data to shape CPD-related policies, schools profit from motivated teachers with current skills, and CPD providers receive guidance on essential programs. Teachers directly benefit by maximizing their CPD engagement, ultimately enhancing learner outcomes. Additionally, the researcher gains field-specific knowledge, and this study lays a strong groundwork for future researchers, furthering the development of evidence-based strategies to optimize teacher professional development.

 

2. Literature Review

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a cornerstone of lifelong learning for educators. Defined as the holistic enhancement of skills and proficiency Craft (2020), CPD encompasses diverse activities such as workshops, conferences, and online courses (CPD Certification Service, 2024). It's essential for teachers to remain updated with advancements in their field, refine their practice, and ultimately promote positive student outcomes Desimone (2019), Guskey (2020), OECD. (2016).

The effectiveness of CPD depends heavily on the availability of opportunities, institutional support, and accessibility Opfer and Pedder (2021). Teachers are more likely to engage in and reap the benefits of CPD when it is aligned with their needs and offered within a supportive environment Darling-Hammond et al. (2018). Studies demonstrate that high-quality CPD programs that are sustained, collaborative, and focused on specific content areas tend to foster greater teacher engagement and positive attitudes Borko, H. (2021), Fredricks et al. (2020).

Research suggests demographic factors like a teacher's age, experience level, and subject area may influence their perceptions of CPD Creswell & Creswell (2018). Importantly, teachers' attitudes towards CPD are strongly linked to the nature and quality of the opportunities provided Fredricks et al. (2020). Effective CPD fosters professional growth, enhances teaching practices, and ultimately translates to improved student learning outcomes Avalos (2021), Bloom (1956).

A significant body of research underscores the importance of well-designed, accessible, and sustained CPD initiatives Cordingley et al. (2019), Darling-Hammond et al. (2019), Desimone (2019). Studies emphasize the transformative potential of CPD programs that incorporate active learning, critical reflection, and collaborative dialogue Mezirow (2022), Timperley (2021). By understanding the factors influencing CPD success, educational institutions can create targeted, engaging, and impactful professional development experiences for teachers.

 

3. Methodology

This chapter presents the research design of the study, the identified respondents, the data-gathering instruments, with its validity and reliability testing, the data gathering procedure and the statistical analysis used.

 

3.1. Research Design

This study utilized the descriptive correlational design, immersing itself in the current state of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) within the teaching profession in the Schools Division of Iloilo, Province of Iloilo, Philippines for school year 2023-2024. This approach, as defined by Bryman and Bell (2019), delves into understanding "relationships between variables" while refraining from manipulating the study environment. It perfectly aligns with our objective of exploring the intricate associations between teacher opportunities, attitudes, and engagement within CPD activities.

Creswell & Creswell (2018) further solidify this choice by highlighting the strength of descriptive correlational research in capturing "rich descriptions of a situation" and uncovering potential "causal linkages" between variables. This resonates with our aim to not only paint a detailed picture of available CPD opportunities in Iloilo but also to investigate how they intersect with teachers' perspectives and subsequent involvement in professional development activities.

 

3.2. Respondents of the study

The respondents of the study consisted of 380 randomly selected teachers from Iloilo Province, Philippines, selected across its five districts. Employing random sampling, where each teacher had an equal chance of being chosen Goodman (2018), ensures a representative sample within the defined population.

The sample size was determined using Slovin's formula, with a 5% margin of error, providing a reasonable representation of the entire population of teachers in the province, thus allowing for the extrapolation of the study’s findings to the broader teaching community in the Province of Iloilo-Philippines.

Table 1

Table 1 The Distribution of the Respondents Based on the Grouping Variables

Congressional District

N

n

%

First

3,351

65

17.11

Second

3,374

79

20.79

Third

4,612

43

11.32

Fourth

2,963

45

11.84

Fifth

4,910

148

38.95

TOTAL

19,210

380

100%

 

3.3. Data Gathering Instrument

The study used a questionnaire to gather a holistic understanding of elementary teachers' experiences with Continuing Professional Development (CPD). The questionnaire covered four key areas: teacher demographics, their perceptions of available CPD opportunities, their attitudes towards CPD's importance and benefits, and finally, their actual levels of engagement in different CPD activities. This approach aims to provide a well-rounded picture of the factors influencing teachers' CPD participation and its potential impact on their professional growth.

For teachers’ attitude and engagement in CPD activities the following mean scores and interpretation was utilized:

Interpretation based on the Scale of Means:

·        Very High (4.21 - 5.00): Indicates that the attitude and engagement of teachers on CPD activities exceed beyond the requirements.

·        High (3.41 - 4.20): Indicates that the attitude and engagement of teachers on CPD activities meet the standard requirements.

·        Moderate (2.61 - 3.40): Indicates that the attitude and engagement of teachers on CPD activities fall short of the required standards.

·        Low (1.81 - 2.60): Indicates that the attitude and engagement of teachers on CPD activities failed to meet the standard requirements.

·        Very Low (1.00 - 1.80): Indicates that the attitude and engagement of teachers on CPD activities is not evident.

 

3.4. Validity of the Data Gathering Instrument

To ensure the validity of the questionnaire, it was submitted for jury or expert validation among five experts in the field of educational management. The instrument was validated using face and content validation.  The suggestions of these experts were considered in the revision of the final data gathering instrument. 

In addition, to ensure that all questions in the instrument were appropriate, clear, reasonable, typical and sufficiently inclusive, the criteria for validation suggested by Good and Scate’s was utilized.

 

3.5. Reliability of the Research Instrument

Reliability in the context of a questionnaire refers to the consistency and stability of the measurements taken with the instrument. It ensures that the questions in the instrument are consistently measuring what they intend to measure. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, a widely accepted method for measuring internal consistency (Cronbach, 1951). The instrument was pilot tested to thirty (30) teachers in the Province of Iloilo who were not part of the sample population. The computed Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.897, indicating a high level of internal consistency among the items.

 

3.6. Data Gathering Procedure

The data gathering procedure commenced with the formal sending of permission letters to the respective educational institutions and authorities to seek approval for conducting the research. These letters outlined the study's aims, methodology, and ethical considerations Creswell & Creswell (2018). Upon receiving approval, informed consent forms were distributed to potential participants, detailing their rights, the study's purpose, and the confidentiality of their responses. The finalized, validated questionnaire was then distributed to the sampled participants, either physically or through secure online platforms, depending on the participants' preferences and the prevailing circumstances. Participants were given a reasonable timeline to complete and return the questionnaires, with reminders being sent periodically to encourage response. The data received from the questionnaires was meticulously compiled and coded in preparation for analysis. Any incomplete or inconsistent responses were promptly addressed to maintain the integrity of the data Bell et al. (2018).

 

3.7. Statistical Tools Used

To analyze the multifaceted data, the study combined descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Descriptive statistics (frequency count, percent, rank, mean) were used to characterize the sample's demographics and summarize responses on attitudes and engagement. Inferential statistics (t-Test, ANOVA, Chi-Square, Pearson r) were used to determine significant differences between groups (based on age, sex, educational attainment, school level, size, and district), and to examine relationships between opportunities, attitudes, and engagement in CPD activities. A significance level of .05 was employed.

 

4. Presentation Analysis and Interpretation of Data

4.1. Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities as assessed by the teachers when taken as a whole

Teachers view Continuing Professional Development (CPD) opportunities favorably. They particularly value the availability of workshops/seminars, the potential for career advancement, and the support they receive from their organizations. Teachers overwhelmingly agree that CPD keeps them updated, fosters professional growth, and improves their job performance. This positive outlook aligns with research highlighting the importance of CPD for teacher effectiveness and student learning Guskey (2020), Beijaard et al. (2010). While readily available workshops, support, and online resources are appreciated, teachers also prioritize financial support and flexibility in CPD offerings. Additionally, improving the convenience of CPD locations and ensuring better alignment with long-term career goals could further enhance the value teachers derive from these programs. These findings underscore the need for both personalized and accessible CPD opportunities Darling-Hammond et al. (2017), Smith & Ingersoll (2004).

Table 2

Table 2 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Taken as a Whole

Items

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars in my field.

371

97.6

1

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

369

97.1

2

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

363

95.5

3

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

357

93.9

4

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

360

94.7

5

I have availed the funding or financial support provided for CPD.

341

89.7

6

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

374

98.4

7

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

374

98.4

8

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

374

98.4

9

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

363

95.5

10

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

351

92.4

11

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

363

95.5

12

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

368

96.8

13

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

358

94.2

14

CPD is aligned strongly with my long-term career goals.

368

96.8

15

 

Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to age

Overall, teachers across both age groups (below 40 and 41+) demonstrate a high level of agreement regarding the availability and support for Continuing Professional Development (CPD). They consistently rank workshops/seminars, opportunities for promotion, and organizational support as their top priorities. This suggests that teachers, regardless of age, value access to relevant CPD, career advancement prospects, and support from their organizations. Both groups also agree on CPD's effectiveness in keeping them updated with educational trends and fostering professional growth. While minor differences exist in how they perceive information updates and flexibility, the overall perception of CPD opportunities remains largely positive for both age groups. This finding emphasizes the need for continued investment in CPD programs that support teachers of all ages.

Table 3

Table 3 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Classified According to Age

Items

Below 40 years old

40 years and above

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars in my field.

136

96.5

1

235

98.3

1

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

137

97.2

2

232

97.1

2

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

136

96.5

3

227

95.0

3

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

133

94.3

4

224

93.7

4

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

135

95.7

5

225

94.1

5

I have availed the funding or financial support provided for CPD.

127

90.1

6

214

89.5

6

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

139

98.6

7

235

98.3

7

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

139

98.6

8

235

98.3

8

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

138

97.9

9

236

98.7

9

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

135

95.7

10

228

95.4

10

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

130

92.2

11

221

92.5

11

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

134

95.0

12

229

95.8

12

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

138

97.9

13

230

96.2

13

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

136

96.5

14

222

92.9

14

CPD is aligned strongly with my long-term career goals.

137

97.2

15

231

96.7

15

 

4.2. Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to sex

Male and female teachers demonstrate strong agreement on the value of Continuing Professional Development (CPD), recognizing its role in keeping them updated, promoting professional growth, and improving job performance. Both groups appreciate the availability of workshops, organizational support, and online resources. This positive outlook aligns with research emphasizing CPD's importance for teacher effectiveness and institutional support Guskey (2002), Beijaard et al. (2010), Fullan & Quinn (2018), Timperley (2021). While minor perceptual differences exist between the sexes (regarding location convenience and information clarity), the overall picture is one of satisfaction with CPD opportunities offered. However, these slight differences suggest that tailoring some aspects of CPD offerings could further optimize the experience for both male and female teachers.

Table 4

Table 4 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Classified According to Sex

Items

Male

Female

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars in my field.

67

95.7

1

304

98.1

1

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

69

98.6

2

300

96.8

2

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

67

95.7

3

296

95.5

3

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

68

97.1

4

289

93.2

4

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

66

94.3

5

294

94.8

5

I have availed the funding or financial support provided for CPD.

65

92.9

6

276

89.0

6

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

68

97.1

7

306

98.7

7

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

68

97.1

8

306

98.7

8

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

69

98.6

9

305

98.4

9

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

67

95.7

10

296

95.5

10

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

68

97.1

11

283

91.3

11

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

68

97.1

12

295

95.2

12

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

68

97.1

13

300

96.8

13

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

67

95.7

14

291

93.9

14

CPD is aligned strongly with my long-term career goals.

68

97.1

15

300

96.8

15

 

4.3. Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to educational attainment

Teachers across various educational levels (Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate) perceive CPD opportunities positively. They agree on the availability, variety, and effectiveness of CPD options, as well as the importance of organizational support and online resources. This highlights the success of CPD programs in meeting the needs of educators with diverse backgrounds Darling-Hammond et al. (2017). Interestingly, teachers with Doctorate degrees report slightly higher satisfaction with schedule accommodation and location convenience. Conversely, those with Master's and Doctorate degrees indicate slightly lower access to financial support and clarity of information compared to those with Bachelor's degrees. These differences suggest that tailoring CPD offerings by focusing on financial support, flexible schedules, convenient locations, and ensuring clear communication could further enhance the experience, especially for educators with advanced degrees who may have additional responsibilities or expectations.

Table 5

Table 5 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Classified According to Educational Attainment

Items

Bachelor Degree

Master’s Degree

Doctorate Degree

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars in my field.

247

97.2

5

92

97.9

1.5

32

100.0

5

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

247

97.2

5

90

95.7

7

32

100.0

5

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

242

95.3

9.5

89

94.7

10

32

100.0

5

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

237

93.3

13

88

93.6

12.5

32

100.0

5

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

240

94.5

11

90

95.7

7

30

93.8

14

I have availed the funding or financial support provided for CPD.

227

89.4

15

84

89.4

14.5

30

93.8

14

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

251

98.8

1.5

91

96.8

4

32

100.0

5

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

250

98.4

3

92

97.9

1.5

32

100.0

5

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

251

98.8

1.5

91

96.8

4

32

100.0

5

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

244

96.1

8

88

93.6

12.5

31

96.9

11

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

236

92.9

14

84

89.4

14.5

31

96.9

11

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

242

95.3

9.5

89

94.7

10

32

100.0

5

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

245

96.5

7

91

96.8

4

32

100.0

5

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

239

94.1

12

89

94.7

10

30

93.8

14

CPD is aligned strongly with my long-term career goals.

247

97.2

5

90

95.7

7

31

96.9

11

 

4.4. Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to school level

Teachers at different school levels (primary, complete elementary, integrated) view Continuing Professional Development (CPD) opportunities positively. They agree on the availability, variety, effectiveness, organizational support, and clarity of CPD offerings, demonstrating that programs cater well to diverse needs Darling-Hammond et al. (2017). Notably, integrated school teachers report the highest satisfaction with financial support, location convenience, and how well CPD providers cater to their specific needs. Investigating these areas of success within integrated schools could reveal strategies for improving CPD experiences for teachers in other school settings. Slightly lower satisfaction among primary school teachers regarding financial support and location convenience suggests potential areas for targeted improvement.

Table 6

Table 6 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Classified According to School Level

Items

Primary

Complete Elementary

Integrated

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars in my field.

46

95.8

6.5

280

97.9

3.5

45

97.8

11

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

45

93.8

9.5

278

97.2

5.5

46

100.0

5

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

48

100.0

1.5

271

94.8

10

44

95.7

13.5

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

45

93.8

9.5

267

93.4

12.5

45

97.8

11

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

46

95.8

6.5

270

94.4

11

44

95.7

13.5

I have availed the funding or financial support provided for CPD.

42

87.5

14.5

256

89.5

15

43

93.5

15

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

48

100.0

1.5

280

97.9

3.5

46

100.0

5

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

47

97.9

4

281

98.3

1.5

46

100.0

6

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

47

97.9

4

281

98.3

1.5

46

100.0

5

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

45

93.8

9.5

273

95.5

8.5

45

97.8

11

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

42

87.5

14.5

263

92.0

14

46

100.0

5

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

44

91.7

12.5

273

95.5

8.5

46

100.0

5

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

47

97.9

4

275

96.2

7

46

100.0

5

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

45

93.8

9.5

267

93.4

12.5

46

100.0

5

CPD is aligned strongly with my long-term career goals.

44

91.7

12.5

278

97.2

5.5

46

100.0

5

 

4.5. Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to school size

Teachers at different school sizes (small, medium, large) perceive CPD opportunities positively. They generally agree on the availability, variety, and effectiveness of CPD for staying updated, improving performance, and fostering growth. However, teachers in large schools consistently report higher satisfaction with the availability of relevant workshops, career advancement potential, alignment with career goals, and how well providers cater to their needs. Conversely, teachers in smaller schools indicate slightly lower satisfaction with financial support and location convenience for CPD activities. Despite these differences, strong organizational support and clarity of information remain consistent across all school sizes. Investigating the successes of CPD programs within large school settings could provide insights for enhancing the experiences of teachers in smaller schools, particularly in the areas of financial support and location convenience.

Table 7

Table 7 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Classified According to School Size

Items

Small

Medium

Large

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars in my field.

71

94.7

10.5

166

98.2

6

134

98.5

1

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

72

96.0

6.5

167

98.8

3

130

95.6

6.5

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

73

97.3

5

164

97.0

7.5

126

92.6

11

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

71

94.7

10.5

160

94.7

13.5

126

92.6

11

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

71

94.7

10.5

163

96.4

10

126

92.6

11

I have availed the funding or financial support provided for CPD.

67

89.3

15

157

92.9

15

117

86.0

15

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

75

100.0

1

167

98.8

3

132

97.1

4

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

74

98.7

3

167

98.8

3

133

97.8

2.5

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

74

98.7

3

167

98.8

3

133

97.8

2.5

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

72

96.0

6.5

162

95.9

12

129

94.9

8

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

69

92.0

14

160

94.7

13.5

122

89.7

14

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

71

94.7

10.5

164

97.0

7.5

128

94.1

9

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

74

98.7

3

163

96.4

10

131

96.3

5

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

71

94.7

10.5

163

96.4

10

124

91.2

13

CPD is aligned strongly with my long-term career goals.

71

94.7

10.5

167

98.8

3

130

95.6

6.5

 

4.6. Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development activities as assessed by the teachers when classified according to congressional district

Teachers across congressional districts generally perceive Continuing Professional Development (CPD) opportunities positively. They agree on the availability, variety, and effectiveness for staying updated, improving performance, and fostering growth. Additionally, strong organizational support and clarity of information remain consistent. This suggests CPD programs successfully cater to teachers in diverse geographic locations. However, teachers in the 2nd District report the highest satisfaction with workshop availability, promotion opportunities, and schedule accommodation. Conversely, those in the 5th District indicate slightly lower satisfaction with financial support, location convenience, and online resource access. Investigating the reasons behind the 2nd district's success could offer insights for enhancing the CPD experience in other districts. Addressing barriers to financial support, location convenience, and online resources in areas like the 5th district might be crucial for ensuring equitable access to quality CPD for all teachers.

Table 8

Table 8 Opportunities of Continuing Professional Development Activities as Assessed by the Teachers When Classified According to Congressional District

Items

1st District

2nd District

3rd District

4th District

5th District

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

f

%

Rank

There is availability of CPD workshops and seminars

in my field.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

141

95.3

4

There are variety of CPD opportunities offered that can positively impact promotion prospects.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

139

93.9

5.5

There is a support from my organization in pursuing CPD activities.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

133

89.9

10

I find online CPD courses and resources very accessible.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

41

95.3

13

45

100.

8

128

86.5

12.5

My school accommodates my schedule for CPD activities well.

63

96.9

14

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

131

88.5

11

I have availed the funding or financial support provided of or CPD.

63

96.9

14

79

100.

8

41

95.3

13

45

100.

8

113

76.4

15

CPD activities are very effective in helping me stay updated with educational trends.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

144

97.3

2

CPD activities contribute significantly to my professional growth.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

144

97.3

2

CPD opportunities is highly relevant in enhancing my job performance.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5,5

45

100.

8

144

97.3

2

Regularly receive information about upcoming recent trends in basic education.

63

96.9

14

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

134

90.5

8.5

The locations for CPD events are convenient.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

41

95.3

13

45

100.

8

122

82.4

14

CPD providers cater well my specific professional needs.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

41

95.3

13

45

100.

8

134

90.5

8.5

The information provided about CPD opportunities are clear to me.

64

98.5

6.5

79

100.

8

42

97.7

5.5

45

100.

8

138

93.2

7

Flexibility of CPD options available to me.

64